2019-10-05

OT Sources for the Gospel of Mark, chapters 2 and 3

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by Neil Godfrey

Okay, I give in. Here’s one more. Feel free to remind or alert me to any that I have forgotten or overlooked.

Intertextuality Table for Mark chapters 2 and 3:

Mark 2-3

Jewish Scripture Sources

Notes

2:1-12

A few days later, when Jesus again entered Capernaum, the people heard that he had come home. They gathered in such large numbers that there was no room left, not even outside the door, and he preached the word to them. Some men came, bringing to him a paralyzed man, carried by four of them. Since they could not get him to Jesus because of the crowd, they made an opening in the roof above Jesus by digging through it and then lowered the mat the man was lying on. When Jesus saw their faith, he said to the paralyzed man, “Son, your sins are forgiven.”

Now some teachers of the law were sitting there, thinking to themselves, “Why does this fellow talk like that? He’s blaspheming! Who can forgive sins but God alone?

Immediately Jesus knew in his spirit that this was what they were thinking in their hearts, and he said to them, “Why are you thinking these things? Which is easier: to say to this paralyzed man, ‘Your sins are forgiven,’ or to say, ‘Get up, take your mat and walk’? But I want you to know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins.” So he said to the man, “I tell you, get up, take your mat and go home.” He got up, took his mat and walked out in full view of them all. This amazed everyone and they praised God, saying, “We have never seen anything like this!”

2 Kings 1:2-17

Now Ahaziah had fallen through the lattice of his upper room in Samaria and injured himself. So he sent messengers, saying to them, “Go and consult Baal-Zebub, the god of Ekron, to see if I will recover from this injury.”

But the angel of the Lord said to Elijah the Tishbite, “. . . Therefore this is what the Lord says: ‘You will not leave the bed you are lying on. You will certainly die!’” . . .

He told the king, “This is what the Lord says: Is it because there is no God in Israel for you to consult that you have sent messengers to consult Baal-Zebub, the god of Ekron? Because you have done this, you will never leave the bed you are lying on. You will certainly die!” So he died, according to the word of the Lord that Elijah had spoken.

Isaiah 33:24; 43:25; 44:22

No one living in Zion will say, “I am ill”; and the sins of those who dwell there will be forgiven. . . .

“I, even I, am he who blots out your transgressions, for my own sake, and remembers your sins no more. . . .

I have swept away your offenses like a cloud, your sins like the morning mist.

Psalm 59:3

See how they lie in wait for me! Fierce men conspire against me for no offense or sin of mine, Lord.

Psalm 7:9

you, the righteous God who probes minds and hearts.

Daniel 7:13

In my vision at night I looked, and there before me was one like a son of man, coming with the clouds of heaven. He approached the Ancient of Days and was led into his presence.

Psalm 103:3

who forgives all your sins and heals all your diseases,

Isaiah 35: 6

Then will the lame leap like a deer

It is tempting to see a source here but I am not entirely comfortable with it because I can’t see a meaning behind any connection. In other likely allusions or quotations one  can see some point: a spiritualization of a physical reference; a reversal of a code of death to one of life; a higher spiritual plane for Jesus over a literary counterpart. Perhaps I’m too spiritually blind to see something like that here.

What does come my notice, though, is a link between a Pauline message of dying with Christ and the burial of Jesus in Mark 15. I wrote in The post 70 construction of Jesus’ tomb:

The gospel author, it should further be noted, had this tomb scene in mind when he wrote his earlier narrative of the paralytic being lowered by four friends through the roof of the house to be healed by Jesus (Mark 2:1-12). There the place where Jesus was staying could not be accessed through the normal entrance because of the enormous crowd, and entry had to be gained by digging out the roof. Similarly with Jesus’ burial, the normal entrance to this place that had been dug out of the rock was blocked by a massive bolder. In both cases the one placed in this place rose up and miraculously walked through the main doorway.

So the gospel’s reference to the tomb being “hewn out of rock” is not an incidental aside, but an integral part of the image in the author’s mind.

I have compared in much more granular detail the two scenes at Mark’s flags for interpreting Mark? (at vridar.info)

 

Mark 15:46; 16:8

and laid him in a tomb which had been hewn out of a rock; and he rolled a stone against the door of the tomb . . . .

Trembling and bewildered, the women went out and fled from the tomb. They said nothing to anyone, because they were afraid.

2:13-17

Once again Jesus went out beside the lake. A large crowd came to him, and he began to teach them. As he walked along, he saw Levi son of Alphaeus sitting at the tax collector’s booth. “Follow me,” Jesus told him, and Levi got up and followed him.

While Jesus was having dinner at Levi’s house, many tax collectors and sinners were eating with him and his disciples, for there were many who followed him. When the teachers of the law who were Pharisees saw him eating with the sinners and tax collectors, they asked his disciples: “Why does he eat with tax collectors and sinners?”

On hearing this, Jesus said to them, “It is not the healthy who need a doctor, but the sick. I have not come to call the righteous, but sinners.”

Isaiah 9:1

but in the future he will honor Galilee of the nations, by the Way of the Sea, beyond the Jordan

Isaiah 33:18

where is he that weighed the tribute?

1 Kings 19:19-21

So Elijah went from there and found Elisha son of Shaphat. He was plowing with twelve yoke of oxen, and he himself was driving the twelfth pair. Elijah went up to him and threw his cloak around him. Elisha then left his oxen and ran after Elijah. . . .

He took his yoke of oxen and slaughtered them. He burned the plowing equipment to cook the meat and gave it to the people, and they ate. Then he set out to follow Elijah and became his servant.

Deuteronomy 18:1; 26:12

The priests the Levites, even all the tribe of Levi, shall have no portion nor inheritance with Israel: they shall eat the offerings of Jehovah made by fire, and his inheritance. . . .

When thou hast made an end of tithing all the tithe of thine increase in the third year, which is the year of tithing, then thou shalt give it unto the Levite, to the sojourner, to the fatherless, and to the widow, that they may eat within thy gates, and be filled.

Levi is called in a similar manner to the other disciples but “has no inheritance” with the twelve disciples. See The Call of Levi not to be one of the Twelve

In Deuteronomy the Levite ate with the lowly and outcasts of society; in Mark Levi’s eating with the outcasts takes an ironic twist, as does his right to revenue of others (c.f. tithes and taxes).

2:18-22

Now John’s disciples and the Pharisees were fasting. Some people came and asked Jesus, “How is it that John’s disciples and the disciples of the Pharisees are fasting, but yours are not?”

Jesus answered, “How can the guests of the bridegroom fast while he is with them? They cannot, so long as they have him with them. But the time will come when the bridegroom will be taken from them, and on that day they will fast.

“No one sews a patch of unshrunk cloth on an old garment. Otherwise, the new piece will pull away from the old, making the tear worse. And no one pours new wine into old wineskins. Otherwise, the wine will burst the skins, and both the wine and the wineskins will be ruined. No, they pour new wine into new wineskins.”

Isaiah 61:10; 62:5

I will greatly rejoice in Jehovah, my soul shall be joyful in my God; for he hath clothed me with the garments of salvation, he hath covered me with the robe of righteousness, as a bridegroom decketh himself with a garland, and as a bride adorneth herself with her jewels. . . .

For as a young man marrieth a virgin, so shall thy sons marry thee; and as the bridegroom rejoiceth over the bride, so shall thy God rejoice over thee.

Jeremiah 7:34; 16:9; 25:10

Then will I cause to cease from the cities of Judah, and from the streets of Jerusalem, the voice of mirth and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride; for the land shall become a waste. . . .

For thus saith Jehovah of hosts, the God of Israel: Behold, I will cause to cease out of this place, before your eyes and in your days, the voice of mirth and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride. . . .

Moreover I will take from them the voice of mirth and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride, the sound of the millstones, and the light of the lamp.

Joshua 9:13

and these wine-skins, which we filled, were new; and, behold, they are rent: and these our garments and our shoes are become old by reason of the very long journey.

Job 32:19

Behold, my breast is as wine which hath no vent; Like new wine-skins it is ready to burst.

2:23-28

One Sabbath Jesus was going through the grainfields, and as his disciples walked along, they began to pick some heads of grain. The Pharisees said to him, “Look, why are they doing what is unlawful on the Sabbath?”

He answered, “Have you never read what David did when he and his companions were hungry and in need? In the days of Abiathar the high priest, he entered the house of God and ate the consecrated bread, which is lawful only for priests to eat. And he also gave some to his companions.”

Then he said to them, “The Sabbath was made for man, not man for the Sabbath. So the Son of Man is Lord even of the Sabbath.”

Deuteronomy 23:25

If you enter your neighbor’s grainfield, you may pick kernels with your hands, but you must not put a sickle to their standing grain.

1 Samuel 21:1-6

Then came David to Nob to Ahimelech the priest: and Ahimelech came to meet David trembling, and said unto him, Why art thou alone, and no man with thee? And David said unto Ahimelech the priest, The king hath commanded me a business. . . . Now therefore what is under thy hand? give me five loaves of bread in my hand, or whatsoever there is present. And the priest answered David, and said, There is no common bread under my hand, but there is holy bread . . . . And David answered the priest, and said unto him, Of a truth women have been kept from us about these three days; when I came out, the vessels of the young men were holy, though it was but a common journey; how much more then to-day shall their vessels be holy? So the priest gave him holy bread; for there was no bread there but the showbread, that was taken from before Jehovah, to put hot bread in the day when it was taken away.

Daniel 7:13

In my vision at night I looked, and there before me was one like a son of man, coming with the clouds of heaven. He approached the Ancient of Days and was led into his presence.

Deuteronomy 5:12-15

Observe the sabbath day, to keep it holy, as Jehovah thy God commanded thee. . . . And thou shalt remember that thou wast a servant in the land of Egypt, and Jehovah thy God brought thee out thence by a mighty hand and by an outstretched arm: therefore Jehovah thy God commanded thee to keep the sabbath day.

3:1-6

Another time Jesus went into the synagogue, and a man with a shriveled hand was there. Some of them were looking for a reason to accuse Jesus, so they watched him closely to see if he would heal him on the Sabbath. Jesus said to the man with the shriveled hand, “Stand up in front of everyone.”

Then Jesus asked them, “Which is lawful on the Sabbath: to do good or to do evil, to save life or to kill?” But they remained silent.

He looked around at them in anger and, deeply distressed at their stubborn hearts, said to the man, “Stretch out your hand.” He stretched it out, and his hand was completely restored. Then the Pharisees went out and began to plot with the Herodians how they might kill Jesus.

1 Kings 13:4-6

When King Jeroboam heard what the man of God cried out against the altar at Bethel, he stretched out his hand from the altar and said, “Seize him!” But the hand he stretched out toward the man shriveled up, so that he could not pull it back. Also, the altar was split apart and its ashes poured out according to the sign given by the man of God by the word of the Lord.

Then the king said to the man of God, “Intercede with the Lord your God and pray for me that my hand may be restored.” So the man of God interceded with the Lord, and the king’s hand was restored and became as it was before.

Isaiah 10:1-4

Woe to those who make unjust laws, to those who issue oppressive decrees, to deprive the poor of their rights . . . Yet for all this, his anger is not turned away

Psalms 2:2

The kings of the earth rise up and the rulers band together against the Lord and against his anointed

3:7-10

Jesus withdrew with his disciples to the lake, and a large crowd from Galilee followed. When they heard about all he was doing, many people came to him from Judea, Jerusalem, Idumea, and the regions across the Jordan and around Tyre and Sidon. Because of the crowd he told his disciples to have a small boat ready for him, to keep the people from crowding him. For he had healed many . . . .

Exodus 12:37-38; 15:22-26
The Israelites journeyed from Rameses to Sukkoth. There were about six hundred thousand men on foot, besides women and children. Many other people went up with them, and also large droves of livestock, both flocks and herds. . . . Then Moses led Israel . . . He said, “If you listen carefully to the Lord your God and do what is right in his eyes, if you pay attention to his commands and keep all his decrees, I will not bring on you any of the diseases I brought on the Egyptians, for I am the Lord, who heals you.”
3:13-19

Jesus went up on a mountainside and called to him those he wanted, and they came to him. He appointed twelve that they might be with him and that he might send them out to preach and to have authority to drive out demons. These are the twelve he appointed: Simon (to whom he gave the name Peter), James son of Zebedee and his brother John (to them he gave the name Boanerges, which means “sons of thunder”), Andrew, Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew, Thomas, James son of Alphaeus, Thaddaeus, Simon the Zealot and Judas Iscariot, who betrayed him.

Exodus 19:1-2, 17

On the first day of the third month after the Israelites left Egypt . . . and Israel camped there in the desert in front of the mountain. . . .

Then Moses led the people out of the camp to meet with God, and they stood at the foot of the mountain.

Exodus 24:1, 4, 8-10

Then the Lord said to Moses, “Come up to the Lord, you and Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel. . . .

He got up early the next morning and built an altar at the foot of the mountain and set up twelve stone pillars representing the twelve tribes of Israel. . . .

Moses then took the blood, sprinkled it on the people and said, “This is the blood of the covenant that the Lord has made with you in accordance with all these words.”

Moses and Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, and the seventy elders of Israel went up and saw the God of Israel.

3:20-35

Then Jesus entered a house, and again a crowd gathered, so that he and his disciples were not even able to eat. When his family heard about this, they went to take charge of him, for they said, “He is out of his mind.”

And the teachers of the law who came down from Jerusalem said, “He is possessed by Beelzebul! By the prince of demons he is driving out demons.”

So Jesus called them over to him and began to speak to them in parables: “How can Satan drive out Satan? If a kingdom is divided against itself, that kingdom cannot stand. If a house is divided against itself, that house cannot stand. And if Satan opposes himself and is divided, he cannot stand; his end has come. In fact, no one can enter a strong man’s house without first tying him up. Then he can plunder the strong man’s house. Truly I tell you, people can be forgiven all their sins and every slander they utter, but whoever blasphemes against the Holy Spirit will never be forgiven; they are guilty of an eternal sin.”

He said this because they were saying, “He has an impure spirit.”

Then Jesus’ mother and brothers arrived. Standing outside, they sent someone in to call him. A crowd was sitting around him, and they told him, “Your mother and brothers are outside looking for you.”

“Who are my mother and my brothers?” he asked.

Then he looked at those seated in a circle around him and said, “Here are my mother and my brothers! Whoever does God’s will is my brother and sister and mother.”

Psalm 27:10

Though my father and mother forsake me, the Lord will receive me.

1 Samuel 17:28

When Eliab, David’s oldest brother, heard him speaking with the men, he burned with anger at him and asked, “Why have you come down here? And with whom did you leave those few sheep in the wilderness? I know how conceited you are and how wicked your heart is; you came down only to watch the battle.”

Jeremiah 12:6

Your relatives, members of your own family – even they have betrayed you; they have raised a loud cry against you.

Isaiah 49: 24-25

Can plunder be taken from warriors, or captives be rescued from the fierce?

But this is what the Lord says:

Yes, captives will be taken from warriors, and plunder retrieved from the fierce;
I will contend with those who contend with you, and your children I will save.

 

 

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Neil Godfrey

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41 thoughts on “OT Sources for the Gospel of Mark, chapters 2 and 3”

  1. Excellent work as always, Neil. However, I feel that I must act as a devil’s advocate and enter a caveat. Some on this site seem rather over-excited by your methodological sleight of hand in the term ‘OT sources’. The implication is that Mark used a random dot-to-dot search through ‘scripture’ to invent an original narrative. While not entirely impossible in theory, it is inherently unlikely as the narrative is not outlined by the sources : a pre-existing template of some sort is ‘surely’ needed to organise the scriptural themes and vocabulary into a narrative.

    Methodologically, there is a parallel to the ways NT scholars extract fragments of ‘fact’ from the texts, practices you rightly and frequently deplore, quoting Moses Finley : “For the great bulk of the narrative we are faced with the ‘kernel of truth’ possibility, and I am unaware of any stigmata that automatically distinguish fiction from fact”. Likewise, there is no method, no external control, to prove that an OT allusion is the imaginative source of a Markan episode, rather than the expected way of telling a story (origin/historicity unknown).

    Consciously allusive writing is alien to us. The point of it was well put by D.A. Russell regarding Plutarch : “His linguistic position indeed reflects his thought : the Greek past was alive for him, and its language a living instrument, through every phrase of which the past might be evoked and seen to be continuous with the present”.

    1. One position is that Paul has already pre-determined much of the scripture that Mark is using.

      r.g.price, in agreement with Tom Dykstra, holds that Mark is allegorizing the teachings of Paul.

    2. The implication is that Mark used a random dot-to-dot search through ‘scripture’ to invent an original narrative.

      That is a most unlikely method. More plausible is that the passages referenced were part of thinking and discussion about the place of the “new Israel” or “people of God” who felt themselves apart from the traditional cultic practices. I don’t mean to suggest that our author somehow went looking for verses to somehow build in to a narrative. You see what happens when an author so patently is doing just that in the Gospel of Peter. The Gospel of Mark is most unlike such a forced effort to make verses fit into a story.

      We see the same process in the classics. Greek and Latin poets and authors regularly drew upon phrases and words and images that they knew well from Homer, for example, and it was the most natural thing in the world to weave those phrases and words and images into a story theme that was even in some ways a rewrite of the Homeric epics (e.g. Aeneid).

      In our culture today more of us may be familiar with a comparable process in films and music.

    3. To further what db said, I actually hadn’t read David Oliver Smith’s book, Matthew, Mark, Luke and Paul before writing my book, and I now think that indeed the writer of Mark was far more heavily influenced by Paul than I had realized. It does appear that much of Mark’s scriptural focus was guided by Paul.

      But we also need to understand the broader background, because the works most often referenced by Mark, and also by Paul, are works that are also widely references in the DSS. When we look at the material from Qumran we see that the main scriptures they commented on were the works of the prophets (mainly Isaiah), the psalms, and the book of Daniel. They also did some commentary on Exodus. But they treated the psalms as prophecies certainly as we see the psalms being used in that way by Mark as well. Also, Daniel doesn’t feature strongly in Paul’s works, but Daniel was the most commented on work at Qumran and also features in Mark (one theory is that Daniel was actually written at Qumran).

      Basically, when we look at the works referenced in Mark what we find is that Mark makes very heavy use of 1 & 2 Kings in a somewhat unique way, but in terms of everything else that’s used, it fits very closely to the works that received the most attention from Paul and the Qumran writers. So this certainly shows knowledge of a common understanding of these scriptures and that Mark is working with some existing framework of exegesis.

      And the references certainly aren’t random. When we look at the content of the works being referenced they all tie together with common themes and related back to the story. In other words, this isn’t a matter of simply cutting and pasting random parts of the OT together to form new narratives. The works being referenced have relevant meaning to the story. The story is clearly being formed around the scripture.

      The references to 1 & 2 Kings often parallel the Gospel narrative, but references to the prophets typically all refer to passages about God’s punishment of, or displeasure with, the Jewish people. It’s more complicated than just that, but I think that to really understand Mark you have to not only read it at a superficial level, but also explore each passage that is referenced by the author and understand how the referenced passage extends and illuminates the superficial narrative.

      1. but references to the prophets typically all refer to passages about God’s punishment of, or displeasure with, the Jewish people.

        Have you read: Watts, Rikki E. 2001. Isaiah’s New Exodus in Mark. Rev Upd Su edition. Grand Rapids, Mich: Baker Academic.

        Watts argues for Mark being a narrative fleshing out of Isaiah’s theme of the new exodus God promised Israel after the Babylonian captivity.

    4. Crack open the DSS. The authors tell you they are taking bits of bible and jamming them together with other bits of bible and interperating the texts in a particular manner. The results are usually far more tortured than anything in the gospels. Crack open modern “scholarship”; you are soon swimming about in daft. “Inherently unlikely” is terminology you can chuck: the MORE unlikely the methodology; the MORE likely you will find it in play might be the better rubric. Ancient or modern, these folk haven’t met a daft they didn’t want to automatically like, or a sensible they didn’t want to automatically reject.

    5. Comment by Richard Carrier—27 October 2019—per Mark’s Use of Paul’s Epistles”. Richard Carrier Blogs. 25 October 2019.

      …is there any identifiable method to Mark’s selections from the Jewish Septuagint…?

      Yes. In fact, not only has that research been done, it’s mainstream now. Pretty much every scholar admits to it in some degree.

      To see how Mark riffed on the OT, what his purpose was and his techniques, see Randel Helms’ short introduction and Crossan’s Power of Parable, which I had already cited here. For more detailed scholarship, see MacDonald’s Two Shipwrecked Gospels and Brodie’s Birthing of the New Testament.

      I of course survey and discuss all of this and more (finding examples in such mainstream scholars as Allison, Evans, Crossley, et al.) in Ch. 10 of On the Historicity of the Gospels [Jesus].

  2. I agree Mark is a patchwork novel. I feel however that the focus on phraseology will lead us to looking at the seams and thread work rather than the patches themselves.

    In fact – I’m going to use this method to justify a theory I have about Mark. I’m beginning to agree more and more that the Jesus according to the Canon is ahistorical. However, I’m in hot pursuit of the real Jesus, who I believe is there somewhere.

  3. The only “method” used here is the same in any comparative literature studies. Read the sorts of works an author was known or likely to be familiar with and identify the evident influences. A few may just be coincidental but when there are so many then influences become the simplest explanation. We have numerous other texts from the Second Temple era and shortly afterwards that demonstrate the same sorts of borrowing.

    (By the way, I think the only set of allusions in the table above that I think are my own observation are the ones on Levi. But I would not be surprised to find some day that I once read of those somewhere else, too.

    For comparison’s sake, here is how crude a narrative looks when it is very evident that an author really is trying to force dots to come together to create a new story. It just doesn’t work very well, certainly not as well as we read in our canonical gospels. It’s from the Gospel of Peter:

    [10] And they brought two wrongdoers and crucified the Lord in the middle of them. But he was silent as having no pain.

    [11] And when they had set the cross upright, they inscribed that THIS IS THE KING OF ISRAEL.

    [12] And having put his garments before him, they divided them up and threw as a gamble for them.

    [13] But a certain one of those wrongdoers reviled them, saying: ‘We have been made suffer thus because of the wrong that we have done; but this one, having become Savior of men, what injustice had he done to you?’

    [14] And having become irritated at him, they ordered that there be no leg-breaking, so that he might die tormented.

    [15] But is was midday, and darkness held fast all Judea; and they were distressed and anxious lest the sun had set, since he was still living. [For] it is written for them: Let not the sun set on one put to death.

    [16] And someone of them said: ‘Give him to drink gall with vinegary wine.’ And having made a mixture, they gave to drink.

    [17] And they fulfilled all things and completed the sins on their own head.

    [18] But many went around with lamps, thinking that it was night, and they fell.

    [19] And the Lord screamed out, saying: ‘My power, O power, you have forsaken me.’ And having said this, he was taken up.

    [20] And at the same hour the veil of the Jerusalem sanctuary was torn into two.

    [21] And they drew out the nails from the hands of the Lord and placed him on the earth; and all the earth was shaken, and a great fear came about.

    I used to toy with the idea that the Gospel of Peter preceded the canonical gospels but no longer. The author is aware of what has been done with what became the canonical gospels and is trying to create his own gospel by “joining as many dots” as he can. As we can see, it is a rather unsophisticated result.

  4. Paul in Acts claims to be a Roman citizen. If Mark is reassembling patches of the Old Testament, to fill in, match Paul’s skeletal narrative? Then the Markian Pauline skeletal stitching is probably Greco Roman. Say, Homeric.

  5. Wasn’t the thesis of R.G. Price’s book “Deciphering the Gospels” that all of Mark was allusions to OT tropes, plus a bit of connective tissue added?

    He added that since so much of Mark was incorporated into the other gospels and Acts, that the authors of those books couldn’t tell the difference between fact and fiction, hence shouldn’t be considered factual, either. (I know this is a bit of an oversimplification.)

    I guess what I am asking is is there anything substantial in Mark that is not a reference to OT scripture?

          1. • The Thinker. “Jesus, Where Are You? The Missing Extrabiblical Evidence”. Atheism and the City.

            • Hickling, Stewart Ross (2017). “An evidentiary analysis of doctor Richard Carrier’s objections to the resurrection of Jesus Christ”. North-West University (South Africa), Potchefstroom Campus.

            3.2.4 Parallels between the resurrection of Jesus Christ and the myth of Romulus

            Not only does Carrier(2014:302) observe parallels between Osiris, Inanna, and Jesus Christ, but he also observes manyparallels with the resurrection account of Jesus Christ and the Romulan legend of ancient Rome. In his exposition of these parallels, Carrier writes:

            The Christian conception of Jesus’ death and resurrection appears to have been significantly influenced by the Roman conception of Romulus’s death and resurrection. Even if we discounted that for any reason, the Romulus parallels definitely establish that all these components were already part of a recognized hero-type, and are therefore not surprising or unusual or unexpected. The story of Jesus would have looked familiar, not only in the same way all translation stories looked familiar even when different in many and profound ways, but also in the very specific way that among such tales it looked the most like the story of Romulus, which was publicly acted out in passion plays every year. And this was the national founding hero of the Roman Empire. What better god’s tale to emulate or co-opt?

            —(pp. 88–89)

              1. • No specific cite is given for passion play claim.

                Carrier, Richard (2009). Not the Impossible Faith. Lulu. pp. 48, n. 27. ISBN 978-0-557-04464-1. “Plutarch, Romulus 27-28 (late 1st century) and the pre-Christian author Livy, From the Founding of the City 1.16.2-7 (written c. 15 B.C.); also Cicero, Laws 1.3, Republic 2.10 (c. 40 B.C.), Ovid, Fasti 2.491-512 (c. 10 A.D.),; Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities 2.63.3 (c. 10 B.C.), Tertullian, Apology 21 (c. 200 A.D.).”

              2. I can see no evidence for such a play in the ancient sources. None of your citations points me to a source that verifies there was such a play. Have I missed one? I don’t see it in Livy nor in Ovid. I do read some comments saying that the surviving evidence breaks off before we would have expected to see an account of the play. That’s only an apology for why there is no evidence. It is not evidence. Have you actually consulted the sources you have cited? Do any of them actually testify to such a play?

              3. Plutarch (Life of Romulus 27-28):

                [27] 3 . . . He disappeared on the Nones of July, as they now call the month, then Quintilis, leaving no certain account nor even any generally accepted tradition of his death, aside from the date of it, which I have just given. For on that day many ceremonies are still performed which bear a likeness to what then came to pass.
                […]
                [28] 1 . . . Julius Proculus by name, went into the forum and solemnly swore by the most sacred emblems before all the people that, as he was travelling on the road, he had seen Romulus coming to meet him, fair and stately to the eye as never before, and arrayed in bright and shining armour. 2 He himself, then, affrighted at the sight, had said: “O King, what possessed thee, or what purpose hadst thou, that thou hast left us patricians a prey to unjust and wicked accusations, and the whole city sorrowing without end at the loss of its father?” Whereupon Romulus had replied: “It was the pleasure of the gods, O Proculus, from whom I came, that I should be with mankind only a short time, and that after founding a city destined to be the greatest on earth for empire and glory, I should dwell again in heaven. So farewell, and tell the Romans that if they practise self-restraint, and add to it valour, they will reach the utmost heights of human power.

              4. There’s some more interesting stuff in Life of Romulus 27, –

                [1] …[Romulus] taught the influential men at Rome also to seek after a form of government which was independent and without a king, where all in turn were subjects and rulers …

                [3] Wherefore suspicion and calumny fell upon that body [the Senate] when he disappeared unaccountably a short time after. He disappeared on the Nones of July … [as above^^]

                [4] … Romulus disappeared suddenly, and no portion of his body or fragment of his clothing remained to be seen … some conjectured that the senators, convened in the temple of Vulcan, fell upon him and slew him …

                [6] Others think that it was neither in the temple of Vulcan nor when the senators alone were present that he disappeared, but that he was holding an assembly of the people outside the city near the so-called Goat’s Marsh, when suddenly strange and unaccountable disorders with incredible changes filled the air; the light of the sun failed, and night came down upon them, not with peace and quiet, but with awful peals of thunder and furious blasts driving rain from every quarter, [7] during which the multitude dispersed and fled, but the nobles gathered closely together; and when the storm had ceased, and the sun shone out, and the multitude, now gathered together again in the same place as before, anxiously sought for their king, the nobles would not suffer them to inquire into his disappearance nor busy themselves about it, but exhorted them all to honour and revere Romulus, since he had been caught up into heaven, and was to be a benevolent god for them instead of a good king. [8] The multitude, accordingly, believing this and rejoicing in it, went away to worship him with good hopes of his favour; but there were some, it is said, who tested the matter in a bitter and hostile spirit, and confounded the patricians with the accusation of imposing a silly tale upon the people, and of being themselves the murderers of the king.

              5. Lowen Gartner, perhaps everything material, however small, has an element of individual consciousness.

                Per Carrier (29 September 2019). “Will AI Be Our Moses?”. Richard Carrier Blogs.

                The only thing AI can usefully do for us—and I mean the kind of AI DiCarlo imagines, which is an incredible technology we are nowhere near to achieving—is “find” the evidence that a conclusion is true and present it to us so we can independently verify it.

    1. I guess what I am asking is is there anything substantial in Mark that is not a reference to OT scripture?

      The casting out of Legion into the pigs? Though of course couched in motifs of the OT, such as the drowning of Pharaoh’s forces in the Red Sea.

      Though the procession of Jesus to the cross is a pastiche of OT allusions (160 such scriptures in chapters 11-16) they are all woven around a “parody” of a Roman Triumph:

    2. Per MacDonald, Dennis R. (2000). “Mark and Mimesis”. The Homeric Epics and the Gospel of Mark. Yale University Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-300-08012-4.

      I have come to conclude that Mark wanted his readers to detect his transvaluation of Homer.

      Per MacDonald, Dennis R. (2014). The Gospels and Homer: Imitations of Greek Epic in Mark and Luke-Acts. 1. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 2f. ISBN 978-1-4422-3053-8.

      In 2000, I published ”The Homeric Epics and the Gospel of Mark” with Yale University Press. Since that time I have argued for imitations of classical Greek literature in several other Hellenistic Jewish and early Christian texts (see the Bibliography). Mark’s imitations of Homer can account for much of the information about Jesus in Mark that outstrips anything found in Paul or the lost Gospel. […] Mark’s authorial voice is different from that of Q/Q+ in large measure because he imitated or, better, emulated Homeric epic. One must not confuse these imitations with plagiarism insofar as the author advertised his literary debt and presented Jesus as superior to the likes of Achilles, Hector, and Odysseus.

      1. MacDonald’s thesis does not contradict the point about Jewish Scripture allusions and inspirations. MacDonald argues for both and, not either or. He explains:

        Such eclecticism also disguised reliance on the primary target of imitation. Skilled authors were bees that took the best nectar from many blossoms to produce textual honey. According to Seneca, such apian authors should “blend those several flavours into one delicious compound that, even though it betrays its origin, yet it nevertheless is clearly a different thing from that whence it came.” One achieves the height of imitation, however, when “the true copy stamps its own form upon all the features which it has drawn from what we may call the original” so that “it is impossible for it to be seen who is being imitated.” (p. 6)

        Like the proverbial bee of ancient rhetoric, Mark harvested nectar from several blossoms — some Jewish and some Greek — and transformed them into gospel honey. (p. 96)

        1. MacDonald argues for both and, not either or

          Carrier (25 October 2019). “Mark’s Use of Paul’s Epistles”. Richard Carrier Blogs:

          MacDonald has produced an entire book demonstrating that Mark built principally on transvaluing stories in the Jewish Septuagint, merely merging this with his employment of Homer to create a new, syncretized story that spoke to the wider world that was Mark’s actual market (hence why he wrote in Greek).

    1. I suspect not. He was most likely long dead by the time that became a widespread issue. We don’t find meaningful examples of people thinking the Gospels narrative was true until around 140 at the earliest.

      If we assume he wrote before 95 CE, then most likely he was dead by then. If he wrote later then maybe, but I personally don’t think he wrote later than 95 CE, though its possible, I view it more like 90% that he wrote before 95.

  6. Reading Mark as a midrash, Chapter 7: Paralytic’s healing
    Tags: Midrash, Maurice Mergui, Nanine Charbonnel

    (Mark 2:1-12) LAW TO THE PAGANS

    To read my previous chapters
    https://vridar.org/2019/10/04/the-ot-sources-for-mark-1/#comment-101809


    Mark 2:1 And again He entered Capernaum after some days, and it was heard that He was in the house.
    2 Immediately many gathered together, so that there was no longer room to receive them, not even near the door.
    And He preached the word to them.
    3 Then they came to Him, bringing a paralytic who was carried by four men.
    4 And when they could not come near Him because of the crowd, they uncovered the roof where He was.
    So when they had broken through, they let down the bed on which the paralytic was lying.
    5 When Jesus saw their faith, He said to the paralytic, “Son, your sins are forgiven you.
    6 And some of the scribes were sitting there and reasoning in their hearts,
    7 “Why does this Man speak blasphemies like this? Who can forgive sins but God alone?
    8 But immediately, when Jesus perceived in His spirit that they reasoned thus within themselves, He said to them,
    “Why do you reason about these things in your hearts?
    9 Which is easier, to say to the paralytic, ‘Your sins are forgiven you,’ or to say,
    ‘Arise, take up your bed and walk’?
    10
    But that you may know that the Son of Man has power on earth to forgive sins”—He said to the paralytic,
    11 “I say to you, arise, take up your bed, and go to your house.
    12 Immediately he arose, took up the bed, and went out in the presence of them all,
    so that all were amazed and glorified God, saying, “We never saw anything like this!”

    Here is my reading plan

    1 – THE OFFERING FOR THE FORGIVENESS OF SINS ACCORDING TO THE MOSES’ LAW
    2 – THE GOOD NEWS
    3 – ” WALK IN MY STATUTES ! “, LAW, JUSTICE, PARALYSIS
    4 – THE HOUSE WHERE THE WORD OF GOD DWELLS, FAITH AND FORGIVENESS
    5 – THE LAW TO THE PAGANS
    6 – THE TIME PERIOD BETWEEN FORGIVENESS AND HEALING, THE SON OF MAN
    7 – THE TWO SONS OF MAN: THE REDEEMER AND THE JUDGE
    8 – THE SON OF GOD AND THE SON OF MAN ON EARTH AS REDEEMER
    9 – THE SON OF GOD AND JESUS
    10 – SYNTHESIS: THE SON OF GOD, JESUS, THE SON OF MAN
    11 – THE LITTER AND THE CROSS, THE CHRIST
    12 – THE CROSS AS ASSEMBLY OF 2 WOODS, THAT OF THE HEBREWS AND THAT OF THE PAGANS
    13 – THE BLASPHEMY
    14 – THE HARD-HEARTEDNESS OF SCRIBES AND THEIR HYPOCRISY
    15 – THE BEHAVIOUR OF HEBREWS AND PAGANS
    16 – THE PAGANS GO HOME
    17 – THE HOUSE AND THE WORD
    18 – THE SON OF MAN IN THE BOOK OF EZEKIEL
    19 – THE SON OF MAN IN THE BOOKS OF DANIEL AND ENOCH
    SUMMARY

    1 – THE OFFERING FOR THE FORGIVENESS OF SINS ACCORDING TO THE MOSES’ LAW

    Leviticus 4 describes
    1 – The offering required in the Moses’ law. The offering depends on the sinner’s rank
    (priest 4:3, community 4:13,ruler 4:22, common people 4:26)
    2 – The ritual to be performed which always include the 4 following elements: the animals offering,
    the blood spilled at the altar, the fire, the Priest making intercession

    Leviticus 4 recalls several times that a sinner is the one who does something against any of the commandments of the
    Lord
    (4:20, 4:22, 4:27)

    Leviticus 4:3 if the anointed priest sins (2398), bringing guilt on the people, then let him offer to the Lord
    for his sin (2403) which he has sinned a young bull without blemish as a sin offering (2403).

    13 ‘Now if the whole congregation of Israel sins (7686) unintentionally, and the thing is hidden from the
    eyes of the assembly, and they have done something against any of the commandments of the Lord in anything which
    should not be done, and are guilty;
    20 And he shall do with the bull as he did with the bull as a sin offering (2403); thus he shall do with
    it. So the priest shall make atonement for them, and it shall be forgiven them.

    22 ‘When a ruler has sinned (2398), and done something unintentionally against any of the commandments of
    the Lord his God in anything which should not be done, and is guilty,
    23 or if his sin which he has committed comes to his knowledge, he shall bring as his offering a kid of the
    goats
    , a male without blemish
    26 And he shall burn all its fat on the altar, like the fat of the sacrifice of the peace offering.
    So the priest shall make atonement for him concerning his sin (2403) , and it shall be forgiven him.

    27 ‘If anyone of the common people sins (2398) unintentionally by doing something against any of the
    commandments of the Lord
    in anything which ought not to be done, and is guilty,
    32 ‘If he brings a lamb as his sin offering (2403), he shall bring a female without blemish.
    35 He shall remove all its fat, as the fat of the lamb is removed from the sacrifice of the peace offering.
    Then the priest shall burn it on the altar, according to the offerings made by fire to the Lord.
    So the priest shall make atonement for his sin (2403), that he has committed, and it shall be forgiven him.

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/2403.htm
    chatta’ah: sin
    Strong’s Hebrew 2403: An offence, its penalty, occasion, sacrifice, expiation, an offender

    2 – THE GOOD NEWS
    (See my previous Chapters)

    Mark 1:15 “The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God has come near. Repent (3340) and believe (4100)
    the good news (2098) !”

    Sin: disobedience to God’s Word
    Disease: divine punishment because of sin
    Repentance: sinner’s will to return to God
    Redemption of sins: forgiveness of sins through redemption (the Good News) instead of offering (Moses’s Law)
    Redemption of sins (in Isaiah): the suffering servant takes upon himself the sin of others and redeems it by
    offering his life
    Good News: redemption of sins is being fulfilled

    Repentance => Forgiveness (Healings) => Redemption (Jesus’ Death, Mark 15:24-37) => Salvation
    (entry into the kingdom of God, Mark 16:1-5)

    As a result, to be healed/redeemed/saved, Hebrews and Pagans have to recognize Jesus as the one who has power to
    forgive the sins.
    In a practical way, they have to manifest their faith in Jesus and beleive the Good News.

    3 – ” WALK IN MY STATUTES ! “, LAW, JUSTICE, PARALYSIS

    The righteous is the opposite of the sinner. The righteous is he who
    1- knows the way that leads to God
    2 – does what is right,
    3 – observes God’s ordinances and walks in his statutes
    (Isaiah 58:2, Isaiah 59:8-9, Isaiah 64:5, Ezekiel 36:27)

    Isaiah 58:2 For day after day they seek Me and delight to know My ways (1870), like a nation that does
    what is right (6666) and does not forsake the justice (4941) of their God, They ask Me for righteous (6664)
    judgments (4941)
    ; they delight in the nearness of God.” (BSB)

    Isaiah 59:8 The way of peace they have not known, and there is no justice (4941) in their tracks (4570).
    They have turned them into crooked paths (5410); no one who treads on them will know peace.

    Isaiah 59:9 Therefore justice (4941) is far from us, and righteousness (6666) does not reach us. We hope
    for light, but there is darkness; for brightness, but we walk in gloom.

    Isaiah 64:5 You welcome those who gladly do right (6664), who remember Your ways (1870). Surely
    You were angry, for we sinned. How can we be saved if we remain in our sins?

    Ezekiel 36:27 And I will put My Spirit within you and cause you to walk in My statutes (2706) and
    to carefully observe My ordinances (4941).

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/1870.htm
    derek: way, road, distance, journey, manner
    Strong’s Hebrew 1870: A road, a course of life, mode of action

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/4941.htm
    mishpat: judgment
    Strong’s Hebrew 4941: A verdict, a sentence, formal decree, divine law, penalty, justice, privilege, style

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/6664.htm
    tsedeq: rightness, righteousness

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/6666.htm
    tsedaqah: righteousness
    Word Origin
    from the same as tsedeq

    MARK’S GOSPEL

    Mark is picking up on the same ideas, Jesus will bring a new law (a new justice) so that the sinners return to
    the right way, (Mark 2:17).

    Mark 2:17 On hearing this, Jesus told them, “It is not the healthy who need a doctor, but the sick.
    I have not come to call the righteous (1342), but sinners (268).

    https://biblehub.com/greek/1342.htm
    dikaios: correct, righteous, by impl. innocent

    https://biblehub.com/greek/268.htm
    hamartÓlos: sinful

    Mark chose to represent the pagans through the image of the paralytic even there is no paralytic but only lames in the
    Bible, (Isaiah 35:5,6).

    Isaiah 35:5 Then the eyes of the blind will be opened and the ears of the deaf unstopped.
    Isaiah 35:6 Then the lame (6455) will leap like a deer and the mute tongue will shout for joy.
    For waters will gush forth in the wilderness, and streams in the desert.

    The word “paralytic” is stronger than the word “lame” so as to point out that the pagans are fully unable to walk in
    God’s statutes
    since they do not know them.

    In the previous healing. Mark used the word “leper” to represent the Hebrews as they know God’s statutes but,
    from time to time, they leave the right way and walk by dark ways, (Isaiah 59:9 above).

    4 – THE HOUSE WHERE THE WORD OF GOD DWELLS, FAITH AND FORGIVENESS

    Mark 2:1 And again He (Jesus) entered Capernaum after some days,
    and it was heard that He was in the house.
    Mark 2:2 Immediately many gathered together, so that there was no longer room to receive them,
    not even near the door. And He preached the word (3056, Logos) to them.

    The terms “house” and “Word” remind us of the tabernacle housing the ark and the ark containing the God’s Word.
    (See my Chapter 2h: The Ark)

    Mark 2:3 Then they came to Him, bringing a paralytic who was carried by four men.

    four men => the four corners of the world, the nations surrounding Israel
    pronoun “They” => the pagans
    paralytic => the empty ark of pagans

    Mark 2:4 And when they could not come near Him because of the crowd, they uncovered the roof where He was.
    So when they had broken through, they let down the bed on which the paralytic was lying.

    they uncovered the roof => the access to the new Ark of the Covenant and its opening
    the bed on which the paralytic was lying => the empty ark of pagans

    Mark 2:5 When Jesus saw their faith, He said to the paralytic,
    Son, your sins are forgiven you.

    1- Seeing the empty ark, Jesus sees the faith of the pagans. Jesus understands that the pagans too believe
    the Good News (Mark 1:15) and want their share

    2 – Jesus recognizes their act of faith and puts the Good News in their empty ark

    3 – Son, your sins are forgiven you => Jesus erases the pagans’ past state of darkness so that they could enter
    the New Covenant and live close to God.

    Mark 2:11 “I say to you, arise, take up your bed, and go to your house.

    Jesus asks the pagans to leave with their filled ark and bring it back into their own home

    5 – THE LAW TO THE PAGANS

    To enter the New Covenant, the pagans only have to recognize the Good News as the Word of God.
    Their sins will thus be forgiven without having to make the offering, (see Leviticus 4).

    6 – THE TIME PERIOD BETWEEN FORGIVENESS (2:5) AND HEALING (2:12), THE SON OF MAN

    THE TIME PERIOD

    Mark 2:5 When Jesus saw their faith, He said to the paralytic,
    Son, your sins are forgiven you.

    6 And some of the scribes were sitting there and reasoning in their hearts

    9 Which is easier, to say to the paralytic, ‘Your sins are forgiven you,’ or to say, ‘Arise (1453),
    take up your bed
    and walk’?
    10
    But that you may know that the Son of Man has power on earth to forgive sins
    11 He said to the paralytic, “I say to you, arise (1453), take up your bed, and go to your house.”

    12 Immediately he arose (1453), took up the bed,

    https://biblehub.com/greek/1453.htm
    egeirÓ: to waken, to raise up

    Mark adds a scene where the scribes (negatively) react,

    1 – to highlight the time period between the proclamation of forgiveness (Mark 2:5) and the healing (Mark 2:12)
    2 – to explicitly express the relationship between forgiveness and healing (Mark 2:9)
    3 – to introduce a new concept, the Son of Man (Mark 2:10)

    The paralytic’s healing is shaped like the 2 previous healings (mother-in-law and leper)
    1 – first, the mutual recognition (act of faith accepted by Jesus)
    2 – then, the healing healing

    Mark again highlights the time period like he did before (Mark 1:33) for the sake of reminding that
    1 – The mutual recognition is a conversion
    2 – The forgiveness of sins is only a promise of redemption. The actual redemption will take place in Mark 15:24-37
    3 – The physical healing is only narrative. It represents the salvation and the entry into the kingdom of God
    that will take place in Mark 16:1-5

    THE SON OF MAN

    Mark adds a new element here: the Son of Man who forgives the sins and then redeems them.

    To understand the difference between Jesus and the son of man, it is very useful to associate
    the 2 verses 2:5 and 2:10. And read them like this.

    Jesus said to the paralytic, “Son, your sins are forgiven you (BY)
    the Son of Man (WHO) has power on earth
    to forgive sins ”

    Mark 2:5 When Jesus saw their faith, He said to the paralytic, “Son, your sins are forgiven you.
    Mark 2:10 But that you may know that the Son of Man has power on earth to forgive sins

    The evangelist takes care to write “Jesus says to the paralytic“, (Mark 2:5) and (Mark 2:11).
    He never writes “Jesus forgives” or “Jesus heals”

    Mark thus separates Word and deed,
    1 – Jesus is the Word that announces the redemption and teaches it
    2 – The son of man is he who fufills the redemption by forgiving the sins and redeeming them

    This construction with 2 distinct images is required because:
    1 – By definition, the image which fulfills the redemption must die.
    2 – The Word, the message saying that the forgiveness of sins is fulfilled through redemption,
    must not die.
    Jesus will disappear at the end of the story but his Word/message will remain through his body put in the tomb.

    7 – THE TWO SONS OF MAN: THE REDEEMER AND THE JUDGE

    Mark speaks three times about the son of the man who will die and rise three days later, (8:31, 9:31, 10:33).

    Mark 8:27 Now Jesus and His disciples went out to the towns of Caesarea Philippi;
    Mark 8:31 And He began to teach them that the Son of Man must suffer many things, and be rejected by the
    elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and after three days rise (450) again.

    https://biblehub.com/greek/450.htm
    anistÉmi: to raise up, to rise

    Mark takes account of two views of justice
    1 – the teaching of the new Law i.e the law of redemption
    2 – the judgment according to the new law

    As a result, in Mark’s Gospel, there are 2 sons of Man
    1 – “The son of the man who dies” is the redeemer because he has to die in order to fulfill the new law
    2 – “The son of the man who will rise” is the judge who will come after the establishment of the kingdom
    of God (the kingdom where people will live according to the new law).

    THE SON OF THE MAN AS THE REDEEMER ON EARTH

    Mark 2:10 But that you may know that the Son of Man has power on earth to forgive sins

    Mark 10:45 For even the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve,
    and to give His life a ransom for many.

    Mark 14:41 Then He came the third time and said to them, “Are you still sleeping and resting? It is enough!
    The hour has come; behold, the Son of Man is being betrayed into the hands of sinners

    THE SON OF THE MAN AS THE JUDGE WHO WILL COME WITH THE CLOUDS OF HEAVEN

    Mark 8:38 For whoever is ashamed of Me and My words in this adulterous and sinful generation, of him
    the Son of Man also will be ashamed when He comes in the glory of His Father with the holy angels.”

    Mark 13:26 Then they will see the Son of Man coming in the clouds with great power and glory.

    Mark 15:62 Jesus said, “I am. And you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of the Power,
    and coming with the clouds of heaven.”

    JUSTICE IN OT SOURCES: PROCLAMATION AND JUDGMENT

    These two views of justice, proclamation and judgment, already exist in the books of Isaiah and Ezekiel.
    Proclamation => Isaiah 42:1,4 and Ezekiel 3:16,17
    Judgment => Isaiah 51:5, Isaiah 56:1 and Ezekiel 20:4,35

    Isaiah 42:1 Behold! My Servant whom I uphold, My Elect One in whom My soul delights!
    I have put My Spirit upon Him; He will bring forth justice (4941) to the Gentiles. (NKJ)

    Isaiah 42:4 He will not fail nor be discouraged, Till He has established justice (4941) in the earth;
    And the coastlands shall wait for His law.

    Isaiah 51:5 My righteousness (6664) is near, My salvation has gone forth, And My arms will judge (8199) the
    peoples;
    The coastlands will wait upon Me, And on My arm they will trust.

    Isaiah 56:1 Thus says the LORD: “Keep justice (4941), and do righteousness, For My salvation is about
    to come, And My righteousness (6666) to be revealed.

    Ezekiel 3:16 At the end of seven days the word of the LORD came to me, saying,
    Ezekiel 3:17Son of man, I have made you a watchman for the house of Israel.
    Whenever you hear a word from My mouth, give them a warning from Me.

    Ezekiel 20:4 Will you judge (8199) them, will you judge them, son of man?
    Confront them with the abominations of their fathers

    Ezekiel 20:35 And I will bring you into the wilderness of the nations,
    where I will enter into judgment (8199) with you face to face

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/4941.htm
    mishpat: judgment
    Word Origin
    from shaphat

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/8199.htm
    shaphat: to judge, govern

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/6664.htm
    tsedeq: rightness, righteousness

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/6666.htm
    tsedaqah: righteousness
    Word Origin
    from the same as tsedeq

    8 – THE SON OF GOD, THE SON OF MAN ON EARTH AS REDEEMER

    Question: Why does the son of man forgive sins and not Jesus ?
    (Mark 2:5) Jesus said to the paralytic, “Son, your sins are forgiven you
    (Mark 2:10) (BY) the Son of Man (WHO) has power on earth to forgive sins”,

    Answer: because God alone can forgive sins, (Mark 2:7)
    Mark 2:7 “Why does this Man speak blasphemies like this? Who can forgive sins but God alone?

    Jesus cannot fulfill this role because he is the result of the merger between the Son of God and Jesus of Nazareth and
    therefore integrates a divine and a human dimension. The human dimension of Jesus prevents him from forgiving sins.

    In order for sins to be forgiven by God without any human intervention, Mark uses 2 intermediate images

    1 – The Son of God who acts only according to his father’s will
    Mark 14:36 And He said, “Abba, Father, all things are possible for You. Take this cup away from Me;
    nevertheless, not what I will, but what You will.”

    2 – The Son of Man on earth who is the image of the Son of God and therefore acts like him

    In the expression “Son of Man”, it is necessary to focus on the word “Son” in order to grasp that
    “Son of Man on earth” only carries the thought of being “aligned to God” or “obedient to God”

    God => Son of God => Son of Man on earth as redeemer

    This literary building allows to break the connection between God and the “Son of Man on earth”
    before he dies in order to redeem sins.

    The rupture occurs when Pilate releases Barabbas. Barabbas means the son of father, the son of (God the) Father.
    (See my Chapter 2g: Jesus)

    Mark 14:36 And He (Jesus) said, “Abba, Father”
    Mark 15:15 So Pilate, wanting to gratify the crowd, released Barabbas to them;
    and he delivered Jesus, after he had scourged Him, to be crucified.

    God => X X X X X => Son of Man on earth as redeemer

    Mark reuses the title “Son of Man” with his own manner

    9 – THE SON OF GOD AND JESUS
    (See my Chapter 2g: Jesus)

    Jesus is the God’s Word that announces the redemption and teaches it to Hebrews and pagans

    A – Mark builds the Jesus character (Mark 1:10,11) as a two dimensional character with a divine dimension to
    communicate with God and a human dimension to teach to men the message about redemption.
    The divine dimension comes from “Jesus, Son of God”
    The human dimension comes from “Jesus of Nazareth”
    God => Jesus (divine dimension + human dimension)

    B – When Pilate releases Barabbas

    1 – The Jesus character loses his divine dimension and the connection between God and Jesus as human dimension is broken
    God => X X X X X => Jesus (human dimension)

    2 – Jesus does not return to Jesus of Nazareth.
    He remains a peculiar character since his boby is the bread (Mark 14:22) and his blood is the fruit of vine
    (Mark 14:24,25)

    3 – Jesus will no longer talk to men, his last words will be for God alone (Mark 15:34).
    He will say “My God, My God” and not “Abba, Father”.

    Mark 15:34 And at the ninth hour Jesus cried out with a loud voice,
    saying, “Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani?” which is translated, “My God, My God, why have You forsaken Me?”

    This Mark 15:34 verse highlights the broken connection between God and Jesus as a simple human figure.
    Jesus as a simple human figure is forsaken and will die.

    C – The boby of Jesus remains

    The Jesus character will disappear at the end of the story but his Word (message) will remain through his body
    (the spiritual bread) put in the tomb

    After 3 days, the stone will be rolled away and the new Word of God, the Good News, will be available to mankind.
    (See my Chapter 2i: First Synthesis)

    The Word, the message saying that the forgiveness of sins is fulfilled through redemption, must not die.
    Mark 13:31 Heaven and earth will pass away, but My words will never pass away. (BSB)

    10 – SYNTHESIS: THE SON OF GOD, JESUS, THE SON OF MAN

    (Step 1) Building of the character “Jesus”, (Mark 1:10,11)
    (Step 2) Liberation of Barabbas, (Mark 15:15)
    (Step 3) Death of Jesus, (Mark 15:37)
    (Step 4) Opening of the tomb, (Mark 16:1-8)

    THE SON OF GOD AND JESUS

    (Step 1) God => Jesus (divine dimension + human dimension)
    (Step 2) God => X X X X X => Jesus (human dimension)
    (Step 3) God => X X X X X => Body of Jesus (the spiritual bread)
    (Step 4) God => X X X X X => Word of Jesus (the spiritual bread)

    THE SON OF GOD AND THE SON OF MAN

    (Step 1) God => Son of God => Son of Man on earth as redeemer
    (Step 2) God => X X X X X => Son of Man on earth as redeemer
    (Step 3) God =>
    (Step 4) God => ? ? ? ? ? ? => Son of Man as Judge

    Mark separates Word and deed
    1 – Jesus is the Word that announces the redemption and teaches it
    2 – The son of man on earth is he who fufills the redemption by forgiving the sins and redeeming them

    This construction with 2 distinct images is required because :
    1 – By definition, the image which fulfills the redemption must die.
    2 – The Word, the message saying that the forgiveness of sins is fulfilled through redemption, must not die.
    Jesus will disappear at the end of the story but his Word/message will remain through his body put in the tomb

    In Mark’s Gospel, the Son of Man represents two views of justice
    1 – The teaching of the new Law (the forgiveness of sins through redemption) => Son of Man on earth as redeemer
    2 – The judgment according to the new law => Son of Man as Judge

    The Redeemer is the main figure up to chapter 12. After, Mark will associate the 2 figures (Redeemer and Judge) by
    using the word “cloud” as Isaiah.

    Isaiah 44:22 I have blotted out your transgressions like a cloud (5645), and your sins like a mist (6051).
    Return to Me, for I have redeemed you.

    Notice also that Jesus alone uses the expression “Son of Man” and never says “I am the Son of Man”

    11 – THE LITTER AND THE CROSS, THE CHRIST

    THE POOR BECOMING RICH

    Mark 2:4 And when they could not come near Him because of the crowd, they uncovered the roof where He was.
    So when they had broken through, they let down the bed (2895) on which the paralytic was lying.

    Mark 2:12 Immediately he (the paralytic) arose, took up the bed (2895)

    https://biblehub.com/greek/2895.htm
    krabattos: a camp bed
    Usage: a bed, mattress, mat of a poor man.
    the litter (Aramaic Bible in Plain English)

    The litter, on which the paralytic is lying, expresses emptiness and spiritual poverty.
    The paralytic is poor because he does not know the true wealth, the God’s Word.

    The paralytic, carrying his litter, represents the pagans who now possess the God’s Word (the Good News)
    and can walk in God’s statutes.

    THE CROSS AS A TESTIMONY, THE CHRIST

    “Take up the litter” will become “Take up the cross”.
    The cross will testify the belonging to the new community, the one that will live according to the Good News.

    Marc 8:29 He said to them, “But who do you say that I am?” Peter answered and said to Him,
    “You are the Christ.”

    Marc 8:34 When He had called the people to Himself, with His disciples also, He said to them,
    Whoever desires to come after Me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow Me

    Marc 9:41 For whoever gives you a cup of water to drink in My name, because you belong to Christ,
    assuredly, I say to you, he will by no means lose his reward.

    THE CROSS AND THE CHRIST, 2 TIME-INDEPENDENT SYMBOLS

    The cross is the signifier, the object which represents
    1 – the redemption
    2 – the union of hebrews and pagans living according to the law of redemption.
    The Christ is the signified, the concept that the cross refers to.

    The cross (the signifier) and Christ (the signified) exist in Mark’s tale and will remain in time after the end of tale
    (Mark 10:29,30).

    Mark 10:29 So Jesus answered and said, “Assuredly, I say to you, there is no one who has left house or
    brothers or sisters or father or mother [or wife or children or lands, for My sake and the gospel’s,
    Mark 10:30 who shall not receive a hundredfold now in this time houses and brothers and sisters and
    mothers and children and lands, with persecutions and in the age to come, eternal life.

    THE INVERSION

    Notice also the inversion brought by the Good News i.e. redemption instead of offering (Mark 10:31).

    Mark 10:31 But many who are first will be last, and the last first.”

    The Hebrews who first received the God’s Word (the Moses’ Law) will become the last
    if they do not leave this law in favour of the Good News.

    The last to receive the God’s Word, the pagans who came to take the Good News, will become the first.

    12 – THE CROSS AS ASSEMBLY OF 2 WOODS, THAT OF THE HEBREWS AND THAT OF THE PAGANS

    THE EXPECTATION FOR A REUNIFIED KINGDOM IN THE BOOKS OF EZEKIEL AND ISAIAH
    (See my Chapter 2c: The sea of Galilee)

    Ezekiel 37:16 “As for you, son of man, take a stick (6086) for yourself and write on it:
    ‘For Judah
    and for the children of Israel, his companions.’ Then take another stick (6086) and write on it,
    ‘For Joseph, the stick of Ephraim
    , and for all the house of Israel, his companions.’

    Ezekiel 37:19 say to them, ‘Thus says the Lord God: “Surely I will take the stick(6086) of Joseph,
    which is in the hand of Ephraim, and the tribes of Israel, his companions;
    andI will join them with it, with the stick (6086) of Judah, and make them one stick,
    and they will be one in My hand.”

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/6086.htm
    ets: tree, trees, wood

    Isaiah 5.7 For the vineyard of the Lord of hosts is the house of Israel, And the men of Judah
    are His pleasant plant.

    Isaiah 11.12 He will set up a banner for the nations, And will assemble the outcasts of Israel, And
    gather together the dispersed of Judah From the four corners of the earth.

    THE WOOD OF HEBREWS AND THE WOOD OF PAGANS

    Mark takes up the idea again but the 2 woods to be assembled become that of the hebrews and that of the pagans.
    The assembly will be done in Mark 15:21 verse and the written inscription in Mark 15:26 verse.

    Mark 15:21 Then they compelled a certain man, Simon a Cyrenian, the father of Alexander and Rufus,
    as he was coming out of the country and passing by, to bear His cross.

    Mark 15:26 And the inscription of His accusation was written above: THE KING OF THE JEWS.

    The gospel of Mark is a movement from division to unity.
    At this point (Mark 2:1-12), Jesus established a common law to both hebrews and pagans.
    This common law (the GoodNews) is based on the forgiveness of sins through redemption.
    The Good News has just healed a leper/Hebrew and a paralytic/Pagan who believed them.
    In the chapters to come and up to chapter 12, Jesus will call for unity and point out the misdeeds of division.

    THE CARPENTER

    The carpenter is the one who shapes and assembles the pieces of wood to restore the house of God (2 Chronicles 24:12).
    He also shapes the wood into the figure (8403) of a man (Isaiah 44:13)

    2 Chronicles 24:12 Then the king and Jehoiada would give the money to those who supervised the labor on the
    house of the LORD to hire stonecutters and carpenters to restore the house of the LORD, as well as workers in
    iron and bronze to repair the house of the LORD. (NKJ)

    Isaiah 44:13 The carpenter (2790) stretches a line; he marks it out with a pencil. He shapes it with planes and
    marks it with a compass.
    He shapes it into the figure (8403) of a man, with the beauty of a man, to dwell in a house. (ESV)

    Mark’s Gospel

    Mark 6:3 Is this not the carpenter, the Son of Mary, and brother of James, Joses, Judas, and Simon? And
    are not His sisters here with us?” So they were offended at Him.

    The question suggests that Jesus is the carpenter who will assemble the wood of hebrews and the wood of pagans.

    THE CHI LETTER

    The Chi letter is the 22nd letter of the Greek alphabet, (uppercase Χ).
    It is also the first letter of the word “Christos”, the Greek word for Messiah (“the anointed one”).
    This letter may also evoke the assembly of 2 sticks, the cross.

    Notice also that the shape of St Andrew’s cross is an X.
    Andrew is the first pagan called by Jesus
    and the paralytic/pagan is the first to bear the symbol that will become the cross.

    https://biblehub.com/greek/5547.htm
    Christos: the Anointed One, Messiah, Christ

    https://biblehub.com/greek/5548.htm
    chriÓ: to anoint

    13 – THE BLASPHEMY

    Mark 2:5 When Jesus saw their faith, He said to the paralytic,
    Son, your sins are forgiven you.
    Mark 2:6 And some of the scribes were sitting there and reasoning in their hearts,
    Mark 2:7 “Why does this Man speak blasphemies like this? Who can forgive sins but God alone?

    Mark 2:10 But that you may know that the Son of Man has power on earth to forgive sins

    Notice that Mark is careful to speak of the Son of Man only in Mark 2:10.
    In this way, the scribes see a man forgiving and not the Son of Man

    The scribes see a man forgiving the sins and immediately accuse him of blasphemy.

    By saying “Son, your sins are forgiven you.“,
    Jesus signs his death warrant because blasphemy is sufficient cause to deserve death in Mark’s Gospel.

    Mark 14:63 Then the high priest tore his clothes and said, “What further need do we have of witnesses?
    Mark 14:64 You have heard the blasphemy! What do you think?”
    And they all condemned Him to be deserving of death.

    The Moses’ law considers the blasphemy in Leviticus 24 but there are no verses about the forgiveness of sins

    Leviticus 24:16 And whoever blasphemes the name of the Lord shall surely be put to death.
    All the congregation shall certainly stone him,
    the stranger as well as him who is born in the land.
    When he blasphemes the name of the Lord, he shall be put to death.

    14 – THE HARD-HEARTEDNESS OF SCRIBES AND THEIR HYPOCRISY

    Mark 2:5 When Jesus saw their faith, He said to the paralytic, “Son, your sins are forgiven you.
    Mark 2:6 And some of the scribes were sitting there and reasoning in their hearts,

    Mark 2:7 “Why does this Man speak blasphemies like this? Who can forgive sins but God alone?
    Mark 2:8 But immediately, when Jesus perceived in His spirit that they reasoned thus within themselves,
    He said to them, “Why do you reason about these things in your hearts?

    The scribes have just shown that they have a heart of stone (Ezekiel 36:26,27) and that they are hypocritical

    Ezekiel 36:26 I will give you a new heart and put a new spirit within you;
    I will take the heart of stone out of your flesh and give you a heart of flesh.
    Ezekiel 36:27 I will put My Spirit within you and cause you to walk in My statutes,
    and you will keep My judgments and do them.

    SCRIBES’ HYPOCRISY

    The scribes understand what it means to forgive the sins because they know the texts to the letter
    and therefore the Suffering Servant in Isaiah 53.

    The scribes accuse Jesus of blasphemy and so they deny the pagans the right to have their sins redeemed.
    But there was no opposition to redemption of the hebrew’s sins in the previous scene. (See my Chapter 6: Leper healing)

    Mark did not make the scribes appear in the leper scene whereas he makes them react in the scene of the parilytic/pagan

    In this way, he points out that the scribes accept the redemption of sins for the Hebrews alone
    but refuse it to the pagans.

    The matter is not the forgiveness of sins through the offering (Moses’ Law) in favor of redemption (Good News).
    The matter is the entry of the pagans.

    15 – THE BEHAVIOUR OF HEBREWS AND PAGANS

    THE HEBREWS

    The Hebrews prevent the pagans from accessing the Word of Jesus.

    Mark 2:2 Immediately many(the hebrews) gathered together, so that there was no longer room
    to receive them, not even near the door.
    And He preached the word to them.

    Mark 2:3 Then they (pagans) came to Him, bringing a paralytic who was carried by four men.

    Mark 2:4 And when they (the pagans) could not come near Him because of the crowd (the hebrews),
    they uncovered the roof where He was. So when they had broken through,
    they let down the bed on which the paralytic was lying.

    THE AMAZEMENT OF HEBREWS AND PAGANS

    Mark 2:12 Immediately he arose, took up the bed, and went out in the presence of them all,
    so that all were amazed (1839) and glorified God, saying, “We never saw anything like this!”

    After his healing, the pagan testifies by going out in the presence of them all.

    The hebrews and the pagans who were outside are amazed.
    Mark uses the verbs amaze (1839) and astonish (2284, Mark 1:27) to mean a partial perception of events.
    Mark is referring to the hebrews discovering the manna in the desert. (See my Chapter 3: The Unclean Spirit)

    https://biblehub.com/greek/1839.htm
    existÉmi: to displace, to stand aside from
    Usage: (lit: I remove from a standing position), (a) in trans. tenses: I astonish, amaze, (b) in intrans.
    tenses: I am astonished, amazed; I am out of my mind, am mad.

    https://biblehub.com/greek/2284.htm
    thambeÓ: to astonish

    16 – THE PAGANS GO HOME

    Mark 2:11 He said to the paralytic, “I say to you, arise, take up your bed,
    and go to your house.

    Jesus asks the pagans to leave with their filled ark and bring it back into their own home
    Jesus implicitly asks the pagans to cross the sea.

    See my Chapter 2c: The sea of Galilee
    Deuteronomy 30:11 For this commandment which I command you today is not too mysterious for you,
    nor is it far off.
    13 Nor is it beyond the sea, that you should say, ‘Who will go over the sea for us and
    bring it to us, that we may hear it and do it
    14 But the word is very near you, in your mouth and in your heart, that you may do it

    Later, Jesus will cross the sea and go to the pagan land.

    Mark 6:53 When they had crossed over, they came to the land of Gennesaret and anchored there,
    Mark 6:54 And when they came out of the boat, immediately the people recognized Him,
    Mark 6:55 ran through that whole surrounding region, and began to carry about on beds
    those who were sick
    to wherever they heard He (Jesus) was

    17 – THE HOUSE AND THE WORD

    THE HOUSE WHERE THE WORD OF JESUS DWELLS.

    Mark 2:1 And again He entered Capernaum after some days, and it was heard that He was in the
    house
    . (NKJ)
    Mark 2:2 Immediately many gathered together, so that there was no longer room to receive them, not
    even near the door. And He preached the word to them.

    Mark 3:20 Then Jesus went home, and once again a crowd gathered,
    so that He and His disciples could not even eat. (BSB)

    His disciples could not even eat the spiritual food, the Word

    Mark 7:17 When He had entered a house away from the crowd,
    His disciples asked Him concerning the parable

    the parable => the spiritual message, the Word

    THE HOUSE WHERE THE WORD OF GOD DWELLS

    Mark 2:26 how he (David) went into the house of God in the days of Abiathar the high priest, and ate the
    showbread, which is not lawful to eat except for the priests, and also gave some to those who were with him?”

    the showbread => the spiritual bread

    THE COMMON HOUSE OF HEBREWS AND PAGANS WHERE THE WORD OF JESUS DWELLS.

    Mark 1:29 Now as soon as they had come out of the synagogue, they entered the house of Simon and Andrew,
    with James and John

    James and John bring the nets i.e. the Good News

    THE HOUSE OF PAGANS WHERE THE WORD OF JESUS WILL DWELL.
    Mark 2:11 He said to the paralytic,“I say to you, arise, take up your bed,
    and go to your house.

    The bed => the ark filled with the Good News

    Mark 5:19 But Jesus would not allow him. “Go home to your own people,” He said, “and tell them
    how much the Lord has done for you, and what mercy He has shown you.” (BSB)

    The testimony => the Good News

    THE HOUSE WHERE THE WORD OF GOD IS CORRUPTED

    Mark 2:15 Now it happened, as He was dining in Levi’s house, that many tax collectors and sinners
    also sat together with Jesus and His disciples; for there were many, and they followed Him

    Mark 5:38 Then He came to the house of the ruler of the synagogue, and saw a tumult and those who
    wept and wailed loudly.

    Marc 11:17 Then He taught, saying to them, “Is it not written, My house shall be called a house of prayer
    for all nations’? But you have made it a ‘den of thieves.’ ”

    THE HOUSE WHERE THE WORD MUST BE ONE

    Mark 3:25 And if a house is divided against itself, that house cannot stand.

    18 – THE SON OF MAN IN THE BOOK OF EZEKIEL

    The expression “Son of man” appears 93 times in the book of Ezekiel.
    In this book, the Son of Man is Ezekiel to whom God commands

    At this point, I just point out the most obvious parallels between Mark and Ezekiel.

    Ezekiel 1:26 Above the expanse over their heads was the likeness of a throne with the appearance of sapphire,
    and on the throne high above was a figure (1823) like that of a man (120). (BSB)
    28 The appearance of the brilliant light all around Him was like that of a rainbow in a cloud on a rainy
    day. This was the appearance of the likeness (1823) of the glory of the LORD. And when I saw it,
    I fell facedown and heard a voice speaking.

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/120.htm
    adam: man, mankind

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/1823.htm
    demuth: likeness, similitude

    Ezekiel 2:1 Son of man (120),” He said to me (Ezekiel), “stand up on your feet and I will
    speak to you.”

    Ezekiel 2:2 And as He spoke to me, the Spirit entered me and set me on my feet, and I heard Him
    speaking to me

    Ezekiel 2:3Son of man,” He said to me: “I am sending you to the Israelites, to a rebellious
    nation that has rebelled against Me. To this very day they and their fathers have rebelled against Me.

    Ezekiel 2:8 But you, son of man, listen to what I tell you. Do not be rebellious like that rebellious
    house. Open your mouth and eat what I give you.”
    Ezekiel 2:9
    Then I looked and saw a hand reaching out to me, and in it was a scroll (4039),

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/4039.htm
    megillah: a scroll

    Ezekiel 3:16 At the end of seven days the word of the LORD came to me, saying,
    Ezekiel 3:17 Son of man, I have made you a watchman for the house of Israel.
    Whenever you hear a word from My mouth, give them a warning from Me.

    Ezekiel 3:20 Now if a righteous man turns from his righteousness and commits iniquity, and I put a
    stumbling block before him, he will die. If you did not warn him, he will die in his sin, and the righteous acts
    he did will not be remembered. And I will hold you responsible for his blood.

    Ezekiel 3:21 “However, if you have warned the righteous man that the righteous should not sin
    and he does not sin, he shall surely live because he took warning; and you have delivered yourself.”

    Ezekiel 3:24 Then the Spirit entered me and set me on my feet. He spoke with me and said, “Go, shut
    yourself inside your house.

    Ezekiel 3:25 And you, son of man, they will tie with ropes, and you will be bound so that
    you cannot go out among the people.

    Ezekiel 18:21 But if the wicked man turns from all the sins he has committed, keeps all My statutes,
    and does what is just and right, he will surely live; he will not die.

    Ezekiel 20:4 Will you judge them, will you judge them, son of man? Confront them with the
    abominations of their fathers

    Ezekiel 20:35 And I will bring you into the wilderness of the nations, where I will enter into judgment with
    you face to face.

    Ezekiel 20:36 Just as I entered into judgment with your fathers in the wilderness of the land of Egypt,
    so I will enter into judgment with you, declares the Lord GOD.

    Ezekiel 36:19 I dispersed them among the nations, and they were scattered throughout the lands.
    I judged them according to their ways and their deeds.

    Ezekiel 36:26 I will give you a new heart and put a new spirit within you; I will take the heart of stone
    out of your flesh and give you a heart of flesh.

    Ezekiel 36:27 I will put My Spirit within you and cause you to walk in My statutes, and you will keep My
    judgments and do them.

    Ezekiel 37:3 Then He asked me, “Son of man, can these bones come to life?” “O Lord GOD,” I replied, “only
    You know.”

    Ezekiel 37:4 And He said to me, “Prophesy concerning these bones and tell them,
    ‘Dry bones, hear the word of the LORD!

    Ezekiel 37:5 This is what the Lord GOD says to these bones:
    I will cause breath to enter you, and you will come to life.

    Ezekiel 37:16 “As for you, son of man, take a stick (6086) for yourself and write on it:
    ‘For Judah
    and for the children of Israel, his companions.’ Then take another stick (6086) and write on it,
    ‘For Joseph, the stick of Ephraim
    , and for all the house of Israel, his companions.’

    Ezekiel 37:19 say to them, ‘Thus says the Lord God: “Surely I will take the stick(6086) of Joseph,
    which is in the hand of Ephraim, and the tribes of Israel, his companions;
    andI will join them with it, with the stick (6086) of Judah, and make them one stick,
    and they will be one in My hand.”

    Ezekiel 37:26 And I will make a covenant of peace with them; it will be an everlasting covenant. I will
    establish them and multiply them, and I will set My sanctuary among them forever.

    Ezekiel 37:27 My dwelling place will be with them; I will be their God, and they will be My people.

    Ezekiel 45:9 For this is what the Lord GOD says: ‘Enough, O princes of Israel! Cease your violence and
    oppression, and do what is just and right. Stop dispossessing My people, declares the Lord GOD.’

    19 – THE SON OF MAN IN THE BOOKS OF DANIEL AND ENOCH

    The expression “Son of man” also appears in the books of Daniel and Enoch.
    In these books, the Son of Man is no longer a man but a figure linked to the Ancient/Head of Days.

    Daniel 7:13 In my vision in the night I continued to watch, and I saw One like a Son of Man coming with the
    clouds of heaven. He approached the Ancient of Days
    and was led into His presence.

    Enoch 46.1 And there I saw one who had a head of days [i.e. was old], and his head was white like wool;
    and with him was a second whose countenance was like the appearance of a man, and his countenance was full of
    agreeableness, like one of the holy angels.

    2. And I asked one of the angels, who went with me, and who showed me all the secrets, concerning this son of
    man
    , who he was and whence he was, and why he goes with the Head of days?

    3. And he answered and said to me: “This is the Son of man, who has justice, and justice dwells with him,
    and all the treasures of secrecy he reveals, because the Lord of the spirits has chosen him, and his portion overcomes
    all things before the Lord of the spirits in rectitude to eternity

    SUMMARY

    In this scene, Jesus heals a paralytic/pagan. Mark uses the scene to make explicit the theme of the gospel that
    is the forgiveness of sins through redemption.
    John had announced it (Mark 1:7,8) and then Jesus (Mark 1:15). Jesus has already forgiven sins twice, first by healing
    the mother-in-law/Israel and then the leper/Hebrew.
    The forgiveness of sins through redemption replaces the forgiveness of sins through offering.
    The Moses’ law is thus deeply amended because the sin and its opposite, the justice, are the foundations of it.

    Justice has two aspects:
    1 – the law, the commandments that God gives to his people to guide them
    2 – the judgment.

    Obedience to God (justice) is living God’s Word, it brings salvation whereas disobedience to God (sin) brings exclusion
    and sickness.

    Jesus brings a new law, the Good News, which sets sinners free since Jesus takes upon Himself their sins to redeem them.

    To benefit from the new law, it is enough to believe the Good News and manifest his faith in Jesus.

    The new law is offered to Hebrews and pagans without any distinction between them.

    The opening to the pagans causes hostility from scribes (Mark 2:7) and some of the Hebrews (Mark 1:45). They accept the
    redemption for themselves but deny it to the pagans.

    The notion of redemption is part of the Jewish expectation. It is described in the book of Isaiah, the chapter 53 about
    the Suffering Servant.

    With Jesus, the expectation becomes reality but this raises some technical problems that the gospel writer has to solve.
    1 – How to write a book that advocates the forgiveness of sins through redemption when the notion of redemption implies
    the death of the Redeemer?
    Would not the death of the Redeemer also kill the idea of redemption?
    2 – Since God alone can forgive sins, how can sins be forgiven on earth without human intervention?

    The answer is a figure that already exists in books such as Ezekiel. Daniel and Enoch.
    This figure is the Son of Man.

    Mark reuses this figure with his own manner so that God intervenes on earth through 2 figures according to this model.

    God => Son of God => Son of Man on earth as redeemer

    This model allows to break the connection between God and the Son of Man before he dies to redeem the sins.
    To do this, it is enough to remove the Son of God from the model, Pilate will do it by releasing Barabbas, the son of
    (God the) father.

    God => X X X X X => Son of Man on earth as redeemer

    In Mark’s Gospel, the Son of Man is a divine figure not a man. He loses his divine dimension when the connection is
    broken. All that is divine must not die.

    Mark also separates Word and deed

    1 – Jesus is the Word that announces the redemption and teaches it
    2 – The son of man as redemeer is he who fufills the redemption by forgiving the sins and redeeming them

    In this way, the message about redemption does not die. The Word of Jesus is temporarily locked in a tomb.

    Mark also introduces another figure, the Christ and a sign, the cross.

    The Christ and the cross represent the union of hebrews and pagans living according to the law of redemption.
    The Christ and the cross are time-independent notions.

    The last chapters of the Gospel will tell us a little more about the Son of Man and Christ.

    At this point, I am going on studying the Chapter 2 in order to show that the first two chapters make a coherent unit
    defining the Good News.

    NEXT STEPS

    (Mark 2:13-28) Levi the son of Alphaeus, John and the Word, Sabbath
    (Mark 1-2) Second synthesis

    Some Readings

    https://www.amazon.fr/Canon-Biblical-Interpretation-Zondervan/dp/031052329X
    Canon and Biblical Interpretation
    Craig Bartholomew, ‎Scott Hahn, ‎Robin Parry – 2010 – ‎Religion
    pages 131-132 about the Son of Man are available online

    http://www.bible-parole-et-paroles.com/2017/11/le-fils-de-l-homme.html
    French text about the Son of Man

    http://readingreligion.org/books/goy
    Israel’s Multiple Others and the Birth of the Gentile

  7. Reading Mark as a midrash, Chapter 8: Levi son of Alphaeus
    Tags: Midrash, Maurice Mergui, Nanine Charbonnel

    (Mark 2:13-17) CHANGE OF NAME AND CIRCUMCISION

    Mark 2:13 Once again Jesus went out beside the sea. All the people came to Him,
    and He taught them there. (BSB)
    Mark 2:14 As He was walking along, He saw Levi (3018) son of Alphaeus sitting at the tax booth.
    “Follow Me,”
    He told him, and Levi got up and followed Him.
    Mark 2:15 While Jesus was dining at Levi’s house, many tax collectors and sinners were eating with
    Him and His disciples—for there were many who followed Him.
    Mark 2:16 When the scribes who were Pharisees saw Jesus eating with these people, they asked His
    disciples, “Why does He eat with tax collectors and sinners?”
    Mark 2:17 On hearing this, Jesus told them, “It is not the healthy who need a doctor, but the sick.
    I have not come to call the righteous, but sinners (268)
    .”

    Here is my reading plan

    1 – FIRST READING TO GET AN OVERVIEW
    2 – CHANGE OF NAME AND CIRCUMCISION OF FLESH
    3 – CIRCUMCISION OF HEART
    4 – LEVI BECOMES MATTHEW
    5 – LEVI AND THE LEVITES (OT SCRIPTURES)
    6 – LEVI AND THE LEVITES (MARK’S GOSPEL)
    7 – PHYSICIAN AS HEALER AND EMBALMER (OT SCRIPTURES)
    8 – PHYSICIAN AS HEALER/TEACHER AND EMBALMER (MARK’S GOSPEL)
    9 – SON OF ALPHAEUS
    10 – THE ALPHEUS AND ORONTES RIVERS
    11 – TYCHE OF ANTIOCH AND SCRIPTURES
    12 – MIGDAL AND MARY OF MAGDALA
    13 – SYENE AND SIMON OF CYRENE
    14 – RAMATHAIM AND JOSEPH OF ARIMATHEA
    15 – CHANGE OF NAME AND CHANGE OF ROLE, FIRST STEP
    SUMMARY

    1 – FIRST READING TO GET AN OVERVIEW

    Mark 2:13 Once again Jesus went out beside the sea. All the people came to Him,
    and He taught them there.

    Jesus returns near the sea, the border between the hebrews and the pagans but also the symbolic place where Jesus can
    teach both the hebrews and the pagans.

    Mark 2:14 As He was walking along, He saw Levi (3018) son of Alphaeus sitting at the tax booth (5058)
    “Follow Me,”
    He told him, and Levi got up (450) and followed (190) Him.

    Jesus calls Levi who represents the priests performing the rituals of Moses’ law. The word “tax booth” evokes the
    entrance fee and refers to the ritual after child’s birth described in Leviticus 12.
    According to this ritual, the child is circumcised and then the mother brings the priest the offerings required by the
    Moses’ law to cleanse her.

    Using the word “tax booth”, Mark portrays Levi’s role in a negative way since Levi appears as the one who collects the
    tax to have the child enter community of Hebrews.

    Mark does this to mean that the circumcision of the flesh is not part of the Good News and will not be the sign of the
    new covenant.

    Mark 2:15 While Jesus was dining at Levi’s house, many tax collectors (5057) and sinners were
    eating
    with Him and His disciples—for there were many who followed Him.

    Mark goes on negatively portraying Levi (and his role) by having tax collectors and sinners eating at his house.

    In this way, he means that
    1 – Levi does not provide the good spiritual food.
    2 – circumcisers and sinners are not on the right way to return to God

    So why does Jesus eat with them?

    Mark 2:16 When the scribes who were Pharisees saw Jesus eating with these people, they asked His
    disciples, “Why does He eat with tax collectors and sinners?”

    The scribes ask the question that questions us as readers

    Mark 2:17 On hearing this, Jesus told them, “It is not the healthy who need a doctor (2395), but the
    sick. I have not come to call the righteous (1342), but sinners (268).”

    Jesus reminds us that his mission is to bring sinners back to God.
    He does not come to call those who were righteous before him i.e. the Hebrews fully following the Moses’ law.

    Jesus’ answer raises a problem because he does not criticize the righteous hebrews but he criticizes the priests who
    represent and teach the Moses’ law. Moreover, Jesus brings a new justice, the Good News.

    https://biblehub.com/greek/3018.htm
    Leuis: Levi.

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/3878.htm
    Levi: a son of Jacob, also the tribe descended from him

    https://biblehub.com/greek/5058.htm
    telÓnion: tax office
    Word Origin: from telÓnÉs

    https://biblehub.com/greek/5057.htm
    telÓnÉs: tax collector
    (literally, “paying-at-the-end”)
    (5057/tel?nes) is derived from telos (“a tax at the end”) and oneomai (“to buy”).

    https://biblehub.com/greek/2395.htm
    iatros: a physician, (Mark 2:17, Mark 5:26)
    Word Origin: from iaomai

    https://biblehub.com/greek/2390.htm
    iaomai: to heal (Mark 5:29)

    https://biblehub.com/greek/268.htm
    hamartÓlos: sinful (Mark 2:15,16,17), (Mark 8:38), (Mark 14:41)

    https://biblehub.com/greek/1342.htm
    dikaios: correct, righteous, by impl. Innocent (Mark 2:17), (Mark 6:20)
    “Righteous” relates to conformity to God’s standard (justice).

    2 – CHANGE OF NAME AND CIRCUMCISION OF FLESH

    ABRAM => ABRAHAM

    Genesis 17:5 No longer will you be called Abram, but your name will be Abraham, for I have made you a
    father of many nations.

    Once Abram is renamed Abraham in Gen 17:5, he is never again referred to as Abram

    JACOB =>ISRAEL

    Genesis 32:28 Then the man said, “Your name will no longer be Jacob, but Israel, because you have
    struggled with God and with men, and you have prevailed.”

    “Jacob” and “Israel” continue to be used throughout the Genesis narrative.

    ABRAM IS RENAMED ABRAHAM AND HE IS CIRCUMCISED.

    Genesis 17:4 “As for Me, this is My covenant with you: You will be the father of many nations.

    Genesis 17:5 No longer will you be called Abram, but your name will be Abraham, for I have made you a
    father of many nations.

    Genesis 17:8 And to you and your descendants I will give the land where you are residing—all the land
    of Canaan
    —as an eternal possession; and I will be their God.

    Genesis 17:10 This is My covenant with you and your descendants after you, which you are to keep: Every male
    among you must be circumcised.

    Genesis 17:11 You are to circumcise the flesh of your foreskin, and this will be a sign of the covenant
    between Me and you
    .

    THE RITUAL AFTER CHILD’S BIRTH

    Leviticus 12:1 Then the LORD said to Moses,

    Leviticus 12:2 “Say to the Israelites, ‘A woman who becomes pregnant and gives birth to a son will be
    unclean for seven days, as she is during the days of her menstruation.

    Leviticus 12:3 And on the eighth day the flesh of the boy’s foreskin is to be circumcised.

    Leviticus 12:6 When the days of her purification are complete, whether for a son or for a daughter, she
    is to bring to the priest at the entrance to the Tent of Meeting a year-old lamb for a burnt offering and a
    young pigeon
    or a turtledove for a sin offering.

    Leviticus 12:7 And the priest will present them before the LORD and make atonement for her; and she shall
    be ceremonially cleansed from her flow of blood. This is the law for a woman giving birth, whether to a
    male or to a female.

    Leviticus 12:8 But if she cannot afford a lamb, she shall bring two turtledoves or two young
    pigeons, one for a burnt offering and the other for a sin offering. Then the priest will make atonement for
    her, and she will be clean.’?”

    3 – CIRCUMCISION OF HEART

    CIRCUMCISE YOUR HEARTS !

    Deuteronomy 10:16 Circumcise your hearts, therefore, and stiffen your necks no more.

    Jeremiah 4:4 Circumcise yourselves to the LORD, and remove the foreskins of your hearts, O men of Judah
    and people of Jerusalem. Otherwise, My wrath will break out like fire and burn with no one to extinguish it,
    because of your evil deeds.

    WHAT DOES CIRCUMCISION OF HEART MEAN ?

    Deuteronomy 30:6 and Mark 12:30 verses define it in the same way: “Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with
    all your soul”

    Deuteronomy 30:6 The LORD your God will circumcise your hearts and the hearts of your descendants, and
    you will love Him with all your heart and with all your soul, so that you may live.

    Mark 12:30 Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind and with all
    your strength.’

    CIRCUMCISION OF HEARTS WITHOUT CIRCUMCISION OF FLESH

    By presenting the circumcision of the flesh in a negative way (Mark 2:14) and disqualifying Levi’s teaching (Mark 2:15),

    Mark clarifies what the Good News mean
    1 – The sign of new covenant will no longer be circumcision of flesh but the cross.
    2 – The teaching will be based on circumcision of heart.

    Mark 2:14 As He was walking along, He saw Levi (3018) son of Alphaeus sitting at the tax booth (5058).
    “Follow Me,”
    He told him, and Levi got up and followed Him.

    Mark 2:15 While Jesus was dining at Levi’s house, many tax collectors and sinners were eating with Him
    and His disciples—for there were many who followed Him.

    4 – LEVI BECOMES MATTHEW

    CHANGE OF NAME

    After Mark 2:14-15, we will never hear of Levi again. This reminds us of Abram in Gen 17:5, once Abram is renamed
    Abraham, he is never again referred to as Abram.

    Like Abram who accepted the covenant with God, Levi accepted the new covenant based on the Good News since he follows
    Jesus. As a result, Levi will be renamed Matthew (Mark 3:18). This new name reflects his new role inside the new
    covenant. He will provide the bread, the spiritual bread as Word/Gift of God.

    Mark 2:14 As He was walking along, He saw Levi (3018) son of Alphaeus sitting at the tax booth
    (5058). “Follow Me,”
    He told him, and Levi got up and followed Him.

    Mark 2:15 While Jesus was dining at Levi’s house, many tax collectors and sinners were
    eating
    with Him and His disciples—for there were many who followed Him.

    Mark 3:18 Andrew, Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew (3156), Thomas, James son of Alphaeus, Thaddaeus, Simon
    the Canaanite, (KJV)

    https://biblehub.com/greek/3156.htm
    Matthaios: Matthew
    Word Origin: variant reading for Maththaios, q.v.

    https://biblehub.com/greek/3102b.htm
    Maththaios: Matthew, one of the twelve apostles

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/4993.htm
    Mattithyah or Mattithyahu: “gift of Yah,”
    Word Origin: from mattath and Yah
    NASB Translation: Mattithiah (8).

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/3050.htm
    Yah: the name of the God of Israel
    Word Origin: contr. from Yhvh
    NASB Translation: GOD (1), LORD (49).

    CHANGE OF ROLE

    Levi represents the priest who performs the birth ritual (circumcision of flesh) to have the child enter community of
    Hebrews (Mark 2:14)

    By changing his name, the character “Levi” mutates. He will play the same role as Mattithiah (1 Chronicles 9:31),
    another levite in charge of providing bread.

    The bread prepared by Mattithiah and his brothers was the law of Moses (1 Chronicles 9:31-32). The bread provided by
    Matthew and the other disciples will be the Good News (Mark 6:41), (Mark 8:6).

    Mark 2:14 As He was walking along, He saw Levi son of Alphaeus sitting at the tax booth (5058).

    1 Chronicles 9:31 A Levite named Mattithiah (4993), the firstborn son of Shallum the Korahite, was entrusted
    with baking the bread
    (2281).
    1 Chronicles 9:32 Some of their Kohathite brothers were responsible for preparing the rows of the showbread
    (3899)
    every Sabbath.

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/2281.htm
    chabittim: flat cakes, bread wafers

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/3899.htm
    lechem: bread, food

    Mark 6:41 Taking the five loaves and the two fish and looking up to heaven, Jesus spoke a blessing and broke
    the loaves. Then He gave them to His disciples to set before the people.
    And He divided the two fish among them all (the hebrews).

    Mark 8:6 And He directs the crowd to recline on the ground. And having taken the seven loaves,
    having given thanks, He broke them and kept giving them to His disciples, that they might
    set before them. And they set it before the crowd (the pagans).

    CHANGE OF SIGN

    By following Jesus, Levi will also carry the cross, the sign of the new covenant.

    Mark 2:14 As He was walking along, He saw Levi son of Alphaeus sitting at the tax booth (5058).
    “Follow (190) Me,” He told him, and Levi got up (450) and followed (190) Him.

    Mark 8:34 Then Jesus called the crowd to Him along with His disciples, and He told them, “If anyone
    wants to come after Me, he must
    deny himself and take up (142) his cross and follow (190) Me.

    5 – LEVI AND THE LEVITES (OT SCRIPTURES)

    The role of Levites is described in various books such as Numbers, Leviticus, 1 Chronicles.

    THE SONS OF AARON AND THE OTHER LEVITES

    In the book of Numbers, Aaron’s sons have a higher rank than other levites. The sons of Aaron are the
    anointed priests
    (Numbers 3:3,10) and the other levites assist them (Numbers 3:6,7,9) but the Levites
    of any rank belong to God (Numbers 3:12,13).

    Numbers 3:1 This is the account of Aaron and Moses at the time the LORD spoke with Moses on Mount Sinai.

    Numbers 3:2 These are the names of the sons of Aaron: Nadab the firstborn, then Abihu, Eleazar,
    and Ithamar.

    Numbers 3:3 These were Aaron’s sons, the anointed priests, who were ordained to serve as priests.

    Numbers 3:5 Then the LORD said to Moses,

    Numbers 3:6 Bring the tribe of Levi and present them to Aaron the priest to assist him.

    Numbers 3:7 They are to perform duties for him and for the whole congregation before the Tent of Meeting,
    attending to the service of the tabernacle.

    Numbers 3:9 Assign the Levites (3881) to Aaron and his sons; they have been given exclusively to him from among
    the Israelites.

    Numbers 3:10 So you shall appoint Aaron and his sons to carry out the duties of the priesthood; but any
    outsider who approaches the tabernacle must be put to death.”

    Numbers 3:11 Again the LORD spoke to Moses, saying,

    Numbers 3:12 Behold, I have taken the Levites from among the children of Israel in place of every
    firstborn Israelite from the womb. The Levites belong to Me,

    Numbers 3:13 for all the firstborn are Mine. On the day I struck down every firstborn in the land of Egypt, I
    consecrated to Myself all the firstborn in Israel, both man and beast. They are Mine; I am the LORD.”

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/3881.htm
    Leviyyi or Levi: descendant of Levi

    MIRIAM, AARON AND MOSES ARE DESCENDANTS OF LEVI

    Numbers 26:59 and Amram’s wife was named Jochebed. She was also a daughter of Levi, born to Levi
    in Egypt. To Amram she bore Aaron, Moses, and their sister Miriam.

    THE TEACHING OF THE LAW.

    Leviticus 10:8 Then the LORD said to Aaron,

    Leviticus 10:9 “You and your sons are not to drink wine or strong drink when you enter the Tent of Meeting, or
    else you will die; this is a permanent statute for the generations to come.

    Leviticus 10:10 You must distinguish between the holy and the common, between the clean and
    the unclean
    ,

    Leviticus 10:11 so that you may teach the Israelites all the statutes that the LORD has given them
    through Moses.”

    THE PERFORMING OF RITUALS

    Some examples already studied
    1 – the ritual after child’s birth (Leviticus 12)
    2 – the law about leprosy (Leviticus 13) and the ritual for cleansing healed lepers (Leviticus 14)
    3 – the sin offering (Leviticus 4)

    THE SERVICE OF THE TABERNACLE

    Numbers 1:49 “Do not number the tribe of Levi in the census with the other Israelites.

    Numbers 1:50 Instead, you are to appoint the Levites over the tabernacle of the Testimony, all its
    furnishings,
    and everything in it.

    They shall carry the tabernacle and all its articles, care for it, and camp around it.

    OTHER LEVITE ACTIVITIES (SPICES, BREAD)

    1 Chronicles 9:29 Others were put in charge of the furnishings and other articles of the sanctuary, as
    well as the fine flour, wine, oil, frankincense, and spices.

    1 Chronicles 9:30 And some of the sons of the priests mixed the spices

    1 Chronicles 9:31 A Levite named Mattithiah (4993), the firstborn son of Shallum the Korahite, was entrusted
    with baking the bread
    (2281). BSB

    1 Chronicles 9:32 Some of their Kohathite brothers were responsible for preparing the rows of the
    showbread
    every Sabbath.

    6 – LEVI AND THE LEVITES (MARK’S GOSPEL)

    In Mark’s gospel, there are two institutions that represent the Moses’ law and its teaching: the synagogue and the
    temple. Mark always portrays them negatively.

    The purpose is to say that the synagogue and the temple no longer teach and spread the Word of God.

    The synagogue

    Mark 1:23 => The first man in the synagogue has an unclean spirit

    Mark 3:1 => The second man in the synagogue has a withered hand

    Mark 5:38 => Jesus beholds a commotion when he comes to the house of the ruler of the synagogue,

    The temple

    Mark refers to the temple by using the words: scribe, priest, Levi, doctor, high priest

    Mark 1:22 => The scribes teach without authority

    Mark 2:8 => The scribes are hard at heart

    Mark 1:40 => The priests do not heal leprosy

    Mark 2:14 => Levi, the priest in charge of ritual after child’s birth, is portrayed as a tax collector.

    Mark 5:25 => The doctors are unable to heal the wife suffering from bleeding

    THE STRAYING OF THE LEVITES

    Priests may also fail and lead people down the wrong way.

    Leviticus 4.3 if the anointed priest sins, bringing guilt on the people, then let him offer to the LORD
    for his sin which he has sinned a young bull without blemish as a sin offering.

    In Mark’s Gospel, the Levites/priests became the merchants who corrupted the meaning of the offerings. Mark portrays
    them as “money changers” and “doves sellers” (Mark 11:15)

    Mark reuses Ezekiel 48:11,14 to write Mark 11:15-17

    Ezekiel 48:11 It will be for the consecrated priests, the descendants of Zadok, who kept My charge and
    did not go astray (8582) as the Levites did when the Israelites went astray.

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/8582.htm
    taah: to err

    Ezekiel 48:13 Bordering the territory of the priests, the Levites shall have an area 25,000
    cubits long and 10,000 cubits wide. The whole length will be 25,000 cubits, and the width 10,000 cubits.

    Ezekiel 48:14 They must not sell or exchange any of it, and they must not transfer this best
    part
    of the land, for it is holy to the LORD

    Mark 11:15 When they arrived in Jerusalem, Jesus entered the temple courts and began to drive out
    those who were buying and selling there.
    He overturned the tables of the money changers and the seats of those selling doves.

    Mark 11:16 And He would not allow anyone to carry merchandise through the temple courts.

    Mark 11:17 Then Jesus began to teach them, and He declared,
    “Is it not written: ‘My house will be called a house of prayer for all the nations’?
    But you have made it ‘a den of robbers.’?”

    Mark 11: When the chief priests and scribes heard this, they looked for a way to kill Him.

    THE END OF THE LEVITES

    Mark 14:62 But Jesus remained silent and made no reply. Again the high priest questioned Him, “Are You the
    Christ, the Son of the Blessed One?”

    Mark 14:63I am,” said Jesus, “and you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of Power
    and coming with the clouds of heaven.”

    Mark 14:63 At this, the high priest tore (1284) his clothes and declared, “Why do we need any more witnesses?

    The high priest represents the upper class of the Levites, the sons of Aaron. He understood that Jesus was talking
    about the renewal of Israel. He shreds his clothes to mean that his role is over.

    7 – PHYSICIAN AS HEALER AND EMBALMER (OT SOURCES)

    HEALER

    Isaiah 53:4 Surely He (The Suffering Servant) took on our infirmities and carried our sorrows; yet we
    considered Him stricken by God, struck down and afflicted.

    Isaiah 53:5 But He was pierced for our transgressions, He was crushed for our iniquities; the punishment
    that brought us peace was upon Him, and by His stripes we are healed (7495).

    Hosea 7:1 When I heal Israel (7495), the iniquity of Ephraim will be exposed, as well as the crimes of
    Samaria
    . For they practice deceit and thieves break in; bandits raid in the streets.

    EMBALMER

    Genesis 50:2 And Joseph directed the physicians (7495) in his service to embalm his father Israel
    So they embalmed him,

    2 chronicles16:12 In the thirty-ninth year of his reign, Asa became diseased in his feet, and his malady became
    increasingly severe. Yet even in his illness he did not seek the LORD, but only the physicians (7495).
    2 chronicles16:14 And he was buried in the tomb that he had cut out for himself in the City of David. They laid
    him on a bier that was full of spices and various blended perfumes; then they made a great fire in his honor.

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/7495.htm
    rapha: to heal
    NASB Translation
    become fresh (3), completely healed (1), heal (24), healed (22), healer (1), healing (2), heals (3),
    physician (1), physicians (4), purified (2), reappeared (1), repaired (2), take care (1)

    8 – DOCTOR AS HEALER/TEACHER AND EMBALMER (MARK’S GOSPEL)

    The doctor is the one who heals the sickness of the soul by bringing the Word of God.

    HEALER/TEACHER

    Mark 2:17 On hearing this, Jesus told them, “It is not the healthy who need a doctor (2395), but the sick.
    I have not come to call the righteous (1342), but sinners (268).”

    Mark 5:25 And a woman was there who had suffered from bleeding for twelve years.

    Mark 5:26 She had borne much agony under the care of many physicians (2395), and had spent all she had,
    but to no avail. Instead, her condition had only grown worse.

    EMBALMER

    The word “doctor” (Mark 2:17) contains a double meaning, it also refers to embalming (Mark 14:3,8) and (Mark 16:1).

    Mark 2:17 On hearing this, Jesus told them, “It is not the healthy who need a doctor (2395), but the sick.
    I have not come to call the righteous (1342), but sinners (268).”

    Mark 14:3 While Jesus was in Bethany reclining at the table in the home of Simon the Leper, a woman
    came with
    an alabaster jar of expensive perfume, made of pure nard. She broke open the jar and poured it on
    Jesus’ head.

    Mark 14:8 She has done what she could to anoint My body in advance of My burial.

    Mark 16:1 When the Sabbath was over, Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James, and Salome bought spices
    so they could go and anoint the body of Jesus.

    https://biblehub.com/greek/2395.htm
    iatros: a physician, (Mark 2:17, Mark 5:26)
    Word Origin: from iaomai

    https://biblehub.com/greek/2390.htm
    iaomai: to heal (Mark 5:29)

    9 – SON OF ALPHAEUS

    Mark 2:14 As He was walking along, He saw Levi (3018) son of Alphaeus (256)

    https://biblehub.com/greek/256.htm
    Alphaios: Alphaeus (Mark 2:14 , Mark 3:18)

    Alphaeus refers to the Alpheus river whose waters were said to pass beneath the Ionian Sea and
    rise again
    . (See my next paragraphs)

    In Mark’s gospel, the expression “son of Alphaeus” points out the disappearance of an old world and its renewal/rebirth
    The current scene annonces the disappearance of the Levites (the priesthood of old Israel) in favor of Jesus’disciples.
    Levi => Matthew

    The expression will be used a second time (Mark 3:18) to indicate the renewal/rebirth of Israel.

    Mark 3:18 Andrew, Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew, Thomas, James son of Alphaeus, Thaddaeus,
    Simon the Canaanite (KJV)

    In Mark’s gospel, the new world expected in Isaiah is being fufilled and becomes the kingdom of God.

    Isaiah (51:16, 65:17, 66:22, 62:2) => Expectation for new heavens and a new earth
    Mark 1:15 => the kingdom of God is near

    Isaiah 51:16 I have put My words in your mouth, and covered you with the shadow of My hand, to
    establish the heavens, to found the earth,
    and to say to Zion, ‘You are My people.’?”

    Isaiah 65:17 For behold, I will create new heavens and a new earth. The former things will not be
    remembered, nor will they come to mind.

    Isaiah 66:22 “For just as the new heavens and the new earth, which I will make, will endure before Me,”
    declares the LORD, “so your descendants and your name will endure.

    Isaiah 62:2 Nations will see your righteousness, and all kings your glory. You will be called by a new name
    that the mouth of the LORD will bestow.

    Mark 1:15The time is fulfilled,” He said, “and the kingdom of God is near, Repent and believe in
    the gospel!”

    10 – THE ALPHEUS AND ORONTES RIVERS

    The Alpheus river and its features, disappearance and resurgence, are quoted by authors such as Ovid, Virgil, Strabo.
    Strabon also identifies the Alpheus river and the Orontes river which flows near Antioch because both rivers have the
    same features.

    ALPHEUS RIVER

    https://www.britannica.com/topic/Alpheus
    https://www.britannica.com/place/Alpheus-River#ref171279
    Alpheus River, also spelled Alpheius, Modern Greek AlfiÓs PotamÓs, river, the longest of the
    Peloponnese (Modern Greek: PelopÓnnisos), Greece, rising near DhaviÁ in central Arcadia (ArkadÍa), with a course of
    about 70 miles (110 km).

    The shallow, gravelly stream receives its name from the ancient river god of the Peloponnese, Alpheus, whose
    waters were said to pass beneath the Ionian Sea and rise again in the fountain of Arethusa near Syracuse, Sicily.

    The legend may have been inspired by the fact that the river disappears several times into the limestone Arcadian
    mountains and reemerges after flowing some distance underground.

    OVID (43 BC – 17/18 AD)
    https://www.britannica.com/topic/Arethusa-Greek-mythology#ref106034
    Alpheus, however, made his way beneath the sea and united his waters with those of the spring. According
    to Ovid’s Metamorphoses, Book V, Arethusa,

    VIRGIL (70 BC – 19 BC)
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfeios
    In the Aeneid, Virgil describes the Alpheus as flowing under the sea to resurface at Ortygia on Sicily,
    or “so runs the tale”

    STRABO (64 or 63 BC – AD 24)
    https://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Strabo/6B*.html#2.9
    STRABO GEOGRAPHY Book VI, Chapter 2

    9 … and again, the water near the Arcadian Asea is first forced below the surface and then, much later,
    emerges as both the Eurotas and the Alpheius;

    ORONTES RIVER

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orontes_River
    Among the most important cities located on the river nowadays are Homs, Hama, Jisr al-Shughur, and Antakya (the ancient
    Antioch, which was also known as “Antioch on the Orontes”).

    STRABO (64 or 63 BC – AD 24)
    https://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Strabo/6B*.html#2.9
    STRABO GEOGRAPHY Book VI, Chapter 2

    9 …The cavern near Mataurus contains an immense gallery through which a river flows invisible for a
    considerable distance, and then emerges to the surface,
    as is the case with the Orontes in Syria, which sinks into the chasm (called Charybdis) between Apameia and
    Antiocheia and rises again forty stadia away.

    and again, the water near the Arcadian Asea is first forced below the surface and then, much later, emerges as both the
    Eurotas and the Alpheius;
    and hence the belief in a certain fabulous utterance, that if two wreaths be dedicated separately to each of the
    two rivers and thrown into the common stream,
    each will reappear, in accordance with the dedication, in the appropriate river.

    http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Strabo/16B*.html#2.7
    STRABO GEOGRAPHY Book XVI, Chapter 2

    7 The Orontes River flows near the city. This river has its sources in CoelÊ-Syria; and then, after
    flowing underground, issues forth again;
    and then, proceeding through the territory of the Apameians into that of
    Antiocheia, closely approaches the latter city and flows down to the sea near Seleuceia.

    11 – TYCHE OF ANTIOCH AND SCRIPTURES

    https://www.britannica.com/topic/Tyche
    Greek goddess
    Tyche, in Greek religion, the goddess of chance, with whom the Roman Fortuna was later identified; a capricious
    dispenser of good and ill fortune

    https://museum.classics.cam.ac.uk/collections/casts/tyche-antioch
    The protecting deity of the city. Roman copy reduced in size of a bronze original.
    This sculpture is full of symbols and metaphor. The female figure represents the luck or good fortune, Tyche, of the
    city of Antioch, in modern Turkey.

    She is seated on a rock, with her feet on a swimming male figure (a personification of the river Orontes), both
    symbols of the city’s topography.
    She holds a sheaf of wheat representing prosperity,
    and wears a turreted crown symbolising security.

    In early Hellenistic times, when this copy was made, Antioch became the second biggest city of the east
    Mediterranean
    , after Alexandria; a large number of other cities adopted Tyche as their symbol at this time

    Date: Roman. Original: c.300 BCE
    Sculptor: Of original: Eutychides, pupil of Lysippos
    Provenance: Found in Rome

    https://en.vikidia.org/wiki/Tyche#/media/File:Tyche_Antioch_Vatican_Inv2672.jpg
    A statue of Tyche at the Vatican.
    The Tyche (Fortune) of Antioch. Marble, Roman copy after a Greek bronze original by Eutychides of the 3rd century BC.

    Notice again
    1 – The swimmer at his feet, which represents Orontes
    2 – His hand holding the ears of wheat, symbol of wealth and fertility.
    3 – His head surrounded by a crown of crenellated towers which evokes the walls of the city

    Now, let us look at the link with the scriptures

    THE EARS OF GRAIN (BOOK OF RUTH AND MARK’S GOSPEL)

    Ruth 2:2 Ruth the Moabitess (a pagan) asked Naomi, “Will you let me go into the fields and gather
    fallen grain (7641)
    behind someone with whom I find favor?” Naomi answered her, “Go ahead, my daughter.”

    Mark 2:23 On the Sabbath he was going through the grainfields, and his disciples began to make their way,
    picking some heads of grain (4719).

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/7641.htm
    shibbol or shibboleth: ear (of grain)

    https://biblehub.com/greek/4719.htm
    stachus: a head of grain

    Ears of grain represents the God’s Word that God’s people have to work in order to get the spiritual food, the
    spiritual wealth

    Mark 14:3 While Jesus was in Bethany reclining at the table in the home of Simon the Leper, a woman
    came with an alabaster jar of expensive perfume
    , made of pure nard.
    She broke open the jar and poured it on Jesus’ head.

    The expression “expensive perfume” refers to the spiritual wealth and reminds us the ears of grain
    The word “alabaster” also evokes the material used to make a statue.

    THE TOWER AND THE VINEYARD (BOOK OF ISAIAH AND MARK’S GOSPEL)

    Isaiah 5:2 He dug it up and cleared the stones and planted the finest vines. He built a watchtower
    (4026)
    in the middle and dug out a winepress as well.
    He waited for the vineyard to yield good grapes, but the fruit it produced was sour!

    Mark 12:1 Then Jesus began to speak to them in parables: “A man planted a vineyard. He put a wall
    around it, dug a wine vat, and built a watchtower (4444).
    Then he rented it out to some tenants and went away on a journey.

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/4026.htm
    migdal or migdalah: a tower

    https://biblehub.com/greek/4444.htm
    purgos: a tower

    REBIRTH/RENEWAL (Mark 2) => EMBALMING (Mark 14) => REBIRTH/RENEWAL (Mark 16)

    The Alpheus river => The Orontes river flowing near Antioch

    The Son of Alpheus (Mark 2:14) => The woman who looks like the Tyche of Antioch (Mark 14:3)
    => The wifes who embalm the body (Mark 14:8 Mark 16:1)

    Mark 14:8 She has done what she could to anoint My body in advance of My burial.

    Mark 16:1 When the Sabbath was over, Mary (3137) Magdalene (3094), Mary the mother of James, and
    Salome bought spices so they could go and anoint the body of Jesus.

    12 – MIGDAL AND MARY OF MAGDALA

    MIGDAL

    Joshua 15:37 Zenan, Hadashah, Migdal-gad (4028), (BSB)

    Joshua 19:38 Iron, Migdal-el (4027), Horem, Beth-anath, and Beth-shemesh. There were nineteen cities,
    along with their villages. (BSB)

    Genesis 35:21 Israel moved on again and pitched his tent beyond Migdal Eder (4029). (NIV)

    Genesis 11:4 “Come,” they said, “let us build for ourselves a city with a tower (4026) that reaches to the
    heavens
    , that we may make a name for ourselves and not be scattered over the face of all the earth.”
    (The Tower of Babel)

    Isaiah 5:2 He dug it up and cleared the stones and planted the finest vines. He built a watchtower (4026)
    in the middle and dug out a winepress as well. He waited for the vineyard to yield good grapes, but the
    fruit it produced was sour!

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/4026.htm
    migdal or migdalah: a tower

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/4027.htm
    Migdal-el: “tower of God”

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/4028.htm
    Migdal-gad: “tower of Gad
    from migdal and Gad

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/1408.htm
    Gad: “fortune,” a Bab. god.

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/4029.htm
    Migdal-eder: “flock tower,”
    Word Origin: from migdal and eder

    MARK’S GOSPEL

    Mark 12:1 Then Jesus began to speak to them in parables: “A man planted a vineyard. He put a
    wall around it, dug a wine vat, and built a watchtower (4444).
    Then he rented it out to some tenants and went away on a journey.

    Mark 16:1 When the Sabbath was over, Mary (3137) Magdalene (3094), Mary the mother of James, and Salome
    bought spices so they could go and anoint the body of Jesus.

    https://biblehub.com/greek/3137.htm
    Maria or Mariam: Mary
    Word Origin: of Hebrew origin Miryam

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/4813.htm
    Miryam: the sister of Aaron and Moses

    https://biblehub.com/greek/3094.htm
    MagdalÉnÉ: Magdalene, of Magdala

    Miryam (the Moses’ sister) + migdal (reference to the Tyche of Antioch) => Mary (3137) of Magdala (3094)

    Miryam (hebrew name) + migdal (reference to pagan goddess) => Mary (3137) of Magdala (3094)

    Mary of Magdala represents the new community of hebrews and pagans living according to the Good News.

    13 – SYENE AND SIMON (4613) OF CYRENE (2956)

    Ezekiel 29:10 therefore I am against you and against your rivers. I will turn the land of Egypt into a
    ruin, a desolate wasteland from Migdol (4024) to Syene (5482) , and as far as the border of Cush.

    Ezekiel 30:6 For this is what the LORD says: The allies of Egypt will fall, and her proud strength will
    collapse. From Migdol (4024) to Syene (5482) they will fall by the sword within her,
    declares the Lord GOD

    Mark 15:21 Now Simon (4613) of Cyrene (2956), the father of Alexander and Rufus, was passing by on his
    way in from the country, and the soldiers forced him to carry the cross of Jesus.

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/4024.htm
    Migdol: a city on the N.E. border of Egypt

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/5482.htm
    Cveneh: Syene

    https://biblehub.com/greek/2956.htm
    KurÉnaios: of Cyrene

    https://biblehub.com/greek/2957.htm
    KurÉnÉ: Cyrene, a city in N. Africa

    https://biblehub.com/greek/4613.htm
    SimÓn: Simon

    Simon (Hebrew name) + Syene (pagan town) => Simon (4613) of Cyrene (2956) carrying the cross

    The cross
    1 – sign of the new covenant
    2 – assembly of 2 woods : that of the hebrews and that of the pagans (See my Chapter 7: Paralytic’s healing)

    14 – RAMATHAIM AND JOSEPH OF ARIMATHEA

    RAMATHAIM

    1 Samuel 1:1 Now there was a man named Elkanah who was from Ramathaim (7436) -zophim in the hill
    country of Ephraim.
    He was the son
    of Jeroham, the son of Elihu, the son of Tohu, the son of Zuph, an Ephraimite

    1 Samuel 2:11 Then Elkanah went to his home at Ramah (7413). But the boy ministered to the LORD
    before Eli the priest.

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/7436.htm
    Ramathayim Tsophim: “double height of watchers,” a city in Ephraim
    Word Origin: from ramah and tsaphah

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/7413.htm
    ramah: height, high place
    Word Origin: from rum

    Ezekiel 37:16 “And you, son of man, take for yourself one stick and write on it, ‘For Judah and for
    the sons of Israel,
    his companions’; then take another stick and write on it, ‘For Joseph, the stick of
    Ephraim and all the house of Israel
    , his companions.’

    Ezekiel 37:17 Then join them together into one stick, so that they become one in your hand.

    Joseph (the wood of Joseph) + Ramathaim (the wood of Ephraim) => the reunited kingdom of Israel.
    (See my Chapter 2c: The sea of Galilee)

    JOSEPH THE SON OF JACOB

    Genesis 41:39 Then Pharaoh said to Joseph (3130) , “Since God has made all this known to you, there is
    no one as discerning and wise as you.

    Genesis 41:40 You shall be in charge of my house, and all my people are to obey your commands. Only with
    regard to the throne will I be greater than you.”

    Genesis 41:41 Pharaoh also told Joseph, “I hereby place you over all the land of Egypt.”

    Genesis 50:2 And Joseph directed the physicians in his service to embalm his father Israel. So they embalmed him,

    Genesis 50:5 my father made me swear an oath when he said, ‘I am about to die. You must bury me in the tomb
    that I dug for myself
    in the land of Canaan.’ Now let me go and bury my father, and then return.”

    Genesis 50:6 Pharaoh replied, “Go up and bury your father, as he made you swear to do.”

    JOSEPH OF ARIMATHEA

    Mark 14:8 She has done what she could to anoint My body in advance of My burial.

    Mark 15:43 Joseph (2501) of Arimathea (707), a prominent Council member who himself was
    waiting for the kingdom of God, boldly went to Pilate to ask for the body of Jesus.

    Mark 15:46 So Joseph bought a linen cloth, took down the body of Jesus, wrapped it in the cloth,
    and placed it in a tomb that had been cut out of the rock. Then he rolled a stone against the entrance to the
    tomb.

    Joseph the son of Jacob and Joseph of Arimathea share the same features
    1 – they are high-ranking advisors
    2 – they take the body to place it in a tomb

    Joseph (son of Jacob) + Ramathaim (high-ranking advisor) => Joseph of Arimathea

    Joseph of Arimathea as the high-ranking advisor who takes the body of Jesus to place it in a tomb

    https://biblehub.com/greek/707.htm
    Harimathaia: Arimathea,
    of Hebrew origin, cf. Ramah

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/7413.htm
    ramah: height, high place
    Word Origin
    from rum

    15 – CHANGE OF NAME IN MARK’S GOSPEL, FIRST STEP

    Zabulun => Zebedee (See my Chapter 2b: The Four Disciples)

    Levi (a Levite) => Mattithiah (another Levite) => Matthew (a disciple)

    Alpheus river => Orontes river => Tcyhe of Antioch (swimmer, the ears of wheat,
    Tower/Migdal) => Magdala

    Miryam (Moses’ sister) + migdal (Tyche of Antioch) => Mary of Magdala, the
    new community of hebrews and pagans

    Simon (Hebrew name) + Syene (pagan town) => Simon of Cyrene carrying the cross

    Cross = sign of the new covenant + assembly of 2 woods, that of the hebrews and that of the pagans

    Joseph (the wood of Joseph) + Ramathaim (the wood of Ephraim) => the reunited kingdom of
    Israel

    Joseph (son of Jacob) + Ramathaim (high-ranking advisor) => Joseph of Arimathea who
    places the body of Jesus in a tomb

    SUMMARY

    This scene teaches us that circumcision of the flesh is not part of the Good News.

    The sign of the new covenant will be the cross. The Hebrews and the Pagans will have to carry the cross (Mark 8:34),
    sign of inversion (Mark 2:11) and assembly of 2 woods, that of the hebrews and that of the pagans.

    To get the message across the hebrews and pagans, Mark writes a scene where Levi, the priest in charge of performing
    the ritual, is negatively portrayed.

    Mark describes him as a tax collector, the one who collects the tax to have the child enter community of Hebrews.
    We will never hear of Levi again.

    Jesus gave him a new role and renamed him Matthew to reflect that role. Levi became Matthew, one of the disciples who
    provide the good spiritual bread, the Good News.

    To understand the scene, we have to know the OT sources
    1 – Genesis 17:4-14 => abram is renamed abraham and he is circumcised.
    2 – 1 Chronicles 9:31,32 => Mattithiah the Levite and some of their brothers are in charge of preparing the bread

    In the last verse (Mark 2:17), Jesus reminds us that his mission is to bring sinners back to God.

    He does not come to call those who were righteous before him i.e. the Hebrews fully following the Moses’ law.

    Jesus’ comment raises a problem because he does not criticize the righteous hebrews but he criticizes the priests who
    represent and teach the Moses’ law. Moreover, Jesus brings a new justice, the Good News.

    Jesus will specify his message to the Hebrews in the following verses.

    Knowledges about the Alpheus and Orontes rivers are helpful to grasp the notion of renewal contained in the expression
    “son of alphaeus” and to identifie characters close to the Tyche of Antioch.

    Like the river Alpheus and the river Orontes, Levi disappears in one form and reappears in another form.
    Levi the circumciser mutates and becomes Matthew the disciple in charge of providing the bread.

    NEXT STEPS

    (Mark 2:18-28) John and the Word, Sabbath
    (Mark 1-2) Second synthesis

    Some readings

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tyche
    https://www.livius.org/articles/concept/tyche-of-antioch/
    https://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780195393361/obo-9780195393361-0240.xml
    Biblical Studies Levi/Levites

  8. Reading Mark as a midrash, Chapter 9: John and the Word, Sabbath
    Tags: Midrash, Maurice Mergui, Nanine Charbonnel

    (Mark 2:18-28) OLD AND NEW WORD OF GOD

    Here is my reading plan

    1 – FIRST READING TO GRASP THE MEANING AND THE COHERENCE
    2 – THE BRIDEGROOM
    3 – THE GARMENTS
    4 – THE WINE
    5 – THE HEADS OF GRAIN
    6 – SYNTHESIS ABOUT THE SYMBOLS (GARMENTS, WINE, HEADS OF GRAIN)
    7 – ACHIMELEC AND ABIATHAR
    8 – JONATHAN SON OF ABIATHAR AND JOHN AS JAMES’ BROTHER
    9 – JONATHAN SON OF SAUL AND JOHN AS JAMES’ BROTHER
    10 – JOHN THE BAPTISER AND HIS DISCIPLES
    11 – SYNTHESIS ABOUT JOHN
    12 – FROM INCOMPATIBILITY TO REPLACEMENT
    13 – THE SABBATH

    SUMMARY

    1 – FIRST READING TO GRASP THE MEANING AND THE COHERENCE

    Mark 2:18 Now John’s disciples and the Pharisees were often fasting.
    So people came to Jesus and asked,
    “Why don’t Your disciples fast like John’s disciples and those of the Pharisees?” (BSB)

    “The disciples of John the Baptiser and the Pharisees abstain from food” => They do not eat the Good News
    because they did not leave their father’s law, the Moses’ Law.

    “The disciples of Jesus do not fast” => They eat the Good News

    The word “fast” refers to the spiritual food, the Word of God.

    In this last sequence which ends the first two chapters, Mark puts in opposition the new and the old Word.

    New Word of God = The Good News
    Old Word of God = Moses’ Law + Prophecies

    Mark 2:19 Jesus replied, “How can the guests of the bridegroom fast while He is with them?
    As long as He is with them, they cannot fast.

    The guests of the bridegroom are the Hebrews who received the Word of God through Moses and the prophets.

    God is the bridegroom of Israel because God has already made a covenant/marriage with it, this covenant beeing based on
    the Moses’ Law (Exodus 24:8 and Exodus 34:27)

    Jesus is the link between God and his people (The Hebrews, Israel). He is among them to bring the new food/Word

    As a result, the guests of the bridegroom (the hebrews) cannot refuse the new food/Word

    Mark 2:20 But the time will come when the bridegroom will be taken from them;
    then they will fast.

    Jesus reminds that the link between the bridegroom/God and the hebrews is temporary. When Jesus will no longer be there
    to provide and teach the Good News, men will have to study the new Word by themselves and extract the spiritual food.
    That day, the task will be more difficult and the food less abundant.

    Mark 2:21 No one sews a patch of unshrunk cloth on an old garment. If he does, the new piece will pull
    away from the old, and a worse tear will result.

    Mark uses the image of clothing to oppose old and new Words and points out that they are incompatible.

    New cloth => The Good News
    Old garment => Moses’ Law and prophecies

    In the bible, the garments represent the spiritual state of man and may convey the idea of salvation.

    Mark 2:22 And no one pours new wine into old wineskins. If he does, the wine will burst the skins,
    and both the wine and the wineskins will be ruined. Instead, new wine is poured into new wineskins.”

    Mark repeats the same thing with a second image

    New wine => The Good News
    Old wineskins => Moses’ Law and prophecies

    In the bible, wine is often associated with bread (the spiritual bread)

    Wine also refers to the fruit of the vine, the blood of Jesus (Mark 14:24).

    Mark 2:23 One Sabbath Jesus was passing through the grainfields, and His disciples began to pick the heads
    of grain
    as they walked along.

    Mark takes up the theme of the Word with a new image. The heads of grain represent the Word of God that men have to
    work so as to extract the spiritual bread.
    The disciples are preparing for the time when Jesus will no longer be there and they begin to seek Word by themselves.
    They catch the Word where it is like Ruth gleaning the ears of corn, no matter when it happens.

    Mark 2:24 So the Pharisees said to Him,
    “Look, why are they doing what is unlawful on the Sabbath?”

    The Pharisees interpret the law literally and do not see that Jesus’ disciples are seeking the Word of God.

    The disciples of John dissociate themselves from the Pharisees by not participating in the polemic about the Sabbath.
    In this way they show that they accept that the other Hebrews leave the old Word in favor of the Good News.
    John and his disciples are therefore the Hebrews who go on living according to the Moses’ law but do not oppose Jesus
    and the Good News.
    In other words, they are the Hebrews who have understood that the old Word will not save Israel and accept that the new
    generation move to the Good News.

    Mark 2:25 Jesus replied, “Have you never read what David did when he and his companions were hungry and
    in need?

    Mark makes Jesus answer by quoting an episode about David. Mark reinterprets it in his own way, David is hungry means
    that he needs the Word of God.

    Mark 2:26 During the high priesthood of Abiathar, he entered the house of God and ate the consecrated
    bread,
    which was lawful only for the priests. And he gave some to his companions as well.”

    Mark goes on reinterpreting the episode by quoting Abiathar instead of Achimelec.

    He does it because Abiathar is Jonathan’s father.

    In the bible there are several Jonathan. Among them are Jonathan son of Abiathar and Jonathan son of Saul.
    Mark reused their features to create his own characters named John (John as James’ brother and John the Baptiser)

    Mark 2:27 Then Jesus declared, “The Sabbath was made for man, not man for the Sabbath.

    Mark concludes the polemic about the Sabbath by recalling the first Sabbath (Exodus 16:29-31).

    “The Sabbath was made for man” => God established the first Sabbath and on that day God gave manna to his
    people, manna is both the law and spiritual food.
    (See my paragraph: THE SABBATH)

    “not man for the Sabbath” => The Sabbath is the work of God, so man is not allowed to change it.

    Mark 2:28 Therefore, the Son of Man is Lord even of the Sabbath.

    But the Son of Man has the sabbath day in his power, and may rule it as he desires since he is a divine figure who acts
    on earth according to God’s will.
    (See my Chapter 7: PARALYTIC’S HEALING)

    Mark suggests here that there will be other thing than the Sabbath when the kingdom of God is established (Mark 16:1-8)
    The kingdom of God is the new earth and the new heavens, where the righteous hebrews and the righteous pagans will live
    according to the new Word of God (the Good News).

    2 – THE BRIDEGROOM

    Isaiah 54:5 For your husband (1166) is your Makerthe LORD of Hosts is His name—the Holy One of
    Israel is your Redeemer
    ; He is called the God of all the earth.

    Isaiah 62:4 No longer will you be called Forsaken, nor your land named Desolate; but you will be called
    Hephzibah, and your land Beulah(1166) ; for the LORD will take delight in you, and your land will be His
    bride (1166).

    Isaiah 62:5 For as a young man marries (1166) a young woman, so your sons will marry (1166) you;
    and as a bridegroom rejoices over his bride, so your God will rejoice over you.

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/1166.htm
    baal: to marry, rule over

    MARK’S GOSPEL

    God is the bridegroom of Israel.

    Jesus brings Israel the new Word of God so that God makes a new covenant/marriage with Israel and save it (Mark 1:30).

    Mark 1:30 Simon’s mother-in-law was sick in bed with a fever, and they promptly told Jesus about her.
    The mother-in-law represents Israel as bride.

    Jesus is the temporary link (Mark 2:20 and Mark 9:19) between God and men since he integrates a human and a
    divine dimension

    Mark 2:20 But the time will come when the bridegroom (3566) will be taken from them;
    then they will fast.

    Mark 9:19 “O unbelieving generation!” Jesus replied. “How long must I remain with you? How long must I
    put up with you? Bring the boy to Me.”

    https://biblehub.com/greek/3566.htm
    numphios: a bridegroom

    3 – THE GARMENTS

    Generally speaking, the garments refer to the spiritual state of man. The image of clothing is used in a lot of
    situations.

    1 – The original sin and the primitive man
    2 – The Spirit
    3 – The God’s Word
    4 – The salvation
    5 – A divine figure or the presence of God
    6 – The teaching
    7 – The priesthood
    8 – The one who is highest among his brothers
    9 – The inheritance
    9 – The death and the escape from death

    THE ORIGINAL SIN AND THE PRIMITIVE MAN

    Genesis 3:7 And the eyes of both of them were opened, and they knew that they were naked;
    so they sewed together fig leaves and made coverings for themselves.

    Genesis 3:21 And the LORD God made garments of skin for Adam and his wife, and He clothed them.

    THE SPIRIT

    2 Kings 2:13 Elisha also picked up the cloak that had fallen from Elijah, and he went back and
    stood on the bank of the Jordan.

    2 Kings 2:14 Then he took the cloak of Elijah that had fallen from him and struck the waters.
    “Where now is the LORD, the God of Elijah?” he asked. And when he had struck the waters, they parted to the right and
    to the left, and Elisha crossed over.

    2 Kings 2:15 When the sons of the prophets who were facing him from Jericho saw what had happened,
    they said, “The spirit of Elijah rests on Elisha.” And they went to meet him and bowed down to the ground before
    him.

    Mark 1:10 As soon as Jesus came up out of the water, He saw the heavens breaking open and the Spirit
    descending on Him
    like a dove.

    THE WORD OF GOD (MOSES’ LAW, VOICE OF PROPHETS, GOOD NEWS)

    2 Kings 1:8 “He was a hairy man,” they answered, “with a leather belt around his waist.” “It was
    Elijah the Tishbite,” said the king.

    Jeremiah 13:1 This is what the LORD said to me: “Go and buy yourself a linen loincloth and put it
    around your waist, but do not let it touch water.”

    Mark 1:6 John was clothed in camel’s hair, with a leather belt around his waist. His food was
    locusts and wild honey.

    Mark 2:21 No one sews a patch of unshrunk (46) cloth (4470) on an old garment (2440). If he
    does, the new piece will pull away from the old, and a worse tear will result.

    John’s clothing refer to
    1 – the exodus and the Moses’ law since the camel is the animal living in the desert.
    2 – the prophets since he wears a belt around his loins like the prophets Elijah and Jeremiah.

    John the Baptiser wears the old garments (the old Word given to the Hebrews) while Jesus brings the new garments (the
    Good News).

    https://biblehub.com/greek/46.htm
    agnaphos: uncarded, undressed

    Usage: unshrunken, new
    Word Origin from alpha (as a neg. prefix) and the same as gnapheus

    https://biblehub.com/greek/4470.htm
    rhakos: a rag

    https://biblehub.com/greek/2440.htm
    himation: an outer garment, a cloak, robe
    Usage: a long flowing outer garment, tunic.

    THE SALVATION

    Isaiah 61:10 I will rejoice greatly in the LORD, my soul will exult in my God; for He has clothed me with
    garments of salvation
    and wrapped me in a robe of righteousness, as a bridegroom wears a priestly headdress,
    as a bride adorns herself with her jewels.

    Mark 5:28 For she kept saying, “If only I touch His garments (2440), I will be healed.

    Mark 6:56 And wherever He went—villages and towns and countrysides—they laid the sick in the marketplaces
    (58) and begged Him just to let them touch the fringe of His cloak (2440).
    And all who touched Him were healed

    Bartimeus’ Healing

    Bartimeus throws off his cloak to mean that he leaves the Moses’ Law. as a result, he is healed.

    Mark 10:47 When he heard that it was Jesus of Nazareth, he began to cry out, “Jesus, Son of David,
    have mercy on me!”
    Mark 10:48 Many people admonished him to be silent, but he cried out all the louder, “Son of David,
    have mercy on me!”
    Mark 10:50 Throwing off (577) his cloak (2440), Bartimaeus jumped up and came to Jesus.
    Mark 10:52 Go,” said Jesus, “your faith has healed you.” And immediately he received his sight
    and followed Jesus
    along the road.

    The Triumphal Entry

    Many people throw and spread their cloaks to mean that they leave the Moses’ Law (the old garments) and put their hope
    in Jesus and the Good News

    Mark 11:7 Then they (two of His disciples) led the colt to Jesus and threw their cloaks (2240)
    over it
    , and He sat on it.
    Mark 11:8 Many in the crowd spread (4766) their cloaks (2240) on the road, while others spread branches
    they had cut from the fields.
    Mark 11:10 “Blessed is the coming kingdom of our father David!”
    “Hosanna in the highest!

    The cloaks over the colt (Mark 11:7)
    1 – remind of the worn-out sacks over the donkeys (Joshua 9:3-5)
    2 – convey the ideas of deceit and replacement (Joshua 9:3-5)

    Joshua 9:3 But the people of Gibeon, having heard what Joshua had done to Jericho and Ai,
    Joshua 9:4 acted deceptively and set out as envoys, carrying on their donkeys worn-out sacks and
    old wineskins, cracked and mended.
    Joshua 9:5 They put worn, patched sandals on their feet and threadbare clothing on their bodies,
    and their whole supply of bread was dry and moldy.

    A DIVINE FIGURE OR THE PRESENCE OF GOD

    Daniel 7:9 “As I looked, thrones were placed, and the Ancient of Days took his seat; his clothing was
    white as snow,
    and the hair of his head like pure wool; his throne was fiery flames; its wheels were burning fire.

    Enoch 46.1 And there I saw one who had a head of days [i.e. was old], and his head was white
    like wool;
    and with him was a second whose countenance was like the appearance of a man, and his countenance was
    full of agreeableness, like one of the holy angels.

    Mark 9:2 After six days Jesus took with Him Peter, James, and John, and led them up a high mountain by
    themselves. There He was transfigured before them.

    Mark 9:3 His clothes (2440) became radiantly white, brighter than any launderer on earth could bleach them.

    Mark 16:5 When they entered the tomb, they saw a young man dressed in a white robe (4749)
    sitting on the right side, and they were alarmed.

    https://biblehub.com/greek/4749.htm
    stolÉ: equipment, apparel

    THE TEACHING

    Mark contrasts the Jesus’ teaching with that of the scribes, those who walk around in long robes

    Mark 1:22 The people were astonished at His teaching, because He taught as one who had authority,
    and not as the scribes.

    Mark 12:38 In His teaching Jesus also said, “Watch out for the scribes. They like to walk around in long
    robes (4749)
    , to receive greetings in the marketplaces (58),

    https://biblehub.com/greek/58.htm
    agora: an assembly, place of assembly

    THE PRIESTHOOD

    Exodus 28:3 You are to instruct all the skilled craftsmen, whom I have filled with a spirit of wisdom,
    to make garments for Aaron’s consecration
    , so that he may serve Me as priest.

    Exodus 28:4 These are the garments that they shall make: a breastpiece, an ephod, a robe, a woven tunic, a
    turban, and a sash. They are to make these holy garments for your brother Aaron and his sons, so that they may serve
    Me as priests.

    Ezekiel 42:14 Once the priests have entered the holy area, they must not go out into the outer court until they
    have left behind the garments in which they minister, for these are holy. They are to put on other
    clothes
    before they approach the places that are for the people.”

    THE ONE WHO IS HIGHEST AMONG HIS BROTHERS

    Leviticus 21:10 The priest who is highest among his brothers, who has had the anointing oil poured on his
    head
    and has been ordained to wear the priestly garments, must not let his hair hang loose or tear his
    garments

    Mark 14:3 While Jesus was in Bethany reclining at the table in the home of Simon the Leper, a woman came with an
    alabaster jar of expensive perfume, made of pure nard.
    She broke open the jar and poured it on Jesus’ head.

    Mark 14:63 At this, the high priest tore his clothes (5509) and declared, “Why do we need any more
    witnesses?

    Mark 15:20 After they had mocked Him, they removed the purple [robe] and put His own clothes (2440)
    back on Him.
    Then they led Him out to crucify Him.

    The clothes of the high priest reflect his role as intercessor between God and men. He tears off his clothes because he
    understood that his role is over.

    Jesus keeps his clothes which will be shared a little later.

    Jesus is not the new high priest. He is the one who receives the anointing and the one who is highest among his brothers

    https://biblehub.com/greek/5509.htm
    chitÓn: a tunic
    Usage:a tunic, garment, undergarment.

    THE INHERITANCE

    In Ezekiel, the inheritance goes hand in hand with the word “division”

    Ezekiel 45:1 “When you divide the land by lot as an inheritance, you are to set aside a portion for the LORD,
    a holy portion of the land 25,000 cubits long and 20,000 cubits wide. This entire tract of land will be holy.

    Ezekiel 47:21 You are to divide this land among yourselves according to the tribes of Israel.

    Ezekiel 47:22 You shall allot it as an inheritance for yourselves and for the foreigners who dwell among you and
    who have children. You are to treat them as native-born Israelites; along with you, they shall be allotted an
    inheritance among the tribes of Israel.

    In Mark’s gospel, the pagans take their rightful part of inheritance by dividing the Jesus’ garments

    Mark 15:24 And they (the soldiers) crucified Him. They also divided His garments (2240)
    by casting lots to decide what [each of them] would take.

    THE DEATH AND THE ESCAPE FROM DEATH

    Mark 14:51 One young man who had been following Jesus was wearing a linen cloth (4616) around his body.
    They caught hold of him,
    Mark 14:52 but he pulled free of the linen cloth (4616) and ran away naked.

    Mark 15:56 So Joseph bought a linen cloth (4616), took down the body of Jesus,
    wrapped it in the cloth (4616) , and placed it in a tomb that had been cut out of the rock.
    Then he rolled a stone against the entrance to the tomb

    https://biblehub.com/greek/4616.htm
    sindÓn: fine linen cloth

    4 – THE WINE

    In the bible, the image of bread and wine appears in a lot of situations so as to express

    1 – Prosperity
    2 – Salvation
    3 – Understanding
    4 – Joy
    5 – Inheritance

    PROSPERITY

    Genesis 27:28 May God give to you (Jacob) the dew of heaven and the richness of the earth—an abundance
    of grain (1715) and new wine (8492)

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/1715.htm
    dagan: corn, grain (of cereals)

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/8492.htm
    tirosh: must, fresh or new wine

    SALVATION

    2 Kings 18:32 until I come and take you away to a land like your own—a land of grain (1715) and new wine
    (8492), a land of bread and vineyards,
    a land of olive trees and honey—so that you may live and not die.
    But do not listen to Hezekiah, for he misleads you when he says, ‘The LORD will deliver us.’

    UNDERSTANDING

    Proverbs 9:1 Wisdom has built her house; she has carved out her seven pillars.
    Proverbs 9:2 She has prepared her meat and mixed her wine; she has also set her table.
    Proverbs 9:4 “Whoever is simple, let him turn in here!” she (Wisdom ) says to him who lacks
    judgment
    .
    Proverbs 9:5 “Come, eat my bread and drink the wine I have mixed.
    Proverbs 9:6 “Forsake your folly and live, And proceed in the way of understanding.

    JOY

    Ecclesiaste 9:7 Go, eat your bread with joy, and drink your wine with a cheerful heart, for God has
    already approved your works:

    INHERITANCE

    Isaiah 65:8 This is what the LORD says: “As the new wine is found in a cluster of grapes, and men say,
    ‘Do not destroy it, for it contains a blessing,’ so I will act on behalf of My servants; I will not destroy them all.

    Isaiah 65:9 And I will bring forth descendants from Jacob, and heirs from Judah; My elect will possess
    My mountains
    , and My servants will dwell there.

    MARK’S GOSPEL

    Mark 2:22 And no one pours new wine into old wineskins. If he does, the wine will burst the skins,
    and both the wine and the wineskins will be ruined. Instead, new wine is poured into new wineskins.”

    The new wine refers to the Good News while the old wineskins suggest the Moses’ Law.
    The wine also refers to the fruit of the vine (Mark 14:24), the blood of Jesus that will save Israel

    5 – HEADS OF GRAIN

    The heads of grain represent the Word of God that men have to work so as to extract the spiritual bread.

    Ruth 2:2 And Ruth the Moabitess said to Naomi, “Please let me go into the fields and glean heads of
    grain
    after someone in whose sight I may find favor.” “Go ahead, my daughter,” Naomi replied.

    Ruth 3:15 And he (Boaz)told her (Ruth), “Bring the shawl you are wearing and hold it out.” When she did so, he
    shoveled six measures of barley into her shawl. Then he went into the city.

    Mark 2:23 One Sabbath Jesus was passing through the grainfields, and His disciples began to pick the
    heads of grain
    as they walked along.

    6 – SYNTHESIS ABOUT THE SYMBOLS (GARMENTS, VIN, HEADS OF GRAIN)

    Mark evokes the Word of God through different images: the clothes, the wine, the heads of grain.

    Without ever naming the old and the new Word, Mark suggests the following associations

    New cloth => The Good News
    Old garment => Moses’ Law and prophecies

    New wine => The Good News
    Old wineskins => Moses’ Law and prophecies

    These implicit associations
    1 – recall the deceit of the Gibeonites and the deceit of Jacob
    2 – convey the idea of replacement

    The Deceit of the Gibeonites

    Joshua 9:3 But the people of Gibeon, having heard what Joshua had done to Jericho and Ai,
    Joshua 9:4 acted deceptively and set out as envoys, carrying on their donkeys worn-out sacks and
    old wineskins, cracked and mended.
    Joshua 9:5 They put worn, patched sandals on their feet and threadbare clothing on their bodies,
    and their whole supply of bread was dry and moldy .

    Jacob overtakes Esau by stealing Isaac’s blessing

    Genesis 27:27 So he (Jacob) came near and kissed him. When Isaac smelled his clothing, he blessed
    him (Jacob)
    and said: “Ah, the smell of my son is like the smell of a field that the LORD has blessed.
    Genesis 27:28 May God give to you (Jacob) the dew of heaven and the richness of the earth—an
    abundance of grain (1715) and new wine (8492)

    Genesis 27:35 But Isaac replied, “Your brother (Jacob) came deceitfully and took your blessing.”
    Genesis 27:36 So Esau declared, “Is he not rightly named Jacob? For he has cheated me twice. He
    took my birthright, and now he has taken my blessing.”
    Then he asked, “Haven’t you saved a blessing for me?”

    Genesis 27:37 But Isaac answered Esau: “Look, I have made him (Jacob) your master and given him all his
    relatives as servants; I have sustained him (Jacob) with grain (1715) and new wine (8492). What is left that I
    can do for you, my son?”

    TO SUM UP

    Mark negatively depicts the old Word of God in order to supplant it with the Good News that will save Israel.

    2 Kings 18:32 until I come and take you away to a land like your own—a land of grain (1715) and new wine
    (8492), a land of bread and vineyards, a land of olive trees and honey
    so that you may live and not die. But
    do not listen to Hezekiah, for he misleads you when he says, ‘The LORD will deliver us.’

    7 – ACHIMELEC AND ABIATHAR

    ACHIMELEC AND DAVID

    David Takes the Consecrated Bread at Nob

    1 Samuel 21:1 Then David came to Nob, to Ahimelech the priest. And when Ahimelech met David,
    he trembled and asked him, “Why are you alone? Why is no one with you?”
    1 Samuel 21:3 Now then, what do you have on hand? Give me five loaves of bread, or whatever can be found.”
    1 Samuel 21:4 “There is no common bread on hand,” the priest replied, “but there is some consecrated
    bread
    —provided that the young men have kept themselves from women.”
    1 Samuel 21:6 So the priest gave him the consecrated bread, since there was no bread there but the Bread of
    the Presence, which had been removed from before the LORD and replaced with hot bread on the day it was taken away.

    ABIATHAR AND DAVID

    Abiathar was the only one of the priests to escape from Saul’s massacre in Nob, when his father (Ahimelech) and the
    priests of Nob were slain on the command of Saul (1 Samuel 22:19).

    He fled to David at Keilah, taking with him the ephod (1 Samuel 22:20)

    He remained with David and became priest (1 Samuel 30:7).

    He was of great service to David, especially at the time of the rebellion of Absalom (2 Samuel 15:24-30).

    Saul Slays the Priests of Nob

    1 Samuel 22:19 He (Saul) also put to the sword Nob, the city of the priests, with its men and women,
    children and infants, oxen, donkeys, and sheep.
    1 Samuel 22:20 But one of the sons of Ahimelech son of Ahitub escaped. His name was Abiathar, and
    he fled to David.

    David Delivers Keilah

    1 Samuel 23:6 Now Abiathar son of Ahimelech had brought the ephod with him when he fled to
    David
    at Keilah.

    1 Samuel 30:7 Then David said to Abiathar the priest, the son of Ahimelech, “Bring me the
    ephod.”
    So Abiathar brought it to him,

    David Flees Jerusalem

    2 Samuel 15:23 Everyone in the countryside was weeping loudly as all the people passed by. And as the
    king (David) crossed the Kidron Valley,
    all the people also passed toward the way of the wilderness.
    2 Samuel 15:24 Zadok was also there, and all the Levites with him were carrying the ark of the
    covenant of God. And they set down the ark of God, and Abiathar offered sacrifices until the people
    had passed out of the city.

    2 Samuel 15:29 So Zadok and Abiathar returned the ark of God to Jerusalem and stayed there.
    2 Samuel 15:30 But David continued up the Mount of Olives, weeping as he went up. His head was covered,
    and he was walking barefoot. And all the people with him covered their heads and went up, weeping as they went.

    Notice also that the different books are not fully compliant about the genealogical relationship between Ahimelech and
    Abiathar

    1 Samuel 22:20 But one of the sons of Ahimelech son of Ahitub escaped. His name was Abiathar,
    and he fled to David.

    Abiathar is son of Ahimelech

    2 Samuel 8:17 Zadok the son of Ahitub and Ahimelech the son of Abiathar were priests, and Seraiah was
    secretary
    .
    Ahimelech is son of Abiathar

    8 – JONATHAN SON OF ABIATHAR AND JOHN AS JAMES’ BROTHER

    A – JONATHAN BRINGS GOOD NEWS

    1 Kings 1:42 As he was speaking, suddenly Jonathan (3129) the son of Abiathar the priest arrived.
    “Come in,” said Adonijah (son of David) , “for you are a man of valor. You must be bringing good news.

    B – JONATHAN MAKES A PAIR WITH AHIMAAZ SON OF ZADOK

    2 Samuel 15:27 The king (David) also said to Zadok the priest, “Are you not a seer? Return to the city
    in peace—you with your son Ahimaaz, and Abiathar with his son Jonathan (3083).

    2 Samuel 15:36 Indeed, their two sons, Ahimaaz (290) son of Zadok (6659) and Jonathan son of Abiathar,
    are there with them. Send them to me with everything you hear.

    2 Samuel 17:17 Now Jonathan and Ahimaaz were staying at En-rogel, where a servant girl would come and
    pass along information to them. They in turn would go and inform King David, for they dared not be seen
    entering the city.

    2 Samuel 17:20 When Absalom’s servants came to the woman at the house, they asked, “Where are Ahimaaz and
    Jonathan?”
    “They have crossed over the brook,” she replied. The men searched but did not find them, so they
    returned to Jerusalem.

    2 Samuel 17:21 After the men had gone, Ahimaaz and Jonathan climbed up out of the well and went to
    inform King David,
    saying, “Get up and cross over the river at once, for Ahithophel has given this advice against
    you.”

    C – AHIMAAZ ALSO BRINGS GOOD NEWS

    2 Samuel 18:27 The watchman said, “The first man appears to me to be running like
    Ahimaaz son of Zadok. ” “This is a good man,” said the king (David).
    He comes with good news.

    D – THE HEBREW NAMES

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/3083.htm
    Yehonathan: “the LORD has given,”
    NASB Translation
    Jehonathan (2), Jonathan (120), Jonathan’s (2).

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/290.htm
    Achimaats: “my brother is wrath”
    Word Origin : from ach and the equiv. of Maats
    ach: a brother
    Maats: a man of Judah
    NASB TranslationAhimaaz (15).

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/251.htm
    ach: a brother

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/6659.htm
    Tsadoq NASB Translation Zadok (52), Zadok’s (1).
    Word Origin from the same as tsedeq

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/6664.htm
    tsedeq: rightness, righteousness

    E – MARK’S GOSPEL: JAMES AND JOHN

    * The pairs *

    Mark 1:19 Going on a little farther, He saw James son of Zebedee (2199) and his brother John
    (2491)
    . They were in a boat, mending their nets.

    Mark 1:20 Immediately Jesus called them, and they left their father Zebedee in the boat with the hired
    men and followed Him.

    James and John make another pair because they are brothers. They have also left the old nets (their father Zebedee’s
    law, the Moses’ law) to carry the new nets (the Good News).

    Ahimaaz/Achimaats (Son of Zadok) and Jonathan (Son of Abiathar) => James and John (the 2
    brothers, the 2 righteous men)

    Achimaats (Ach = brother)
    Zadok (tsedeq => reference to righteousness)

    The gift of God (his Word) *

    Jonathan (“the LORD has given”) => John son of Zebedee (“Yah has bestowed”)

    https://biblehub.com/greek/2491.htm
    IÓannÉs: John
    Word Origin: of Hebrew origin Yochanan

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/3110.htm
    Yochanan: Johanan

    https://biblehub.com/greek/2199.htm
    Zebedaios: Zebedee
    Word Origin of Hebrew origin Zebadyah

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/2069.htm
    Zebadyah or Zebadyahu: “Yah has bestowed,”
    Word Origin from zabad and Yah

    9 – JONATHAN SON OF SAUL AND JOHN AS JAMES’ BROTHER

    A – JONATHAN LEAVES HIS FATHER TO SERVE DAVID

    1 Samuel 14:49 Now the sons of Saul were Jonathan (3129), Ishvi, and Malchishua. His two daughters
    were named Merab (his firstborn) and Michal (his younger daughter).

    1 Samuel 18:1 After David had finished speaking with Saul, the souls of Jonathan and David were knit
    together, and Jonathan loved him as himself
    .

    1 Samuel 18:2 And from that day Saul kept David with him and did not let him return to his father’s house.

    1 Samuel 18:3 Then Jonathan made a covenant with David because he loved him as himself.

    1 Samuel 18:4 And Jonathan removed the robe he was wearing and gave it to David, along with his tunic,
    his sword, his bow, and his belt.

    1 Samuel 19:1 Then Saul ordered his son Jonathan and all his servants to kill David. But
    Jonathan delighted greatly in David,

    1 Samuel 19:2 so he warned David, saying, “My father Saul intends to kill you. Be on your guard in
    the morning; find a secret place and hide there.

    B – JAMES AND JOHN LEAVE THEIR FATHER ZEBEDEE

    Mark 1:20 Immediately Jesus called them, and they left their father Zebedee in the boat with the hired
    men and followed Him.

    C – JAMES AND JOHN ARE READY TO FOLLOW JESUS UNTIL DEATH.

    Mark 10:35 Then James and John, the sons of Zebedee, came to Jesus and declared, “Teacher, we want You to
    do for us whatever we ask.”
    Mark 10:36 “What do you want Me to do for you?” He inquired.
    Mark 10:37 They answered, “Grant that one of us may sit at Your right hand and the other at Your left in
    Your glory.”
    Mark 10:38 “You do not know what you are asking,” Jesus replied. “Can you drink the cup I will drink,
    or be baptized with the baptism I will undergo?”
    Mark 10:39 “We can,” the brothers answered. “You will drink the cup that I drink,” Jesus said, “and you
    will be baptized with the baptism that I undergo.

    I point out that James and John are not the 2 robbers
    Mark 15:27 Along with Jesus, they crucified two robbers, one on His right and one on His left.

    D – JAMES AND JOHN ARE RIGHTEOUS MEN

    “Righteous” relates to conformity to God’s standard (justice)
    James and John are righteous men because they are ready to do whatever the new Word requires, even if they have to die.

    10 – JOHN THE BAPTISER AND HIS DISCIPLES

    JONATHAN SON OF SAUL AND JOHN THE BAPTISER EAT HONEY

    1 Samuel 14:29 “My father (Saul) has brought trouble to the land,” Jonathan replied. “Just look at
    how my eyes have brightened because I tasted a little of this honey.

    Mark 1:6 John was clothed in camel’s hair, with a leather belt around his waist. His food was
    locusts and wild honey.

    Honey refers to the manna that God gave the Hebrews when he established the first Sahhat (Exodus 16:29-31).
    The manna represents the commandments of God and the sipritual bread

    Exodus 16:28 Then the LORD said to Moses, “How long will you refuse to keep My commandments
    and instructions?
    Exodus 16:29 Understand that the LORD has given you the Sabbath; that is why on the sixth day He will
    give you bread for two days
    . On the seventh day, everyone must stay where he is; no one may leave his place.”
    Exodus 16:30 So the people rested on the seventh day.
    Exodus 16:31 Now the house of Israel called the bread manna. It was white like coriander seed and tasted
    like wafers made with honey.

    Note also that John also eats locusts, the insects that destroy the crops (the Word of God).

    JOHN REPRESENTS THE OLD WORD OF GOD.

    John’s garments (the camel’s hair) and his food (locusts and wild honey) refer to the exodus and the Moses’ Law.
    His leather belt around his waist refers to the prophets and their voices.

    Mark confirms this with the following verse

    Mark 2:18 Now John’s disciples and the Pharisees were often fasting. So people came to Jesus
    and asked, “Why don’t Your disciples fast like John’s disciples and those of the Pharisees?”

    The disciples of John do not eat the Good News because they did not leave their father’s law, the Moses’ Law.

    However, the disciples of John dissociate themselves from the Pharisees by not participating in the polemic about the
    Sabbath (Mark 2:24).
    In this way they show that they accept that the other Hebrews leave the old Word in favor of the Good News.
    John and his disciples are therefore the Hebrews who go on living according to the Moses’ law but do not oppose Jesus
    and the Good News.

    JOHN IS A RIGHTEOUS MAN

    Mark considers John as a righteous man because he and his disciples do not oppose the Good News.
    The behaviour of the disciples reflects the teaching of their leader (Mark 2:24).

    Mark 6:20 because Herod feared John and protected him, knowing that he was a righteous and holy
    man
    . When he heard John’s words, he was greatly perplexed; yet he listened to him gladly.

    John’s words are the old Words of God and not the Good News. This again confirms that John did not leave the law of his
    fathers
    In Mark 6:20, “John is a righteous man” means that he is righteous according the Moses’ law

    11 – SYNTHESIS ABOUT JOHN

    WHY IS JOHN NAMED JOHN ?

    The name Jonathan is close to Johanan, the Hebrew form of IÓannÉs/John

    Jonathan (“the LORD has given”) => IÓannÉs/John son of Zebedee (“Yah has bestowed”)

    Jonathan leaves his father Saul => John leaves his father Zebedee

    Ahimaaz/Achimaats (Son of Zadok) and Jonathan (Son of Abiathar) => James (Israel as righteous people) and John
    (Israel’s brother)

    Achimaats (Ach= brother)
    Zadok (tsedeq = righteousness)

    Jonathan (Son of Abiathar) and Achimaats (Son of Zadok) bring the good news =>
    John and James provide the new nets (the Good News)

    Jonathan (Son of Saul), servant entirely devoted to David => John and James ready to follow Jesus until death

    Jonathan (Son of Saul) eats honey => John the Baptiser eats honey

    THE RIGHTEOUS MEN

    Old Word of God = Law of Moses + Prophecies => John the Baptiser
    New Word of God = The Good News => (James and John)

    John the Baptiser represents the hebrews who go on living according to the Moses’ Law and do not oppose the new
    Word of God.
    He is a righteous man because he does not oppose the Good News.

    James and John represents the hebrews who leave their father’s law (the Moses’ Law) to follow Jesus (the Good
    News)
    James and John are righteous men because they are ready to do whatever the Good News require, even if they have to die

    John the Baptiser is a righteous man according the Moses’ Law and John the James’ brother is a righteous man according
    the Good News.
    As a result, Mark named them John, a name that refers to Jonathan (“the LORD has given”).
    What God gives is his Word.

    STRONG CODES

    Jonathan (h3083, h3129) => IÓannÉs/John (g2149)
    Zebedee (g2199)
    Israel/Jacob (h3290) => James (g2385)
    Ahimaaz/Achimaats (h290, h251), Son of Zadok (h6659, h6664)

    Jonathan (“the LORD has given”) => IÓannÉs/John son of Zebedee (“Yah has bestowed”)

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/3083.htm
    Yehonathan: “the LORD has given,”

    NASB Translation
    Jehonathan (2), Jonathan (120), Jonathan’s (2).
    the son of Abiathar (2 Samuel 15:27)

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/3129.htm
    Yonathan: Jonathan
    the son of Abiathar (1 Kings 1:42)
    the son of Saul (1 Samuel 14:49)

    https://biblehub.com/greek/2491.htm
    IÓannÉs: John
    Word Origin: of Hebrew origin Yochanan

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/3110.htm
    Yochanan: Johanan

    https://biblehub.com/greek/2199.htm
    Zebedaios: Zebedee
    Word Origin of Hebrew origin Zebadyah

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/2069.htm
    Zebadyah or Zebadyahu: “Yah has bestowed,”
    Word Origin from zabad and Yah

    Jacob/Israel => James

    Genesis 32:28 And He said, “Your name shall no longer be called Jacob (3290), but Israel ;

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/3290.htm
    Yaaqob: a son of Isaac

    https://biblehub.com/greek/2384.htm
    IakÓb: Jacob, the son of Isaac
    Word Origin: of Hebrew origin Yaaqob

    https://biblehub.com/greek/2385.htm
    IakÓbos: James

    Ahimaaz/Achimaats, Son of Zadok => brother and justice

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/290.htm
    Achimaats: “my brother is wrath”
    Word Origin : from ach and the equiv. of Maats
    ach: a brother
    Maats: a man of Judah
    NASB Translation Ahimaaz (15).

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/251.htm
    ach: a brother

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/6659.htm
    Tsadoq NASB Translation Zadok (52), Zadok’s (1).
    Word Origin from the same as tsedeq

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/6664.htm
    tsedeq: rightness, righteousness

    11 – FROM INCOMPATIBILITY TO REPLACEMENT

    INCOMPATIBILITY

    Mark has already mentioned the incompatibility between the Old and the new Word (Mark 1:23-24)

    Mark 1:23 Suddenly a man with an unclean spirit cried out in the synagogue: (BSB)
    Mark 1:24 saying, “What to us and to You, Jesus of Nazareth? Did You come to destroy us? I know
    who You are, the Holy One of God!” (BLB)

    The man in the synagogue represents the Hebrews who do not want to leave their father’s law, the old Word of God.

    Mark goes on through 2 images, clothing and wine (Mark 2:21-22).
    The clothing represents the spiritual state of man and the wine associated with the bread represents spiritual food.

    Mark 2:21 No one sews a patch of unshrunk cloth on an old garment. If he does, the new piece will pull
    away from the old, and a worse tear will result. (BSB)

    Old garment => Old Word
    New piece => New Word

    Mark 2:22 And no one pours new wine into old wineskins. If he does, the wine will burst the skins, and
    both the wine and the wineskins will be ruined.
    Instead, new wine is poured into new wineskins.”

    Old wineskins => Old Word
    New wine => New Word

    REPLACEMENT

    Mark associates characters with the different stages related to the Word of God.

    Old Word of God = Law of Moses + Prophecies => John the Baptiser
    New Word of God = The Good News => James and John

    In his story, Mark will make John the baptiser die while James and John will escape from death.
    In this way, Mark means that the hebrews following the Good News will live while the others will die.

    12 – THE SABBATH

    THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE FIRST SABBATH

    On the first Sabbath, God gives manna to his people. Manna is both the commandments and the spiritual food.

    Exodus 16:22 On the sixth day, they gathered twice as much food—two omers per person—and all the leaders
    of the congregation came and reported this to Moses.

    Exodus 16:23 He (Moses) told them, “This is what the LORD has said: ‘Tomorrow is to be a day of complete
    rest, a holy Sabbath to the LORD
    . So bake what you want to bake, and boil what you want to boil. Then set aside
    whatever remains and keep it until morning.’?”

    Exodus 16:25 “Eat it today,” Moses said, “because today is a Sabbath to the LORD.
    Today you will not find anything in the field.

    Exodus 16:28 Then the LORD said to Moses, “How long will you refuse to keep My commandments and
    instructions?

    Exodus 16:29 Understand that the LORD has given you the Sabbath; that is why on the sixth day He will
    give you bread for two days
    . On the seventh day, everyone must stay where he is; no one may leave his place.”

    Exodus 16:30 So the people rested on the seventh day.

    Exodus 16:31 Now the house of Israel called the bread manna. It was white like coriander seed and tasted
    like wafers made with honey.

    Exodus 31:15 For six days work may be done, but the seventh day is a Sabbath of complete rest, holy to the
    LORD. Whoever does any work on the Sabbath day must surely be put to death.

    THE SABBATH IN MARK’S GOSPEL

    The Sabbath is the day when the hebrews study the Word of God.

    Mark 1:2 Then Jesus and His companions went to Capernaum, and right away Jesus entered the synagogue
    on the Sabbath and began to teach
    .
    Jesus teaches the Good News for the first time

    Mark 6:2 When the Sabbath came, He began to teach in the synagogue, and many who heard Him were astonished.
    “Where did this man get these ideas?” they asked. “What is this wisdom He has been given? And how can He perform such
    miracles?

    On the day of Sabbath, the Jesus’ disciples seek the Word of God

    Mark 2:23 One Sabbath Jesus was passing through the grainfields, and His disciples began to pick the heads of
    grain
    as they walked along.

    THE SON OF MAN, LORD OF THE SABBATH

    Mark 2:27 Then Jesus declared, “The Sabbath was made for man, not man for the Sabbath.

    “The Sabbath was made for man” => On the day of Sabbath, God gives the spiritual food to his people,
    “not man for the Sabbath” => The Sabbath is the work of God so the man is not allowed to modify it.

    Mark 2:28 Therefore, the Son of Man is Lord even of the Sabbath.

    But the Son of Man has the sabbath day in his power, and may rule it as he desires since he is a divine figure who acts
    on earth according to God’s will.

    Jesus cannot modify the Sabbath because he integrates a divine and a human dimension. His human dimension prevents him
    from modifying the Sabbath.
    To know more about the son of man, (see my Chapter 7: paralytic’s healing)

    BEYOND THE SABBATH, THE COMING KINGDOM OF GOD

    Mark 15:42 Now it was already evening. Since it was Preparation Day (that is, the day before
    the Sabbath
    ),
    Mark 15:43 Joseph of Arimathea, a prominent Council member who himself was waiting for the kingdom of God
    boldly went to Pilate to ask for the body of Jesus.
    Mark 15:46 So Joseph bought a linen cloth, took down the body of Jesus, wrapped it in the cloth,
    and placed it in a tomb

    On the day before the Sabbath, Joseph asks for the body of Jesus
    The body of Jesus, wrapped it in the cloth, is the ark of the covenant that contains the Good News

    Mark 16:1 When the Sabbath was over (1230), Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James, and Salome
    bought spices so they could go and anoint the body of Jesus.
    Mark 16:2 Very early on the first day of the week, just after sunrise,
    they went to the tomb.

    “the Sabbath is over” => “beyond the sabbath”
    “The 3 wifes enter the tomb” => “The 3 wifes enter the kingdom of God”

    https://biblehub.com/greek/1230.htm
    diaginomai: to go through, to elapse
    Word Origin from dia and ginomai

    https://biblehub.com/greek/1223.htm
    dia: through, on account of, because of

    https://biblehub.com/greek/1096.htm
    ginomai: to come into being, to happen, to become

    Mark suggests here that there will be other thing than the Sabbath when the kingdom of God is established.
    The kingdom of God is the new earth and the new heavens where the righteous will live according to the new Word of God.

    In the kingdom of God, the Word of God will be stripped of their earthly appearance (body and clothing). The hebrews
    and pagans who believe the Good News will enter it.

    SUMMARY

    OLD AND NEW WORD OF GOD

    In this last sequence which ends the first two chapters, Mark evokes the old and new Word of God and places them in
    opposition through the images of food, clothing and wine.

    Old Word of God = Law of Moses + Prophecies
    New Word of God = The Good News

    Mark evokes the Word of God by using terms that convey a double meaning
    1 – to fast => to abstain from spiritual food (the Word od God)
    2 – to pick the heads of grain => to seek spiritual food
    3 – to be hungry => to need spiritual food

    Mark places them in opposition by suggesting the following associations

    New cloth => The Good News
    Old garment => Moses’ Law and prophecies

    New wine => The Good News
    Old wineskins => Moses’ Law and prophecies

    THE HEBREWS’ BEHAVIOUR IN THE FACE OF CHANGE

    Mark distinguishes 3 groups

    1 – The Pharisees who do not eat the Good News and oppose them by saying that picking the heads of grain is unlawful on
    the Sabbath
    2 – The disciples of John the Baptiser who do not eat the Good News but do not say that picking the heads of grain is
    unlawful on the Sabbath
    In this way they show that they accept that the other Hebrews leave the old Word in favor of the Good News.
    3 – The disciples of Jesus who do not fast (they eat the Good News) and seek the Word of God by picking the heads of
    grain on the Sabbath

    JOHN, THE RIGHTEOUS MAN

    Mark associates the Word to righteous men who will represent it

    1 – Old Word of God = Law of Moses + Prophecies => John the Baptiser
    2 – New Word of God = The Good News => James and John

    “Righteous” relates to conformity to God’s standard (justice)
    James and John are righteous men because they are ready to do whatever the Good News requires, even if they have to die.
    John the Baptiser is a righteous man because he does not oppose the Good News

    The disciples of John (Mark 2:18) => direct reference to John the Baptiser

    David and Abiathar (Mark 2:25-26) => the pair Achimaats (son de Zadok) and Jonathan (son of Abiathar) => the
    pair of brother James and John (new nets = Good News)

    Jonathan (son of Saul and David’s servant) => the pair of brother James and John (the righteous men)

    The name Jonathan is close to Johanan, the Hebrew form of IÓannÉs/John

    Jonathan (“the LORD has given”) => IÓannÉs/John son of Zebedee (“Yah has bestowed”)

    What God gives is his Word. Zebedee received the old Word while his 2 sons leave it in favor of the Good News.

    INCOMPATIBILITY AND REPLACEMENT

    Mark mentions the incompatibility between the Old and the new Word through images such as clothing and wine.

    In his story, Mark will make John the baptiser die while James and John will escape from death.
    In this way, Mark means that the hebrews following the Good News will live while the others will die.

    THE SABBATH

    Mark suggests here that there will be other thing than the Sabbath when the kingdom of God is established since the Son
    of Man has the sabbath day in his power, and may rule it as he desires

    The Sabbath is the work of God so the man is not allowed to modify it.

    The Sabbath also evokes the old Word since God gave manna (the spiritual bread) to his people when he established the
    first Sabbath (Exodus16:28-31)

    NEXT STEP
    (Mark 1-2) Second synthesis

  9. Reading Mark as a midrash, Chapter 10: Second synthesis
    Tags: Midrash, Maurice Mergui, Nanine Charbonnel

    (Mark 1-2) A NEW THOUGHT PUT INTO A NARRATIVE

    Here is my reading plan

    1 – MY PREVIOUS CHAPTERS
    2 – OVERVIEW
    3 – MORE DETAILED READING TO HIGHLIGHT THE MESSAGE AND GRASP THE COHERENCE OF THE NARRATIVE
    4 – THE MESSAGE (TEACHING)
    5 – TECHNICAL VIEW: THE PROMISE OF REDEMPTION AND SALVATION
    6 – TECHNICAL VIEW: JESUS AND THE SON OF MAN
    7 – OT SOURCES AND REINTERPRETATION
    8 – DOUBLE MEANING: VARIOUS WAYS TO EVOKE THE WORD OF GOD
    9 – DOUBLE MEANING: DIFFICULT EXPRESSIONS
    10 – OLD WORD VERSUS GOOD NEWS: INCOMPATIBILTY AND REPLACEMENT
    11 – CHARACTERS
    12 – JESUS OF NAZARETH AND THE TEMPORARY NAZIRITE (BOOK OF NUMBERS)
    13 – JESUS (OF NAZARETH AND CHRIST), OT SOURCES
    * OT SOURCES
    * JESUS OF NAZARETH (THE NAZIRITE AND THE CROWNED HEAD)
    * JESUS CHRIST (THE ANOINTED HEAD)
    * THE CHRIST, THE KING, THE CROWN AND THE CROSS
    * SYNTHESIS
    14 – NAME AND COMMON NOUN WITH THEIR STRONG’S CONCORDANCE
    SUMMARY

    1- MY PREVIOUS CHAPTERS

    The essential basics to make a Midrashic Reading
    Reading Mark as a midrash, Chapter 1: Another remission of sins
    Mark 1:1-20
    Reading Mark as a midrash, Chapter 2a: The Good News, The Kingdom
    Reading Mark as a midrash, Chapter 2b: The Four Disciples
    Reading Mark as a midrash, Chapter 2c: The sea of Galilee
    Reading Mark as a midrash, Chapter 2d: The Biblical Desert
    Reading Mark as a midrash, Chapter 2e: The Biblical Time
    Reading Mark as a midrash, Chapter 2f: John
    Reading Mark as a midrash, Chapter 2g: Jesus
    Reading Mark as a midrash, Chapter 2h: The Ark
    Reading Mark as a midrash, Chapter 2i: First Synthesis
    Mark 1:21-45 and Mark 2
    Reading Mark as a midrash, Chapter 3: The Unclean Spirit
    Reading Mark as a midrash, Chapter 4: The mother-in-law
    Reading Mark as a midrash, Chapter 5: The first prayer
    Reading Mark as a midrash, Chapter 6: Leper healing
    Reading Mark as a midrash, Chapter 7: Paralytic’s healing
    Reading Mark as a midrash, Chapter 8: Levi son of Alphaeus
    Reading Mark as a midrash, Chapter 9: John and the Word, Sabbath

    2 – OVERVIEW

    Note: The terms ‘Hebrews’ and ‘Israel’ are used to designate the people who received the Law of Moses. They refer to
    the people of exodus and all their distant descendants.

    Mark 1:1-20 God gives a new Word

    These verses announce the new Word of God (the Good News) and highlights its 2 features:
    1 – The redemption of sins (Mark 1:7) that will be fulfilled according to the Isaiah’s prophecy
    (Isaiah 53:10-12 The suffering servant)
    2 – The opening to the pagans (Mark 1:16,17).

    Mark 1:21-28 The Unclean Spirit

    In this scene, Jesus teaches for the first time. His aim is to cast the old spirit (old Word of God) and put the new
    spirit (the Good News) in the heart of the hebrews.

    Mark 1:29-34 Chapter 4: The mother-in-law’s healing

    This scene describes:
    1 – The new covenant that God (the bridegroom) offers to Israel (the mother-in-law)
    2 – The first forgiveness of sins through redemption

    Mark 1:35-39 The first prayer

    This sequence makes the transition between the 2 previous scenes where Jesus went to the sinners and the 2 following
    scenes where the sinners will go to Jesus.
    The prayer evokes the meeting with God in order to obtain his spiritual food. Jesus himself is in need of it.
    So, He goes to the desert, the place where God gave the very first manna to the Hebrews and then the law of Moses

    Mark 1:40-45 Leper’s healing

    This scene shows that the forgiveness of sins through redemption (the Good News) is more efficient than the forgiveness
    through offering (the Moses’ Law).
    The leper is an hebrew sinner who wants to be saved. So, he goes to Jesus and manifests his faith.

    Mark 2:1-12 Paralytic’s healing

    This scene shows that the forgiveness of sins through redemption (the Good News) is also offered to pagan people.
    The paralytic represents the pagans who do not yet own the Word of God but want it in order to be saved.
    The pagans cannot walk in God’s statutes because they do not know them.

    Mark 2:13-17 Levi son of Alphaeus

    This scene learns us that the circumcision of flesh (the Sign of the Covenant) is not part of the Good News.

    Mark 2:18-28 Incompatibilty and replacement

    In this last sequence, Mark tells us that the Good News are not compatible with the Moses’ law and the voice of
    prophets. As a result, the Good News will supplant the previous statutes and ordinances.
    However, the Hebrews may choose to go on living according to Moses’ law, but in that case they must not oppose
    the new teaching (message) brought by the Good News.

    3 – MORE DETAILED READING TO HIGHLIGHT THE MESSAGE AND GRASP THE COHERENCE OF THE NARRATIVE

    * MARK 1:1-20 GOD GIVES A NEW WORD (to read more, see my Chapter 2i)

    These verses announce the new Word of God (the Good News) and highlights its 2 features:
    1 – the redemption of sins (Mark 1:7) according to the prophecy of Isaiah (Isaiah 53:10-12)
    2 – the opening to the pagans (Mark 1:16,17).

    The time has come (Mark 1:7,15) when a redeemer will take upon himself the sins of the Hebrews and redeem them.
    These Good News bring a new spirit (Mark 1:8,10) since the redemption liberates people from sin and lightens the law of
    Moses.
    What’s more, redemption is also offered to pagans (Mark 1:16,17).

    To understand the sequence, one needs to know
    1 – Isaiah 53:10-12 (the suffering servant)
    2 – Ruth 4:7,8 (who does not take the right to redeem takes off his sandals)

    Mark 1:4 John appeared, baptizing in the wilderness and proclaiming a baptism of repentance for the
    forgiveness of sins.

    “sin” => disobedience to God’s Word, sin separates man from God (Isaiah 59:2)
    “repentance” => sinner’s will to return to God
    “forgiveness of sins” => God forgives sins so that sinners return to him, God alone can forgive sins (Mark 2:7)
    “proclaiming a baptism of repentance” => John announces a new way of forgiving the sins, it will replace the
    priest’s intercession (Leviticus 4) and the offering.

    Mark 1:6 John was clothed in camel’s hair, with a leather belt around his waist.

    “camel” => Exodus (manna, Moses’ Law)
    “a leather belt around his waist” => the clothing of the prophets (2 Kings 1.8 Elijah the Tishbite)
    John wears the old garments. They symbolise the old Word that God transmitted through Moses and the prophets.

    Mark 1:7 And he began to proclaim: “After me will come One more powerful than I, the straps of whose
    sandals I am not worthy to stoop down and untie.

    “After me will come One” => John announces the new Word that comes after him.
    “to untie the straps of the sandals” => who does not take the right to redeem takes off his sandals (Ruth 4:7,8)
    “I am not worthy to untie the straps of the sandals” => John will not oppose the one who comes to take
    the right to redeem the sins.

    Mark 1:8 I baptize you with water, but He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit.

    Water baptism refers to exodus and entry to the promised land.
    This act symbolises
    1 – admission into the hebrew community
    2 – acceptance of the covenant based on the laws that God gave to Moses (Exodus 24:8-18, Exodus 34:27-28)

    In Mark’s gospel
    1 – Water baptism of repentance means forgiveness of sins through priest’s intercession and offering (Leviticus 4)
    2 – Spirit baptism of repentance means forgiveness of sins through redemption (Isaiah 53:10-12)

    Mark 1:9 In those days Jesus came from Nazareth in Galilee and was baptized by John in the
    Jordan.

    “Jesus came” => Jesus reveals his human dimension as we can imagine the arrival of a man.

    “Nazareth” is built from the hebrew root “N.Z.R” from which derives “NAZAR” (5144), “NAZIR” (5139), “NEZER” (5145).
    These words mean “consecrated” or “crown”

    In Mark’s gospel, “Nazareth” means the most powerful character, the consecrated one who is above his brothers (Mark
    1:24), the one who wears the crown (Mark 10:47).
    (See my 2 paragraphs about Jesus of Nazareth)

    “baptized by John” => Jesus enters the hebrew community to change it from within.

    Mark 1:10 And immediately going up from the water, he saw the heavens tearing open and the Spirit
    descending
    as a dove upon Him.

    “from the water” => Jesus leaves the spirit (tought) of old Israel
    “the Spirit descending upon Him” => The most powerful character receives the new spirit. He becomes the ark of
    the new covenant which contains the new Word of God (the Good News)
    “as a dove” => the dove that came out of Noah’s ark (Genesis 8:6-13) and came back with good news (the
    freshly plucked olive leaf testifying that the flood waters are receding)

    Mark 1:11 And a voice came out of the heavens:You are My Son, the beloved; in You I am well
    pleased.”

    “a voice came out of the heavens: You are My Son” => Mark highlights the Jesus’ divine dimension
    Due to his human and divine dimension, Jesus is the link between God and mankind

    Mark 1:15The time is fulfilled,” He (Jesus) said, “and the kingdom of God is near. Repent and
    believe in the gospel!”

    “The time is fulfilled” => The time of redemption is now
    “Repent and believe in the gospel” => return to God through redemption

    Mark 1:16 As Jesus was walking beside the Sea of Galilee He (Jesus) saw Simon and his brother Andrew.

    “Sea of Galilee” => the symbolic border between the hebrews and the pagans (Deuteronomy 30:11-14)
    “Simon (a hebrew name) and Andrew (a greek name)” => the new community of hebrew and pagan people
    “brother” => hebrews and pagans will be equal

    Mark 1:17 “Come, follow Me,”

    The Good News are offered to both hebrews and pagans. They will erase the barriers between them.

    Mark 1:18 And immediately, having left the nets, they followed Him.

    “the nets” => the Word of God as a tool to catch (convert) the fish (sinners)
    “left the nets” => Simon and Andrew left the old Word of God
    “they followed Him” => they accept the Good News

    Mark 1:19 …, He saw James son of Zebedee and his brother John … mending their nets.

    ‘Zebedee’ sounds like ‘Zebulun’, the gift of God (Genesis 30:20)
    Zebedee represents the old Word of God

    Mark 1:20 … Jesus called them, and they left their father Zebedee … and followed Him

    “left their father Zebedee” => James and John left the law of their father Zebedee (the old Word of God)
    ” followed Him” => they accept the Good News, James and John will provide the new nets (the Good News)

    * MARK 1:21-28 THE UNCLEAN SPIRIT (to read more, see my Chapter 3)

    In this scene, Jesus teaches for the first time. His aim is to cast the old spirit (old Word of God) and put
    the new spirit
    (the Good News) in the heart of the hebrews.

    The man with the unclean spirit represents the Hebrews who reject the new teaching (the Good News)

    To understand the scene, one needs to grasp the parallel between the Jesus’ first teaching on the Sabbath day
    and the first manna (Exodus16:14-16) that God gave to the hebrews when he etablish the first Sabbath
    (Exodus16:23-29).

    The teaching of Jesus represents the new spiritual food while the manna represents the very first spiritual food.

    * On the Sabbath

    Mark 1:21 Then Jesus and His companions went to Capernaum, and right away Jesus entered the synagogue on
    the Sabbath
    and began to teach.

    ‘First teaching on the Sabbath day’ = the new manna given to the hebrews on the Sabbath day

    * The astonishment of hebrew people

    The Hebrews are astonished (Mark 1:22,27) like their fathers receiving their very first manna (Exodus16:15,31).

    Mark 1:22 The people were astonished at His teaching, because He taught as one who had authority, and
    not as the scribes.
    Mark 1:27 All the people were amazed and began to ask one another, “What is this? A new teaching
    with authority! He commands even the unclean spirits, and they obey Him!”

    * Opposition to Good News

    A man grasps the full scope of the teaching and raises the matter
    Mark 1:24 “What do You want with us, Jesus of Nazareth? Have You come to destroy us? I know
    who You are—the Holy One of God!”

    ‘What do You want with us’ => Old and new Words are not compatible.
    ‘Have You come to destroy us?’ => Good News are intended to supplant the Moses’ Law
    Mark portrays the man as unclean because he begins by opposing the new spirit contained in the Good News.

    * The Nazirite and the Holy One of God

    The man also discerns the high rank of Jesus. By saying ‘Nazareth’, he identifies Jesus as the Nazirite, the Holy One
    described in the Book of Numbers

    Mark 1:24 “What do You want with us, Jesus of Nazareth? Have You come to destroy us? I know who You
    are—the Holy One of God
    !”

    “Nazareth” => Nazirite, consecrated
    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/5139.htm nazir: one consecrated, devoted
    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/5144.htm nazar: consecrate

    “You are—the Holy One of God!” => the Nazirite must be holy to the Lord (Numbers 6:5,8)
    (See my 2 paragraphs about Jesus of Nazareth)

    * Power to act and Authority

    Mark 1:22 …He taught as one who had authority (1849), and not as the scribes.
    Mark 1:27 … A new teaching with authority (1849) ! He commands even the unclean spirits,
    and they obey Him!”

    https://biblehub.com/greek/1849.htm exousia: power to act, authority

    * Other comment

    This scene happened in the synagogue, the place where the hebrews study the Word of God. In the next scene, Jesus will
    leave the synagogue in favor of another house.

    * MARK 1:29-34 THE MOTHER-IN-LAW’S HEALING (to read more, see my Chapter 4)

    This scene describes:
    1 – the new covenant that God (the bridegroom) offers to Israel (the mother-in-law)
    2 – the first forgiveness of sins through redemption

    In order to understand the scene, one needs to know the very short book of Ruth so as to identify the themes about
    mutual recognition, redemption, deferred redemption and secret.

    In this book, Boaz the redeemer and Ruth his pagan handmaid recognise each other (Ruth 3:9-11). The next step will be
    the marriage, the actual redemption of the handmaid (Ruth 1:1-11).
    Between the time of recognition and actual redemption, Boaz tells Ruth to keep the secret
    (Ruth 3:12-13) because another redeemer has the right to redeem her before him.

    * From the synagogue to the home of Simon (hebrew name) and Andrew (pagan name)

    This move means that the new covenant is offered to all people, hebrew and pagan.

    Mark 1:29 As soon as Jesus and His companions had left the synagogue, they went with James and
    John to the home of Simon and Andrew.

    * The sick mother-in-law

    The sick mother-in-law represents Israel still living according to the law of Moses.

    Mark 1:30 Simon’s mother-in-law was sick in bed with a fever,

    * Mutual recognition and healing

    Jesus goes to the mother-in-law because he wants her to return to God according to the Good News. He helps her to show
    her that he has the power to redeem her sin.
    The mother-in-law is healed because she has recognised Jesus as the redeemer.

    Mark 1:31 So He went to her, took her by the hand, and helped her up. The fever left her, and she
    began to serve them.

    “So He went to her” => Jesus initiates the mutual recognition

    “The fever left her” => end of the mutual recognition

    (Ruth 3:9-11) Ruth (the pagan handmaid) goes to Boaz (the redeemer) and Boaz recognises her as a woman of noble
    character

    The mother-in-law is healed because her sins have been forgiven.
    We will have to wait for the “Mark 2:9” verse to read the explicit equivalence between forgiveness and healing.
    Mark 2:9 Which is easier, …, ‘Your sins are forgiven you,’ or to say, ‘Arise, take up
    your bed and walk’?

    At this point, sins are forgiven because the Redeemer has taken them upon himself to redeem them
    The next step will be the redemption of sins.

    * An odd verse to mean the deferred redemption

    Because the redemption has not yet taken place, the mother-in-law’s healing is only apparent.
    Actual healing will take place when the Redeemer sheds the blood of the new covenant (Mark 15)

    In order to clarify this point, Mark adds the following sequence where an odd verse (Mark 1:33) represents the delay
    between the promise of redemption (Mark 1:32) and the actual redemption (Mark 15).

    Mark 1:32 … the people brought to Jesus all the sick … => promise of redemption (apparent
    healing)
    Mark 1:32 The whole town gathered at the door => delay, deferred
    redemption
    Mark 1:34 and Jesus healed many who had various diseases …=> redemption (actual healing)

    Mark 1:34″ is a shortcut to Mark 15

    “Mark 1:33” represents the time needed to widespread the Good News and overcome oppositions.
    Then Jesus will enter Jerusalem, the city where he will redeem the sins

    (Ruth 4:1-11) Boaz redeems Ruth in front of the elders gathered at the city gates.

    * Synthesis about forgiveness, healing, redemption

    1- The forgiveness of sin is a promise of redemption
    2 – The apparent healing represents the forgiveness and the promise
    3 – In order to get forgiveness, the sinner has to recognise Jesus as the Redeemer (mutual recognition = conversion).
    4 – The redemption is deferred
    5 – The actual healing (redemption) will take place when the Redeemer sheds the blood of the new covenant (Mark 15)

    To sum up: Here are the 4 steps about healing/redemption
    1 – ‘mutual recognition’
    2 – ‘forgiveness of sin’ = ‘promise of redemption’ = ‘apparent healing’
    3 – delay
    4 – ‘redemption’ = ‘actual healing’

    * Secrecy

    The widespreading of Good News generates opposition. To reduce them, Jesus will ask for secrecy.
    Mark takes the theme of secrecy from the book of Ruth (Ruth 3:14) and so he adds a plot to his story.

    Mark 1:34 ..But He would not allow the demons to speak, because they knew who He was.

    Mark 1:44 “See that you don’t tell anyone.
    Mark 1:45 But the man went out and openly began to proclaim and spread the news. Consequently, Jesus could no
    longer enter a town in plain view,
    but He stayed out in solitary places.

    * The sick people and the demons

    Mark 1:32 That evening, after sunset, people brought to Jesus all who were sick and demon-possessed,
    Mark 1:33 and the whole town gathered at the door.
    Mark 1:34 And He healed many who were ill with various diseases and drove out many demons.

    the sick people => those who accept the Good News through mutual recognition (wanted conversion)
    the demons => those on whom Jesus imposes the Good News (forced conversion)

    * At sunset

    The Mark’s symbolic story takes place from sunset to sunrise. There is a single sunset and a single sunrise in Mark’s
    Gospel.

    At sunset, Jesus puts the Good News in the hearts of the sinners, it is the time of mutual recognition and
    conversion.
    At sunrise, it will be the time of salvation (Mark 16:1-8)

    Mark 1:32 That evening, after sunset, people brought to Jesus all who were sick
    Mark 16:2 Very early on the first day of the week, just after sunrise, they went to the tomb.

    * The bridegroom

    Jesus is not the bridegroom, he is the link that allows the interaction between God and men.

    In the bible, there are a lot of verses about the bridegroom, the invisible God who begets and the woman who gives
    birth (Isaiah 62:5, Isaiah 66:7-9, Ruth 4:13, …)

    The healed mother-in-law (Israel as a bride) will be able to give birth to children of God.

    * Simon’s mother-in-law

    Due to the new covenant (marriage), Simon as Andrew’s brother, is no longer an hebrew, son of Israel/Jacob since he
    belongs to the new community. As a result, Israel, as mother of the hebrews, became the Simon’s mother-in-law.

    * ‘Forgiveness of sins’ equates healing

    The mother-in-law’s scene shows that healing equates ‘forgiveness of sins through redemption’
    Mark will say it explicitly in ‘Mark 2:9’ verse

    Healing is both a promise of redemption and the redemption itself since we are sure that the promise will come true

    * Faith

    Jesus initiated the mutual recognition so that the mother-in-law could be healed.

    In the next healings, the leper and the paralytic will go to Jesus so as to initiate the mutual recognition and be
    healed. In other words, they will manifest their faith in Jesus.

    Mark will use the word ‘faith’ for the first time in ‘Mark 2:5’ verse

    * MARK 1:35-39 THE FIRST PRAYER (to read more, see my Chapter 5)

    This sequence makes the transition between the 2 previous scenes where Jesus went to the sinners and the 2 following
    scenes where the sinners will go to Jesus.

    The prayer evokes the meeting with God in order to get his spiritual food. Jesus himself is in need of it. He
    goes to the desert, the place where God gave the manna to the Hebrews and then the law of Moses

    * Jesus prays to get the spiritual food

    In our context, Jesus does not seek the old Word of God but he needs the new Word to refuel with it so as to go
    on preaching in the villages and synagogues of Galilee.

    Mark 1:35 Early in the morning, while it was still dark, Jesus got up and slipped out to a solitary place
    to pray.

    Mark 1:38 But Jesus answered, “Let us go on to the neighboring towns so I can preach there as well, for
    that is why I have come.”

    Mark will express the need for God’s Word in other verses

    Mark 2:25 Jesus replied, “Have you never read what David did when he and his companions were
    hungry and in need?
    Mark 11:12 The next day, when they had left Bethany, Jesus was hungry.

    * His companions search for him to get the spiritual food

    Without Jesus, the disciples are devoid of the Word of God, so they search for Jesus to get it again.
    Note that the disciples are the first people to come to Jesus.

    Mark 1:36 Simon and his companions searched for him,

    Mark prepares the next scene

    Mark 1:39 He went into all of Galilee, preaching in their synagogues and driving out demons.

    Since Jesus teaches in the synagogues, the Hebrews will begin to know his teaching and come to him.

    * MARK 1:40-45 LEPER HEALING (to read more, see my Chapter 6)

    This scene shows that the forgiveness of sins through redemption (the Good News) is more efficient than the forgiveness
    through offering (the Moses’ Law).

    Mark chose the right example, because the Moses’ laws about leprosy only consider the examination of sore and the
    cleansing but say nothing about the healing itself.
    According to Leviticus 13, the priest must first examine the sore and then the leper relies on God’s will to be healed.
    After his healing, the man has to return to the priest and bring his offerings so that the priest performs the
    cleansing ritual and declare him clean (Leviticus 14)

    To understand the scene, it is important to note that the Leviticus does not say anything about how the leper is
    healed

    The leper is an hebrew sinner who wants to be saved. For this reason, he goes to Jesus and manifests his faith.

    * Act of faith

    The act of faith is his request for cleansing (Mark 1:40). In this way, he asks Jesus for healing because he knows that
    he must be healed before being cleansing.

    Since ‘healing’ means ‘forgiveness of sins through redemption’, the leper thus shows that he recognises Jesus as the
    redeemer.

    Jesus sees the leper’s faith. Through his word and his raised hand (power, authority), Jesus tells him that his sins
    will be redeemed (Mark 1:41)

    The apparent healing (Mark 1:42) represents the promise of redemption. What’s more, man is also made clean

    a) The sinner initiates the mutual recognition
    Mark 1:40 Then a leper came to Jesus, begging on his knees: “If You are willing, You can
    make me clean.”

    b) End of mutual recognition
    Mark 1:41 Moved with compassion, Jesus reached out His hand and touched the man. “I am willing,” He
    said. “Be clean!”

    c) Forgiveness of sins = promise of redemption = Apparent healing
    Mark 1:42 And immediately the leprosy left him, and the man was cleansed.

    * An odd request

    Mark adds a request (Mark 1:44) which is no longer necessary since man is cleansed.

    Mark 1:44 go and show yourself to the priest, and offer what Moses commanded for your cleansing,

    * The Good News and the Moses’ Law

    By requesting the leper to make an offering, Jesus indicates that the Hebrews may go on living under the other Moses’
    laws not in relationship with the forgiveness of sins.

    The keypoint is the forgiveness of sins through redemption not the other Moses’ laws such as the ritual or food laws.

    * Opposition and secrecy

    The spread of the good News leads to a hebrew reaction against Jesus. As a result, Jesus asks for secrecy to reduce the
    oppositions before he enters Jerusalem, the city where he will redeem the sins

    Mark 1:44 “See that you don’t tell anyone.
    Mark 1:45 Yet he went out and began to proclaim it widely and to spread the news, with the result that
    Jesus could no longer enter a town openly…

    * Mark prepares the next scene, the arrival of pagans

    Until now, Jesus has been speaking to the Hebrews living in the northern kingdom, the Galilee.
    Mark prepares the next scene by moving Jesus to the desert, an open and symbolic space where people other than the
    Hebrews will come and know the good News. The pagans will now enter the scene and take the new manna (the Good News)

    Mark 1:45 … But he was out in deserted places, and they came to him from everywhere.

    * MARK 2:1-12 PARALYTIC’S HEALING (to read more, see my Chapter 7)

    This scene shows that the forgiveness of sins through redemption (the Good News) is also offered to pagan people.
    The paralytic represents the pagans who do not yet own the Word of God but want it in order to be saved.
    The pagans cannot walk in God’s statutes because they do not know them.

    Ezekiel 36:27 And I will put My Spirit within you and cause you to walk in My statutes and to carefully
    observe My ordinances.

    Note that the parilytic >on his mat reminds of the mother-in-law sick in bed
    Mark 1:30 Simon’s mother-in-law was sick in bed with a fever,
    Mark 2:4 …, and lowered the paralytic on his mat.

    * Act of faith

    The house where Jesus teaches remind us of the tabernacle housing the ark and the ark containing the God’s Word.
    Jesus symbolises the new ark containing the Good News
    The parilytic carried by 4 men symbolises the empty ark of the pagans.

    The pagans will show their faith by being obstinate in their quest to get the Good News.

    a) The pagans initiate the mutual recognition

    Mark 2:3 Then a paralytic was brought to Him, carried by four men.

    ‘four men’ => the four corners of the world, the nations surrounding Israel
    pronoun ‘They’ => the pagans
    ‘paralytic’ => the empty ark of pagans

    b) Obstinacy of the pagans

    Mark 2:4 Since they were unable to get to Jesus through the crowd, they uncovered the roof above Him, made
    an opening, and lowered the paralytic on his mat.

    ‘unable to get to Jesus’ => the hebrews prevent the pagans from accessing to the Good News
    “they uncovered the roof ” => the pagans do not give up, they find another solution by uncovering the roof of the
    tabernacle that houses the ark (Jesus).

    c) End of mutual recognition

    Mark 2:4 … and lowered the paralytic on his mat.
    Mark 2:5
    When Jesus saw their faith,

    Seeing the empty ark, Jesus sees the faith of the pagans.

    Jesus understands that the pagans too believe the Good News (Mark 1:15) and want their share.
    As a result, Jesus will fill the ark of the pagans with the Good News

    Note that Mark uses the word “faith” for the first time.

    Faith and forgiveness of sins

    Jesus explicitly says that faith in Good News forgives the sins.

    Mark 2:5 When Jesus saw their faith, He said to the paralytic, “Son, your sins are forgiven
    you.

    * Equivalence between forgiveness of sins and healing

    Mark 2:9 Which is easier, to say to the paralytic, ‘Your sins are forgiven you,’ or to say, ‘Arise,
    take up your bed
    and walk’?

    Through this question, Mark equates “Your sins are forgiven you” and “Arise, take up your bed and walk”

    * The delay between forgiveness of sins and healing

    Mark adds a controversy that delays healing and brings 2 technical precisions

    a) Beginning of the scene
    Mark 2:6 But some of the scribes were sitting there and thinking in their hearts,

    b) First technical precision: Forgiveness of sins = healing
    Mark 2:9 “Which is easier: to say to a paralytic, ‘Your sins are forgiven,’ or to say, ‘Get up,
    pick up your mat, and walk’?

    c) End of the scene and second technical precision
    Mark 2:10 But so that you may know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins
    …” He said to the paralytic,

    * Apparent healing

    Mark 2:12 And immediately the man got up, picked up his mat, and walked out in front of them
    all.

    The healing is apparent because the redemption has not yet taken place

    * The Son of Man, the figure who will redeem the sins

    Mark 2:10 But so that you may know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins…” He said
    to the paralytic,

    Mark adds this figure to separate Word and deed
    1 – Jesus is the figure who announces the Good News and teaches it
    2 – The son of man is the figure who fufills the redemption by taking the sins upon him so as to redeem them

    Jesus cannot forgive the sins because he has a human dimension.
    In order for sins to be forgiven by God without any human intervention, Mark has created a divine figure who acts on
    earth according to God’s will.
    (See my paragraph TECHNICAL VIEW: JESUS AND THE SON OF MAN)

    * The scribes are opposed to opening to the pagans

    Mark did not make the scribes appear in the leper scene whereas he makes them react in this scene.
    In this way, he points out that the scribes accept the redemption of sins for the Hebrews alone but refuse it to the
    pagans.
    The matter is not the forgiveness of sins through redemption. The matter is the opening to the pagans.

    Mark 2:5 When Jesus saw their faith, He said to the paralytic, Son, your sins are
    forgiven you.”

    Mark 2:6 And some of the scribes were sitting there
    Mark 2:7 “Why does this Man speak blasphemies like this? Who can forgive sins but God alone?“

    Mark 2:10 But that you may know that the Son of Man has power on earth to forgive sins”—He said to the
    paralytic,

    Notice that Mark is careful to speak of the Son of Man only in ‘Mark 2:10’ verse. In this way, the scribes see a man
    forgiving the sins and not the Son of Man. As a result, they immediately accuse Jesus of blasphemy.
    By saying “Son, your sins are forgiven you.”, Jesus signs his death warrant because blasphemy is sufficient cause to
    deserve death in Mark’s Gospel (Mark 14:64).

    The pagan takes up his mat (litter)

    Mark 2:11 “I tell you, get up, pick up your mat, and go home.”
    Mark 2:12
    And immediately the man got up, picked up his mat, and walked out in front of them all.

    The mat (litter), on which the paralytic is lying, expresses emptiness and spiritual poverty.
    The paralytic is poor because he does not know the true wealth, the God’s Word.

    The paralytic, carrying his litter, represents the pagans who now possess the God’s Word (the Good News) and can walk
    in God’s statutes. Note the inversion.

    “Take up the litter” will become “Take up the cross”. The cross will be the sign of inversion and the sign of
    the new covenant.

    * The pagans go home

    Mark 2:11 He said to the paralytic, “I say to you, arise, take up your bed, and go to your house.”
    Jesus asks the pagans to leave with their ark filled with the Good News. They will bring it back to shelter it in their
    own tabernacle.
    Jesus also implicitly asks the pagans to cross the sea again (Deuteronomy 30:11-14) to go home.

    * A forgiveness without offering

    The pagans’ sins are forgiven without the sin offering required by the Moses’ law (Leviticus 4)

    *Introduction to the next scene

    Mark has begun to evoke the sign of the covenant by writing “Take up the litter”, he will now expand on this point

    * MARK 2:13-17 LEVI SON OF ALPHAEUS (to read more, see my Chapter 8)

    This scene learns us that circumcision of the flesh (the sign of the old covenant) is not part of the Good News.

    The sign of the new covenant will be the cross. The hebrews and the pagans will have to carry the cross (Mark 2:12,
    Mark 8:34), sign of inversion (Mark 2:11) and assembly of 2 woods, that of the hebrews and that of the pagans.

    I remind the main verses about the sign of the old Covenant
    Genesis 17:11 You are to circumcise the flesh of your foreskin, and this will be a sign of the
    covenant
    between Me and you.
    Leviticus 12:3 And on the eighth day the flesh of the boy’s foreskin is to be circumcised.

    To understand the scene, we have to know these OT sources
    1 – Genesis 17:4-14 => Abram is renamed Abraham and he is circumcised. We will never hear of Abram
    2 – 1 Chronicles 9:31,32 => Mattithiah the Levite and some of their brothers are in charge of
    preparing the bread

    Levi refers to the Levites, the priests. They acts as intercessors between God and men and receive
    the offerings required by the law of Moses (Book of Leviticus).

    I quote again Mark 1:44
    Mark 1:44 go and show yourself to the priest, and offer what Moses commanded for your cleansing,
    (Leviticus 14: Healed lepers’ cleansing)

    In our context, Levi represents more particularly the priests performing the ritual after child’s birth, (Leviticus 12:
    child’s circumcision and mother’s cleansing).

    * A message to Hebrews and pagans

    Mark 2:13 Once again Jesus went out beside the sea. All the people came to Him, and He taught them
    there.

    “sea” => the symbolic border between the hebrews and the pagans (Deuteronomy 30:11-14).

    * Levi, the priest in charge of performing the ritual after child’s birth
    According to the Moses’ law, the child is circumcised and the mother brings the priest what Moses commanded for
    her cleansing (Leviticus 12).

    Mark 2:14 As He was walking along, He saw Levi son of Alphaeus sitting at the tax booth.

    “Tax booth” evokes the entrance fee.
    In our context, it refers to circumcision required to enter the covenant that God made with Abraham (Genesis
    17:10-14) and the hebrews (Leviticus 12:3).
    What’s more, “tax booth” may also refer to offerings that the Moses’ law commands

    * Mark negatively portrays Levi

    Mark 2:15 While Jesus was dining at Levi’s house, many tax collectors and sinners were eating with
    Him and His disciples—for there were many who followed Him.

    Mark describes Levi as a tax collector, the one who collects the tax to have the child enter community of Hebrews.

    Mark goes on negatively portraying Levi (and his role) by having tax collectors and sinners eating at his house.
    In this way, he means that
    1 – Levi does not provide the good spiritual food.
    2 – circumcisers and sinners are not on the right way to return to God

    * Change of role and change of name

    Mark 2:14 … Follow Me,” He told him, and Levi got up and followed Him.

    Jesus will give Levi a new role and a new name compliant with the role. Levi the circumciser will become Matthew (1
    Chronicles 9:31,32), one of the disciples who will provide the good spiritual bread, the Good News. We will never hear
    of Levi.

    * Levi, son of Alphaeus

    Levi disappears in one form and reappears in another form like the Alpheus river.

    The Alpheus river and its features, disappearance and resurgence, are quoted by authors such as Ovid, Virgil, Strabo.
    (See my Chapter 8 to access their texts about the Alpheus and Orontes rivers)

    In this scene, Mark transforms Levi. He will reuse this literary technique to other characters.

    * The righteous and sinners

    Mark 2:17 I have not come to call the righteous, but sinners.

    Ezekiel 36:27 And I will put My Spirit within you and cause you to walk in My statutes and to
    carefully observe My ordinances.

    A righteous is a person who lives according to the Word of God, i.e. he walks in his statutes and carefully
    observes his ordinances.
    A sinner is the opposite of the righteous one

    These definitions raise a problem since Jesus brings a new Word that comes after the Word transmitted by Moses and the
    prophets. So, what is the right Word?

    Mark will clarify this point in the next sequence.

    MARK 2: 18-28 JOHN AND THE WORD, SABBATH (to read more, see my Chapter 9)

    In this last sequence, Mark tells us that the Good News are not compatible with the Moses’ law and the voice of
    prophets. As a result, the Good News will supplant the previous statutes and ordinances.

    However, the Hebrews may choose to go on living according to Moses’ law, but in that case they should not oppose
    the new teaching (message) brought by the Good News.

    John the baptiser is the figure who represents the Hebrews keeping the Moses’ law and not opposing the Good
    News. So, John the baptiser is a righteous according to the Moses’ law,

    Another John, the James’ brother, will represent the Hebrews who follow Jesus. He will be a righteous
    according
    the Good News

    Mark also tells us why he chose the name John and remind us that Jesus is the temporary link between God
    and mankind.

    * The righteous and sinners

    Mark writes 2 scenes to distinguish righteous from sinners and identify them.

    a) In the first scene (Mark 2:18), Mark associates the Pharisees with the disciples of John the Baptiser.
    Both groups are fasting, which means that they are not eating the spiritual food brought by the Good News. Therefore
    they go on living according to Moses’ law.

    Mark 2:18 Now John’s disciples and the Pharisees were often fasting. So people came to Jesus and
    asked, “Why don’t Your disciples fast like John’s disciples and those of the Pharisees?”

    “to fast” => to abstain from spiritual food (the Word of God)

    b) In the second scene (Mark 2:23-24), Mark dissociates the Pharisees from the disciples of John.
    The disciples of John do not participate in the contreversy over the Sabbath, which means that they do not oppose
    Jesus and the Good News

    Mark 2:23 One Sabbath Jesus was passing through the grainfields, and His disciples began to pick the
    heads of grain
    as they walked along.
    Mark 2:24 So the Pharisees said to Him, “Look, why are they doing what is unlawful on the Sabbath?”

    The heads of grain symbolise the Word of God that men have to work so as to extract the spiritual bread (Ruth 2:7)
    “To pick the heads of grain” => to seek the spiritual food

    * Incompatibility between old and new Word of God

    Old Word of God = Law of Moses + Prophecies
    New Word of God = The Good News

    Mark places them in opposition by suggesting the following associations

    New cloth => The Good News
    Old garment => Moses’ Law and prophecies

    New wine => The Good News
    Old wineskins => Moses’ Law and prophecies

    John the Baptiser wears the old garments. The camel’s hair refers to Exodus and the belt around his loins refers to the
    prophets Elijah and Jeremiah.
    Jesus the savior brings the garments of salvation (Isaiah 61:10)

    In the bible, wine is often associated with bread (the spiritual bread)
    Wine also refers to the fruit of the vine, the blood of Jesus (Mark 14:24).

    * The supplanting of the old Word and the end of Sabbath

    The Sabbath is the strong symbol that represents the old Word since God gave the very first manna (the spiritual
    bread) to his people when he established the first Sabbath (Exodus16:14-31)

    Mark has already used this symbol by making Jesus teach for the first time on the Sabbath.
    In these last verses, Mark quotes the word 5 times and announces that the Sabbath will be repealed.

    Mark 2:28 Therefore, the Son of Man is Lord even of the Sabbath.

    The Son of Man has the sabbath day in his power, and may rule it as he desires since he is a divine figure who acts on
    earth according to God’s will.
    Mark suggests here (Mark 2:28) that there will be other thing that the Sabbath when the kingdom of God is established
    (Mark 16:1-8)

    Mark 16:1 When the Sabbath was over
    The end of the Sabbath means that the new Word has just supplanted the old one.

    * Why did Mark choose the name John ?

    1- The name Jonathan is close to Johanan, the Hebrew form of IÓannÉs/John
    Jonathan (“the LORD has given”) => IÓannÉs/John son of Zebedee (“Yah has bestowed”)

    2 – In the bible there are several Jonathan. Among them are Jonathan son of Abiathar and Jonathan son of Saul.

    Mark reused their features to create his own characters named John (John as James’ brother and John the Baptiser)

    The pair (2 Samuel 15:27, …) Ahimaaz (son de Zadok) and Jonathan (son of Abiathar) => the
    pair of brother James and John.
    Ahimaaz (2 Samuel 18:27) and Jonathan (1 Kings 1:42) brought the good news to the king => James and John
    will follow Jesus to bring the Good News (new nets)

    Jonathan leaves his father Saul (1 Samuel 18:1-4) => John leaves his father Zebedee (Mark 1:20)

    * Mark’s reinterpretation

    Mark reinterprets an old episode (1 Samuel 21:1-6) by quoting Abiathar instead of Ahimelec.
    He does this to justify the choice of the name ‘John’: Jonathan is son of Abiathar

    Mark 2:25 Jesus replied, “Have you never read what David did when he and his companions were hungry
    and in need
    ?

    “to be hungry” => to need spiritual food
    Note the parallel with
    Mark 11:12 The next day, when they had left Bethany, Jesus was hungry.

    Mark 2:26 During the high priesthood of Abiathar, he (David) entered the house of God and ate the
    consecrated bread,
    which was lawful only for the priests. …”

    Abiathar instead of Ahimelec because Jonathan is son of Abiathar

    * The temporary link

    Jesus is the temporary link (Mark 2:20 and Mark 9:19) between God and men since he has a human and a divine dimension

    Mark 2:20 But the time will come when the bridegroom (3566) will be taken from them; then they
    will fast.

    Mark 2:23 One Sabbath Jesus was passing through the grainfields, and His disciples began to pick the heads of
    grain
    as they walked along.

    “To pick the heads of grain” => to seek the spiritual food
    Jesus’ disciples are preparing themselves for the time when Jesus will no longer be there and they begin to seek
    Word by themselves.

    Mark 9:19 “O unbelieving generation!” Jesus replied. “How long must I remain with you? How long must I
    put up with you? Bring the boy to Me.”

    THE NEED FOR GOD’S WORD (a few interesting parallels)

    Mark 1:36 Simon and his companions searched for him,
    Mark 2:23 … His disciples began to pick the heads of grain
    Mark 2:25 … what David did when he and his companions were hungry and in need?
    Mark 11:12 The next day, when they had left Bethany, Jesus was hungry.

    4 – THE MESSAGE (TEACHING)

    God gives Israel the Good News and offers it a new covenant based on these Good News.

    The main features are
    1 – the forgiveness of sins through redemption as described in the prophecy of Isaiah
    2 – the opening to the pagans

    In a practical way
    1 – The new forgiveness of sins frees the sinners since the Son of Man erases their sins by taking them upon him.
    2 – The Good News are also offered to the pagans, Israel is no longer the covenant people. It has to integrate a new
    and wider covenant where hebrews and pagans will be equal.
    3 – The circumcision of flesh is no longer the sign of the new covenant, the barriers between Hebrews and pagans are
    coming down
    4 – The priests lose their role as intercessors between God and men about the forgiveness of sins.
    since it is now the son of man who erases them
    5 – The Good News will supplant the old Word because they are no longer compatible.
    6 – The Hebrews who want to keep the ritual and food laws can enter the new covenant if they recognise Jesus as the
    Redeemer.
    7 – The Hebrews who want to go on living according to the Moses’ law must not oppose the teaching of the Good News.

    To sum up: the Good News removes the barriers between hebrew and pagan people and go beyond the prophecy of
    Isaiah.

    5 – TECHNICAL VIEW: THE PROMISE OF REDEMPTION AND SALVATION

    THE REMISSION OF SINS ACCORDING TO MARK

    1 – Repentance (sinner’s will to return to God)
    2 – Forgiveness of sins (God’s will) => the Redeemer takes the sins upon himself to redeem them
    3 – Delay
    4 – Redemption of sins,

    In the narrative, the redemption cannot be immediate because it would mean the death of the redeemer. The forgiveness
    will therefore be a promise of redemption so as to postpone the death of the redeemer and continue the story.

    THE STEPS OF HEALING/REDEMPTION (TEMPLATE)

    1 – ‘mutual recognition’
    2 – ‘forgiveness of sin’ = ‘promise of redemption’ = ‘apparent healing’
    3 – delay
    4 – ‘redemption’ = ‘actual healing’

    Healing is both the promise of redemption and its fulfilment since we are sure that the promise will come true,
    As a result, there is a mixture of present and future tense.

    LEPER’S HEALING (MODEL VARIANT)

    1 – Faith

    a) The leper initiates the mutual recognition
    Mark 1:40 Then a leper came to Jesus, begging on his knees: “If You are willing, You can make
    me clean.”

    b) End of mutual recognition
    Mark 1:41 Moved with compassion, Jesus reached out His hand and touched the man. “I am willing,” He
    said. “Be clean!”

    2 – Forgiveness of sins = promise of redemption = Apparent healing

    Mark 1:42 And immediately the leprosy left him, and the man was cleansed.

    3 – Delay (deferred redemption)

    4 – Redemption of sins = Actual Healing

    Mark 10:45 For even the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give His life as a
    ransom for many.

    Mark 15:37 But Jesus let out a loud cry and breathed His last.

    Jesus pays the ransom to redeem sins

    PARALYTIC’S HEALING (MODEL VARIANT)

    1 – Faith

    a) The pagans initiate the mutual recognition
    Mark 2:3 Then a paralytic was brought to Him, carried by four men.
    Mark 2:4 Since they were unable to get to Jesus through the crowd, they uncovered the roof above Him, made an
    opening …

    b) End of mutual recognition
    Mark 2:4 … and lowered the paralytic on his mat.
    Mark 2:5 When Jesus saw their faith, He said to the paralytic, “Son, your sins are forgiven you.”

    2 – Forgiveness of sins = promise of redemption

    Mark 2:5 When Jesus saw their faith, He said to the paralytic, “Son, your sins are forgiven you.

    3 – Delay (deferred healing)

    Mark adds a contreversy that delays healing and brings 2 technical precisions

    a) Beginning of the contreversy
    Mark 2:6 But some of the scribes were sitting there and thinking in their hearts,

    b) First technical precision: Forgiveness of sins = healing
    Mark 2:9 “Which is easier: to say to a paralytic, ‘Your sins are forgiven,’ or to say, ‘Get up,
    pick up your mat, and walk’?

    c) End of the contreversy and second technical precision
    Mark 2:10 But so that you may know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins…” He
    said to the paralytic,

    4 – Apparent healing

    Mark 2:12 And immediately the man got up, picked up his mat, and walked out in front of them
    all.

    5 – Delay (deferred redemption)

    6 – Redemption of sins = Actual Healing
    (Mark 15:37 Jesus pays the ransom to redeem)

    MOTHER-IN-LAW’S HEALING (MODEL VARIANT)

    1 – Mutual recognition => Forgiveness of sins = promise of redemption = Apparent healing

    Jesus initiates the mutual recognition
    Mark 1:31 So He went to her, took her by the hand, and helped her up. The fever left her, and
    she began to serve them.

    2 – Delay (deferred redemption)

    3 – Redemption of sins = Actual Healing
    (Mark 15:37 Jesus pays the ransom to redeem)

    EXPULSION OF AN UNCLEAN SPIRIT (MODEL VARIANT)

    1 – Jesus’ Authorit => The unclean spirit (or demon) is apparently casted out
    Mark 1:40 But Jesus rebuked the spirit. “Be silent!” He said. “Come out of him!”
    Mark 1:41 At this, the unclean spirit threw the man into convulsions and came out with a loud
    shriek.

    2 – Delay (deferred redemption)

    3 – Redemption of sins => The unclean spirit (or demon) is actually casted out
    (Mark 15:37 Jesus pays the ransom to redeem)

    THE FULL CHAIN OF REDEMPTION AND SALVATION

    1 – ‘mutual recognition’ and ‘faith’ (Mark 1:15 “the kingdom of God is near. Repent and believe
    in the gospel!”
    2 – ‘forgiveness of sin’ = ‘promise of redemption’ = ‘apparent healing’
    3 – delay
    4 – ‘redemption’ = ‘actual healing’ (Mark 15:37 Jesus breathes His last)
    5 – delay
    6 – salvation (Mark 16:1-8 Entry into the kingdom of God)

    6 – TECHNICAL VIEW: JESUS AND THE SON OF MAN

    MARK SEPARATES WORD AND DEED

    1 – Jesus is the figure who announces the Good News and teaches it
    2 – The son of man is the figure who fufills the redemption by taking the sins upon him so as to redeem them
    Jesus cannot forgive the sins because he has a human dimension.

    In order for sins to be forgiven by God without any human intervention, Mark has created a divine figure who acts on
    earth according to God’s will.

    So, in Mark’s Gospel, the Son of Man is a fully divine figure who fulfills on earth what God alone can do: the
    forgiveness of sins (Mark 2: and the abrogation of the Sabbath (Mark 2:28 and Mark 16:1)
    The 2 notions are linked since the end of the Sabbath means the end of the old Word in favor of the Good News that
    advocates a new forgiveness of sins

    This construction with 2 distinct figures is also required because:
    1 – By definition, the figure who fulfills the redemption must die.
    2 – The Word, the message saying that the forgiveness of sins is fulfilled through redemption, must not die.

    At the end of the story:
    1 – Jesus will disappear but his Word (message) will remain through his body put in the tomb.
    2 – Mark will mutate his 2 figures (Jesus and the Son of Man) so that they lost their divine dimension. All that is
    divine must not die
    .

    To sum up

    God = = => Jesus (divine dimension + human dimension) => Men
    God = = = > Son of Man on earth as redeemer

    At the end of the story, Jesus and the Son of Man lose their divine dimension before disappearing. This is the scene
    where Pilate frees Barabbas (the son of the Father).

    The connection between God and the 2 figures is then broken.

    God x-x-x Jesus (human dimension)
    God x-x-x Son of Man on earth as redeemer

    AUTHORITY AND POWER

    Jesus and the Son of Man make a pair whose authority and power come from God.
    Note also that Jesus alone uses the expression ‘Son of Man’.

    Mark 1:22 The people were astonished at His teaching, because He (Jesus) taught as one who had authority
    (1849)
    , and not as the scribes.

    Mark 1:27 All the people were amazed and began to ask one another, “What is this? A new teaching with
    authority (1849)! He (Jesus) commands
    even the unclean spirits, and they obey Him!

    Mark 2:10 But so that you may know that the Son of Man has authority (1849) on earth to forgive sins…”
    He said to the paralytic,

    Mark 2:28 Therefore the Son of Man is also Lord of the Sabbath.”

    https://biblehub.com/greek/1849.htm exousia: power to act, authority

    * Jesus reaches out his hand

    The raised hand symbolises the help and the power coming from God.

    Mark 1:40 …(The leper) begged him: “If you are willing, you can make me clean.”
    Mark 1:41 … Jesus reached out his hand …I am willing,” He said. “Be clean!”
    Mark 1:42 And immediately … the man was cleansed.

    Here is a parallel with the Isrealites crying out to the LORD for help and Moses stretching out his hand

    Exodus 14:10 As Pharaoh approached, the Israelites looked up and there were the Egyptians coming after
    them! The Israelites were terrified and cried out to the LORD for help.
    Exodus 14:21 Then Moses stretched out his hand over the sea. The LORD drove the sea back with a
    powerful east wind all that night and turned the sea into dry land. So the waters were divided,

    7 – OT SOURCES AND REINTERPRETATION

    MAIN IDEAS *

    Isaiah 61.1 The Spirit of the Lord GOD is on Me, because the LORD has anointed Me to preach good
    news
    to the poor. He has sent Me to bind up the brokenhearted, to proclaim liberty to the
    captives and freedom to the prisoners, (BSB)

    The Spirit of the Lord GOD is on Me => the Spirit descending as a dove upon Jesus
    the LORD has anointed Me => Jesus will be anointed and Christ means ” anointed”
    to preach good news => Jesus will preach the Good News
    the poor => the pagans (they do not have true wealth i.e. the Word of God)
    to bind up the brokenhearted => to heal the sinners
    freedom to the prisoners => the Good New will frees man from sin through the redeemer

    NEW FORGIVENESS OF SINS *

    * OT sources: The suffering servant

    Isaiah 53:10 Yet it was the LORD’s will to crush Him and to cause Him to suffer; and when His
    soul is made a guilt offering, He will see His offspring, He will prolong His days, and the good pleasure of the LORD
    will prosper in His hand.

    Isaiah 53:11 After the anguish of His soul, He will see the light of life and be satisfied. By His knowledge
    My righteous Servant will justify many, and He will bear their iniquities.

    Isaiah 53:12 Therefore I will allot Him a portion with the great, and He will divide the spoils with the strong,
    because He has poured out His life unto death, and He was numbered with the transgressors. Yet He bore the
    sin of many
    and made intercession for the transgressors.

    * Mark’s gospel: The Son of Man on earth as redeemer

    Mark 8:31 Then He began to teach them that the Son of Man must suffer many things and be rejected by
    the elders, chief priests, and scribes, and that He must be killed and after three days rise again.

    Mark 10:45 For even the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give His life as a
    ransom for many.

    Mark 15:37 But Jesus let out a loud cry and breathed His last.

    NEW HEART AND NEW SPIRIT *

    Ezekiel 36.26 I will give you a new heart and put a new spirit within you; I will take the
    heart of stone out of your flesh and give you a heart of flesh.
    Ezekiel 36.27 I will put My Spirit within you and cause you to walk in My statutes, and you will keep
    My judgments and do them.

    NEW COVENANT

    Isaiah 59:20The Redeemer will come to Zion, and to those in Jacob who turn from transgression
    .” This is the LORD’s declaration.

    Isaiah 59:21 “As for me, this is my covenant with them,” says the LORD: “My Spirit who is on you, and
    my words that I have put in your mouth
    , will not depart from your mouth, or from the mouths of your children, or
    from the mouths of your children’s children, from now on and forever,” says the LORD.

    Isaiah 61:8 For I the LORD love justice; I hate robbery and injustice; I will faithfully reward my people
    and make a permanent covenant with them.

    Jeremiah 31:31 “Look, the days are coming”–this is the LORD’s declaration–“when I will make a new
    covenant with
    the house of Israel and with the house of Judah.

    Jeremiah 31:32 This one will not be like the covenant I made with their ancestors on the day I took them
    by the hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt–my covenant that they broke even though I am their master”–the
    LORD’s declaration.

    Jeremiah 31:33 “Instead, this is the covenant I will make with the house of Israel after those days”–the
    LORD’s declaration. “I will put my teaching within them and write it on their hearts. I will be their God, and
    they will be my people.

    NEW HEAVENS, NEW EARTH *

    * OT sources

    Isaiah 51:16 I have put My words in your mouth, and covered you with the shadow of My hand, to
    establish the heavens, to found the earth
    , and to say to Zion, ‘You are My people.’ ”

    Isaiah 65:17 For behold, I will create new heavens and a new earth. The former things will not be
    remembered,
    nor will they come to mind.

    Isaiah 66:22 For just as the new heavens and the new earth, which I will make, will endure
    before Me,” declares the LORD, “so your descendants and your name will endure.

    * From Isaiah to Mark’s Gospel

    “New heavens and new earth” => the kingdom of God
    “My words in your mouth” => Mark’s gospel
    “former things will not be remembered” => Mark’s gospel will supplant all that was before it (the Moses’
    Law and the voice of prophets)

    Mark 1:14 After the arrest of John, Jesus went into Galilee and proclaimed the gospel
    of God
    .
    Mark 1:15 “The time is fulfilled,” He said, “and the kingdom of God is near. Repent and believe in the
    gospel!”

  10. 8 – DOUBLE MEANING: VARIOUS WAYS TO EVOKE THE WORD OF GOD

    Net: The tool to catch/convert the sinners. The old nets represent the Moses’ Law while the new nets represent
    the Good News
    Simon and Andre leave their nets (the Moses’ Law) and follow Jesus.

    Father: The law of their father i.e. the Moses’ Law
    James and John leave their father Zebedee (the law of their father) and follow Jesus

    The garments:
    New cloth => The Good News
    Old garment => Moses’ Law and prophecies
    John the baptiser represents the Moses’ Law and the voice of the prophets because he wears the old clothes.
    “camel” => Exodus (Manna, Moses’ Law)
    “a leather belt around his waist” => the clothing of the prophets
    Jesus (which means savior) brings the garments of salvation (the Good News).

    Bread: spiritual bread. The Jesus’ boby (Mark 14:22)

    Food:
    to fast => to abstain from spiritual food
    to pick the heads of grain => to seek spiritual food
    to be hungry => to need spiritual food
    to pray => to need spiritual food

    Heads of grain: the God’s Word that people have to work in order to extract the spiritual food
    Mark (Ruth 2:7)

    Fruit of the vine: The Jesus’ blood (Mark 14:24)

    New wine => The Good News
    Old wineskins => Moses’ Law and prophecies

    Jesus will shed his blood to fulfill the promise of redemption, what is the essential content of the Good News

    The dove: it refers to Noah’s ark. The dove brings good news on the second come back (the olive branch
    testifying that the waters are receding).
    In our context, the dove brings the Spirit descending from heavens

    Spirit: the thought of those who wrote the Mark’s Gospel.

    Holy spirit: The writers’ thought emanates from God. God breathes his spirit into the body of man.

    Ark of the covenant:
    By receiving the spirit brought by the dove, Jesus becomes the ark that contains the Good News

    The House: it represents the tabernacle that shelters the ark of the covenant. As a result, it is the place
    where the God’s Word dwells.
    In Mark’ Gospel, there are several houses, the main one is the House where Jesus teaches the Good News but there is
    also the house of Levi where the sinners eat an evil word.

    Baptism: It symbolises admission into a community and acceptance of its rules
    Water baptism refers to exodus and entry to the promised land. It symbolises the acceptance of the covenant based on
    the laws that God gave to Moses
    Spirit baptism refers to the new spirit that the Good News convey. All that will lead to the kingdom of God

    The desert: the place where God gives the very first Manna to hebrew people. Then will come the laws given to
    Moses.
    Manna and laws represent the Word of God as spiritual food and ordinances.

    Sabbath: It is the strong symbol that represents the old Word because God gave the very first manna (the
    spiritual bread) to hebrew people when he established the first Sabbath (Exodus16:14-31)

    Covenant: Marriage

    The Bridegroom: In the bible, there are a lot of verses about the bridegroom, the invisible God who begets and
    the woman who gives birth (Isaiah 62:5, Isaiah 66:7-9, Ruth 4:13, …)
    In Mark’s Gospel, God is the bridegroom of Israel, He gives Israel a new Word to make a new covenant. He heals Israel
    (his bride) so that she gives birth to children of God.

    Righteous: A righteous is a person who lives according to the Word of God, i.e. he walks in his statutes and
    carefully observes his ordinances.
    John the baptiser is a righteous according the Moses’ law
    James and John will the righteous according the Good News

    Sinner: A sinner is the opposite of the righteous one

    NAMES MEANING ‘GIFT OF GOD’

    Zedebee ( “Yah has bestowed,”) represents the old Word

    John (IÓannÉs:Greek, Johanan:Hebrew) is close to Jonathan (“the LORD has given”)

    James and John leave their father Zebedee (the old gift, the Moses’ Law) to follow Jesus
    who brings the new gift, They will provide the new nets (the new gift, the Good News) so that the
    fishermen/disciples catch/convert the sinners.

    OT SOURCES

    Bread and Word:

    Deuteronomy 8:3 He humbled you, and in your hunger He gave you manna to eat, which neither you
    nor your fathers had known, so that you might understand that man does not live on bread alone, but
    on every word that comes from
    the mouth of the LORD.

    Fishermen and Nets:

    Isaiah 19:8 Then the fishermen will mourn, all who cast a hook into the Nile will lament, and those
    who spread nets on the waters will pine away.

    Garments of salvation, Righteousness, Bridegroom:

    Isaiah 61:10 I will rejoice greatly in the LORD, my soul will exult in my God; for He has clothed me with
    garments of salvation
    and wrapped me in a robe of righteousness, as a bridegroom wears a priestly headdress,
    as a bride adorns herself with her jewels.

    The invisible god who begets and the woman who gives birth:

    Isaiah 66:9 “Will I bring a baby to the point of birth and not deliver (3205) it?” says the LORD; “or
    will I who deliver (3205), close the womb?” says your God.

    Ruth 4:13 Boaz took Ruth and she became his wife. He slept with her, and the LORD granted conception to
    her,
    and she gave birth (3205) to a son.

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/3205.htm yalad: to bear, bring forth, beget

    9 – DOUBLE MEANING: DIFFICULT EXPRESSIONS

    Mark 1:7 to untie the strap of His sandals
    Who does not take the right to redeem takes off his sandal
    OT sources: (Ruth 4:7,8) and (Isaiah 53:10-12)

    Mark 1:7 I am not worthy to untie the strap of His sandals
    John will not stand in the way of the one who comes to take the right of redemption

    Mark 1:16, Mark 2:13 Beside the Sea
    The sea is the symbolic border between the hebrew and pagan people
    OT sources: (Deuteronomy 30:11-14)

    Mark 1:33the whole town gathered at the door
    The verse means that the redemption is deferred, there will be a delay between the promise of redemption and the actual
    redemption
    OT sources: (Ruth 4:1-11)

    Mark 2:14-16 tax booth, tax collector
    The tax refers to the entrance fee. In our context, it is the fee to enter into the covenant that God made with
    Abraham. The tax represents the symbol of this covenant, i.e. circumcision.
    OT sources: (Genesis 17:4-14)

    Mark 2:14 Levi, son of Alphaeus
    In Mark’s Gospel, Levi son of Alphaeus is the priest in charge of collecting the entrance fee i.e. the circumcision
    His name and role will be changed, he will become Matthew the disciple who provides the spiritual bread.
    OT Sources: (Genesis 17:4-14) and (1 Chronicles 9:31,32)

    Mark 2:14 son of Alphaeus
    The expression ‘Son of Alphaeus’ means that a character may disappear in one form and reappear in another form
    like the Alpheus river.
    The Alpheus river and its features, disappearance and resurgence, are quoted by authors such as Ovid, Virgil, Strabo.
    Sources: see my Chapter 8 to access their texts about the Alpheus and Orontes rivers

    Mark 2:10, Mark 2:28 Son of Man
    The Son of Man is a fully divine figure who fulfills on earth what God alone can do: the forgiveness of sins and the
    abrogation of the Sabbath
    OT sources:
    1 – Ezekiel; The expression “Son of man” appears 93 times in the book of Ezekiel. In this book, the Son of Man is
    Ezekiel to whom God commands
    2 – Enoch and Daniel: In their book, the Son of Man is a heavenly figure.

    10 – OLD WORD VERSUS GOOD NEWS: INCOMPATIBILTY AND REPLACEMENT

    Mark 1:6 John the baptiser represents the Moses’ law and the voice of the prophets, for he wears the old garments.
    Mark 1:7 John announces the new Word that comes after him
    Mark 1:8 John announces the baptism of spirit that comes after the baptism of water.
    Mark 1:14 John will speak no more, the Good News become the Word of God
    Mark 1:15 Jesus proclaims the Good News, redemption is now
    Mark 1:17-18 Simon and Andrew leave their nets (the old Word) to follow Jesus
    Mark 1:19-30 James and John leave their father’s law (the Moses’ law) to follow Jesus
    Mark 1:24 The man in the synagogue grasps the incompatibility between the Good News and the old Word
    Mark 1:19 The teaching of the Word moves from the synagogue to the house of Simon and Andrew.
    Mark 1:40-42 Jesus shows that Good News are more efficient than the Moses’ Law.
    Mark 2:21-22 Jesus uses images of clothes and wine to signify the incompatibility between Good News and the old Word.
    Mark 2:28 Jesus announces that the Good News will supplant what was before them i.e. the Moses’ law and the voice of
    the prophets

    11 – CHARACTERS

    Jesus: A figure both divine and human who is the link between God and mankind. He brings the new Word of God,
    the Good News that advocate the redemption of sins

    Son of Man on earth: The fully divine figure who forgives and redeems the sins

    Jesus of Nazareth: The man in the synagogue alone used this expression, which means that he recognised the power
    of Jesus and identified him as a Nazirite (Numbers 6)

    John the Baptiser: He represents the Hebrews keeping the Moses’ law and not opposing the Good News. John the
    baptiser is a righteous according to the Moses’ law,

    James and John: They represent the Hebrews who follow Jesus and carefully observe his ordinances. James and
    John will be righteous according to the Good News

    Simon and Andrew: The hebrews and pagans living according to the Good News. The imperfect people who may sin
    but return to God

    Zebedee: He represents the Hebrews living according to the Moses’ law

    Man with an unclean spirit: the Hebrews who reject the Good News

    Demons: The fallen angels who oppose the Word of God

    Mother-in-law: Israel as a bride

    Leper: an hebrew sinner who wants to be saved

    Paralytic: a pagan who wants to live according to the Good News

    Levi: Levi refers to the Levites, the priests (Leviticus Book). In our context, he represents more particularly
    the priests performing the ritual after child’s birth, (Leviticus 12: child’s circumcision and mother’s cleansing).

    Pharisees: The hebrews who reject the Good News

    Scribes: Those who know the Moses’ law to the letter. According to the ‘Berean Study Bible’ translation,
    the scribes are Pharisees
    (Mark 2:17 When the scribes who were Pharisees … BSB)

    12 – JESUS OF NAZARETH AND THE TEMPORARY NAZIRITE (NUMBERS 6)

    NAZARETH (NAZAR + ETH)

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/5144.htm nazar: consecrate
    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/5139.htm nazir: one consecrated, devoted
    Word Origin: from nazar
    NASB Translation: consecrated ones (1), Nazirite (9), Nazirites (2), one distinguished (2), untrimmed
    vines (2).

    ‘Eth’: Jesus has the same features as the temporary nazirite (Numbers 6)

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/6256.htm eth: time
    Word Origin probably from anah
    NASB Translation: …, period (1), season (10), …, time (226), timely (1), times (27), when (8),
    …, year (2)

    THE NAZIRITE

    Numbers 6:2 “Speak to the Israelites and tell them that if a man or woman makes a special vow, the vow of
    a Nazirite (5139), to separate himself to the LORD,

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/5139.htm nazir: one consecrated, devoted

    THE HOLY ONE

    The man in the synagogue (Mark 1:24) discerns the high rank of Jesus. By saying ‘Nazareth’, he identifies Jesus as the
    Nazirite, the Holy One described in the Book of Numbers

    Numbers 6:5 For the entire period of his vow of separation (5145), no razor shall pass over his head.
    He (the Nazirite) must be holy until the time of his separation to the LORD is complete; he must let the hair of
    his head grow long.

    Mark 1:24 “What do You want with us, Jesus of Nazareth? Have You come to destroy us? I know who You
    are—the Holy One of God
    !”

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/5145.htm nezer: consecration, crown, Naziriteship

    THE DEFILEMENT WITH A DEAD BODY

    Jesus does not defile himself by going near a dead body because the girl (Mark 5:39) and the young man (Mark 9:26)
    did not die.

    Numbers 6:7 Even if his father or mother or brother or sister should die, he is not to defile
    himself, because the crown of consecration (5145) to his God is upon his head.

    Mark 5:39 He went inside and asked, “Why all this commotion and weeping? The child is not dead, but
    asleep.

    Mark 9:26 After shrieking and convulsing him violently, the spirit came out. The boy became like a corpse,
    so that many said, “He is dead.”

    THE FRUIT OF THE VINE

    Jesus will never drink the fruit of the vine before the end of his Naziriteship

    Numbers 6:4 All the days of his separation, he is not to eat anything that comes from the grapevine, not
    even the seeds or skins.

    Mark 14:25 Truly I tell you, I will no longer drink of the fruit of the vine until that day when I drink
    it anew in the kingdom of God.”

    THE OFFERINGS OF BREAD AND WINE AT THE END OF NAZIRITESHIP

    Before he disappears, Jesus will make the offerings of bread (Mark 14.22) and wine (Mark 14.23)

    Numbers 6:13 Now this is the law of the Nazirite when his time of separation is complete: He must be
    brought to the entrance to the Tent of Meeting,

    Numbers 6:15 and a basket of unleavened bread, loaves of fine flour mixed with oil, and unleavened wafers
    smeared with oil, and their grain offering and their drink offerings.

    Mark 14.22 While they were eating, Jesus took bread, spoke a blessing and broke it, and gave it to the
    disciples, saying, “Take it; this is My body.”

    Mark 14.23 Then He took the cup, gave thanks, and gave it to them, and they all drank from it.

    12 – JESUS (OF NAZARETH AND CHRIST), THE OT SOURCES

    Due to his divine dimension, Jesus has a singular rank that places him above his hebrew brothers. The anointing and the
    crown will illustrate this higher rank.

    *The term ‘CHRIST’ makes the link between anointing and higher rank.

    https://biblehub.com/greek/5547.htm Christos: the Anointed One, Messiah, Christ

    The term ‘NAZARETH’ makes the link between nazirite, crown and higher rank.

    ‘Nazareth’ (Nazar + Eth) is built from the hebrew root “N.Z.R” from which derives “NAZAR” , “NAZIR” , “NEZER”.

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/5144.htm nazar: consecrate

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/5145.htm nezer: consecration, crown, Naziriteship

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/5139.htm nazir: one consecrated, devoted
    Word Origin: from nazar
    NASB Translation: consecrated ones (1), Nazirite (9), Nazirites (2), one distinguished (2), untrimmed
    vines (2).

    The term ‘ETH’ indicates the temporary nature of Jesus among men

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/6256.htm
    eth: time
    Word Origin probably from anah
    NASB Translation: …, period (1), season (10), …, time (226), timely (1), times (27), when (8),
    …, year (2)

    OT SOURCES *

    I will quote a few verses that combine higher rank, anointing and crown.

    Note the strong parallel between the Nazirite (Numbers 6) and the priest (Leviticus 21) who does not shred his clothes

    Note also that Jesus brings the garments of salvation and that he will not tear his garments.

    The parallel between the Nazirite (Numbers 6) and the priest (Leviticus 21)

    Numbers 6:2 “Speak to the Israelites and tell them that if a man or woman makes a special vow, the vow of a
    Nazirite (5139), to separate/consecrate (5144) himself to the LORD,

    Numbers 6:5 For the entire period of his vow of separation (5145), no razor shall pass over his head.
    He (the Nazirite) must be holy until the time of his separation to the LORD is complete; he must let the hair of
    his head grow long.

    Numbers 6:7 Even if his father or mother or brother or sister should die, he is not to defile
    himself, because the crown of consecration (5145) to his God is upon his head.

    Leviticus 21:10 The priest who is highest among his brothers, who has had the anointing oil poured on his
    head
    and has been ordained to wear the priestly garments, must not let his hair hang loose or tear his
    garments

    Leviticus 21:11 He must not go near any dead body; he must not defile himself, even for his
    father or mother.

    Leviticus 21:12 He must not leave or desecrate the sanctuary of his God, for the consecration (5145)
    of the anointing oil of his God is on him. I am the LORD.

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/5144.htm nazar: consecrate
    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/5145.htm nezer: consecration, crown, Naziriteship
    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/5139.htm nazir: one consecrated, devoted

    To sum up:

    Nazirite ( consecrate, holy) => Priest (highest among his brothers)
    Nazirite (crown of consecration is upon his head) => Priest (consecration of the anointing oil)
    Nazirite (must not defile a dead body) => Priest (must not defile a dead body)

    * Joseph (the prince of his brothers) receives Jacob’s blessing on his forehead.

    Genesis 49:26 The blessings of your father (Jacob) have surpassed the blessings of the ancient
    mountains and the bounty of the everlasting hills. May they rest on the head of Joseph, on the brow
    (6936) of the prince (5139) of his brothers.

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/5139.htm nazir: one consecrated, devoted

    * The direct relationship between crown and anointing

    Exodus 29:6 Put the turban on his head and attach the holy diadem/crown (5145) to the turban.
    Exodus 29:7 Then take the anointing (4886) oil and anoint him by pouring it on his head.

    Judges 9:14 Finally all the trees said to the thornbush (329) , ‘Come and reign over us.’
    Judges 9:15 But the thornbush (329) replied, ‘If you really are anointing (4886) me as king over
    you, come and find refuge in my shade. But if not, may fire come out of the thornbush and consume the cedars
    of Lebanon.’

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/4886.htm mashach: to smear, anoint
    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/329.htm atad: a bramble, buckthorn, also a city in Canaan

    JESUS OF NAZARETH (THE NAZIRITE AND THE CROWNED HEAD) *

    * Mark associates ‘Jesus’ and ‘Nazareth’

    Mark 1:9 In those days Jesus came from Nazareth in Galilee

    * Mark highlights the relationship between Nazareth and Nazirite

    Mark 1:24 “What do You want with us, Jesus of Nazareth? Have You come to destroy us? I know
    who You are the Holy One of God!”

    Why does the man add the expression ‘of Nazareth’ ?

    He does it because he heard Jesus and understood that Jesus’ teaching means the end of Israel living according to the
    law of Moses.
    He expresses this by saying “What do You want with us ?” and “Have You come to destroy us?”

    The man also grasped that such a message is brought by a higher rank figure. As a result, he identifies Jesus as a
    Nazarite by adding ‘of Nazareth’ and he goes on the identification by saying “You are the Holy One of God” because the
    nazirite must be Holy (Numbers 6:5)

    To sum up: In the verse, Nazareth refers to the Nazirite and to him who is the highest
    among his brothers.

    * Mark highlights the relationship between Nazareth and the crown

    Mark 10:47 When he heard that it was Jesus of Nazareth, he began to cry out, “Jesus, Son of David,
    have mercy on me!”

    Why does the blind man say ‘Son of David’ just after hearing ‘Jesus of Nazareth’ ?

    He does it because he immediately associates Nazareth with the crown of the king. This is why he says
    Son of David”

    Mark 10:51 What do you want Me to do for you?” Jesus asked. “Rabboni,” said the blind man, “let me
    see again
    .”

    ‘let me see again’ => the blind man knows that Jesus has the power to heal him

    To sum up: In the sequence (Mark 10:47-51), Nazareth refers to the crown and to him who has the
    power.

    * Jesus will wear the crown (Mark 15:17) of thorns like the thorn bush (Judges 9:14).

    Mark 15:17 And they clothed Him with purple; and they twisted a crown of thorns, put it on His
    head,

    Judges 9:14 Finally all the trees said to the thornbush , ‘Come and reign over us.’

    JESUS CHRIST (THE ANOINTED HEAD) *

    Mark 1:1 The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, Son of God.
    Mark 8:29 “But what about you?” Jesus asked. “Who do you say I am?” Peter answered, “You are the Christ
    (5547).

    https://biblehub.com/greek/5547.htm Christos: the Anointed One, Messiah, Christ

    * The Anointing at Bethany

    Jesus is anointed (Mark 14:3) like the priest highest among his brothers (Leviticus 21:10) or
    the thornbush reigning over the trees (Judges 9:15).

    Mark 14:3 While Jesus was in Bethany reclining at the table in the home of Simon the Leper, a woman came with an
    alabaster jar of expensive perfume, made of pure nard. She broke open the jar and poured it on Jesus’
    head.

    Leviticus 21:10 The priest who is highest among his brothers, who has had the anointing oil poured on his
    head
    and has been ordained to wear the priestly garments, must not let his hair hang loose or tear his
    garments

    Judges 9:15 But the thornbush (329) replied, ‘If you really are anointing (4886) me as king over
    you
    ,

    THE CHRIST, THE KING, THE CROWN AND THE CROSS *

    Mark 14:61 … Again the high priest questioned Him, “Are You the Christ, the Son of the Blessed One?”
    Mark 14:62 I am,” said Jesus,

    Mark 15:2 So Pilate questioned Him, “Are You the King of the Jews?” “You have said so,” Jesus
    replied.
    Mark 15:17 … and they twisted a crown of thorns, put it on His head,

    * Jesus Christ, the king on the Cross

    Mark 15:25 And it was the third hour, and they crucified Him.

    By placing Jesus Christ on the cross, Mark associates Christ with the Cross.

    * Mark reinterprets Ezekiel 37:16-20 (One Kingdom: stick of Ephraim and stick of Judah)

    The Markan’s cross is an assembly of 2 woods, that of the hebrews and that of the pagans

    The first letter of the word “Christos” is the Chi letter (uppercase Χ).
    ‘X’ represents the cross and the Christ as redeemer of hebrew and pagan people

    https://biblehub.com/greek/5547.htm Christos: the Anointed One, Christ
    Original Word: Χριστ?ς, ο?, ?

    SYNTHESIS *

    The terms ‘Nazareth’ and ‘Christ’ identify the high rank of Jesus. Both words also refer to the head.
    nazareth => crowned head
    jesus => anointed head

    The head also symbolizes the spirit, the thought and the leader
    John the Baptist, who represents the ancient word, will lose his head.
    His death will be a new way of saying that the old Word will be replaced by the Good News.

    13 – NAME AND COMMON NOUN WITH STRONG’S CONCORDANCE

    JESUS
    https://biblehub.com/greek/2424.htm IÉsous: Jesus or Joshua

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/3091.htm Yehoshua: “the LORD is salvation,”
    NASB Translation: Jeshua (28), Joshua (219).

    NAZARETH (NAZAR + ETH)

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/6256.htm eth: time

    The hebrew words “NAZAR”, “NAZIR”, “NEZER” come from the hebrew root “N.Z.R”
    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/5144.htm nazar: consecrate

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/5139.htm nazir: one consecrated, devoted
    Word Origin from nazar
    NASB Translation: consecrated ones (1), Nazirite (9), Nazirites (2), one distinguished (2), untrimmed vines (2).

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/5145.htm nezer: consecration, crown, Naziriteship

    CHRIST

    https://biblehub.com/greek/5547.htm Christos: the Anointed One, Messiah, Christ

    ZEBEDEE AND ZEBULUN

    Zebedee comes from the hebrew root “Z.B.D” (zabad, zebed) and expresses the Gift of God i.e. His Word
    https://biblehub.com/greek/2199.htm Zebedaios: Zebedee, the father of James and John
    Word Origin of Hebrew origin Zebadyah (h2069)

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/2069.htm Zebadyah or Zebadyahu: “Yah has bestowed,”
    from zabad (2064) and Yah

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/2064.htm zabad: bestow upon, endow with
    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/2065.htm zebed: endowment, gift

    https://biblehub.com/genesis/30-20.htm
    Genesis 30:20 God has given (2064:zabad) me a good gift (2065:zebed) … And she (Leah) named
    him Zebulun (2074)

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/2074.htm Zebulun: a son of Jacob

    JOHN

    John (IÓannÉs:Greek, Johanan:Hebrew) is close to Jonathan (“the LORD has given”)

    https://biblehub.com/greek/2491.htm IÓannÉs: John
    Word Origin: of Hebrew origin Yochanan/ Johanan

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/3083.htm Yehonathan: “the LORD has given,”
    NASB Translation: Jehonathan (2), Jonathan (120), Jonathan’s (2).

    JAMES (Jacob/Israel => James)

    Genesis 32:28 And He said, “Your name shall no longer be called Jacob (3290), but Israel ;

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/3290.htm Yaaqob: a son of Isaac

    https://biblehub.com/greek/2384.htm IakÓb: Jacob, the son of Isaac
    Word Origin: of Hebrew origin Yaaqob

    https://biblehub.com/greek/2385.htm IakÓbos: James

    SIMON (Simeon => Simon)

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/8095.htm Shimon: a son of Jacob,
    NASB Translation: Shimeon (1), Simeon (43).

    https://biblehub.com/greek/4613.htm Simon

    CAPERNAUM

    https://biblehub.com/greek/2584.htm Kapernaoum: Capernaum
    Word Origin: variant reading for Kapharnaoum, q.v.

    https://biblehub.com/greek/2746b.htm Kapharnaoum: Capernaum
    Word Origin: of Hebrew origin kaphar and Nachum

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/3723.htm kaphar: a village

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/5151.htm Nachum: an Israelite prophet
    Word Origin: from nacham

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/5162.htm nacham: to be sorry, console oneself

    BREATH, WIND, SPIRIT

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/7307.htm ruach: breath, wind, spirit
    https://biblehub.com/greek/4151.htm pneuma: wind, spirit
    https://biblehub.com/greek/417.htm anemos: wind

    GOSPEL, WORD
    https://biblehub.com/greek/2098.htm euaggelion: good news
    https://biblehub.com/greek/3056.htm logos: a word (as embodying an idea), a statement, a speech

    SUMMARY

    The detailed study of the two first chapters gives a good idea of what the gospel is about.
    It is a symbolic account that advocates the removal of barriers between hebrew and pagan people.

    In Mark’s Gospel, God speaks again to his people. He gives a new Word (the Good News).
    The key point is the forgiveness of sins, which will no longer be performed according to the Moses’ law, but according
    to another model described in the book of Isaiah (Isaiah 53:10-12 the suffering servant).
    This model, reinterpreted by Mark, frees the hebrews and pagans from sin since a third person takes upon himself the
    sins to redeem them.

    From the beginning, John the baptiser announces the new forgiveness of sins through an OT expression (Mark 1:7 to untie
    the sandals).
    When Jesus heals the paralytic, he uses 4 times the expression ”to forgive the sins” and he says explicitly that
    forgiveness equates healing (Mark 2:9) and that faith is needed to get forgiveness (Mark 2:5)

    The forgiveness is a first step where the redeemer takes upon himself the sins. He must then redeem them by shedding
    the blood.
    In the narrative, the redemption cannot be immediate because it would mean the death of the redeemer.
    The forgiveness will therefore be a promise of redemption so as to postpone the death of the redeemer and continue the
    story.
    As a result, there is a mixture of present and future tense since we are sure that the promise will come true,
    So, a healing is both a promise of redemption (apparent healing) and the redemption itself (actual healing)

    The forgiveness through redemption goes hand in hand with the opening to pagans.
    Mark writes it from the beginning, since Simon (an hebrew name) and Andrew (a pagan name) are brothers (Mark 1:16-17).

    The redemption for all is illustrated by 2 healings: that of the leper (hebrew) and that of the paralytic (pagan).
    Then Mark adds the Levi’s call to indicate that the circumcision of flesh is not part of the Good News

    Mark constantly evokes the Word of God through images such as food, clothing, wine or other words such as spirit,
    baptism, teaching, house, righteousness, Sabbath.
    He also evokes the Word of God through characters: John the baptiser represents the old Word while James and John
    represent the new Word (the Good News).

    At the end of the second chapter, Mark uses the images of the clothes and the wine to tell us that the Good News are
    not compatible with the previous Words transmitted by Moses and the prophets.
    In the very last verse (Mark 2:28), he announces that the Good News will supplant the previous Words by evoking the end
    of Sabbath.

    Mark’s characters have a particular characteristic, they can evolve and even mutate.
    Levi (son of Alphaeus) is a good example. After his call, his role and his name will change. We will never hear of
    Levi. However, he will reappear in another form like the Alpheus river.

    The main character, Jesus, is a complex figure who represents the temporary link between God and mankind.
    His role is to teach the Good News i.e. the redemption. To fulfill this role, Mark gives the character a divine and
    human dimension.
    The human dimension of Jesus prevents him from forgivening the sins because the forgiveness of sins is a divine
    prerogative (Mark 2:7).
    In order to forgive and redeem the sins wihout any human intervention, Mark creates a fully divine figure (the son of
    man) who will die to redeem the sins.

    At the end of his story, Mark will make sure that the new Word of God does not die and Mark will also
    remove the divine dimension from his characters because all that is divine must not die.

    Mark constructs his narrative by using and reinterpreting scenarios and expressions coming from OT sources. It
    is the first feature.
    The second one is the constant use of the double meaning.
    Consequently, to grasp the meaning and coherence of the narrative, it is necessary to identify the most relevant OT
    sources and to detect the double meaning.

    The first two chapters introduces the main elements needed to understand the narrative.
    The chapters 3-13 will provide the missing elements.
    The chapters 14-16 will be the final assembly that consolidates the whole gospel.
    Everything I have written about chapters 3-16 is a first view. I needed to do this work because the Mark’s Gospel is a
    web of connection.

    NEXT STEPS
    (Mark 3-7) the withered hand, the kingdom, the apostles and brothers, the divided house, parables, miracles,
    food laws , …, third synthesis.

    About Nanine Charbonnel and Maurice Mergui
    I mention their names in the tag list because I was very interested in their work, especially about the double
    meaning
    . Thanks to this, I discovered another way of reading the gospels.
    However my comments are not a copy and paste of their work because I have also integrated other readings.

  11. Reading Mark as a midrash, Chapter 11: The withered hand
    Tags: Midrash, Maurice Mergui, Nanine Charbonnel

    (Mark 3:1-6) SYNAGOGUE RULERS MUST TEACH THE GOOD NEWS

    Here is my reading plan

    1 – FIRST READING TO GET AN OVERVIEW
    2 – HEALING
    3 – A HEALING ON THE SABBATH DAY IN THE SYNAGOGUE
    4 – THE WITHERED HAND
    5 – STAND UP AMONG US!
    6 – STRETCH OUT YOUR HAND!
    7 – A MAN WITH AN UNCLEAN SPIRIT AND A MAN WITH THE WITHERED HAND
    8 – THE TEACHING HOUSES: THE SYNAGOGUE AND THE TEMPLE
    9 – A NEW TEACHING INSIDE THE SYNAGOGUE AND THE TEMPLE
    10 – WHAT IS LAWFUL ON THE SABBATH?
    11 – DESTRUCTION AND DESTROYERS
    12 – OLD WORD VERSUS GOOD NEWS: INCOMPATIBILTY AND REPLACEMENT
    13 – MARK PREPARES THE NEXT SCENE
    SUMMARY

    1 – FIRST READING TO GET AN OVERVIEW

    Mark 3:1 Once again Jesus entered the synagogue, and a man with a withered (3583) hand was
    there
    .

    Once again Jesus entered the synagogue on the Sabbath day.
    Once again, he meets a man. This time, the man does not have an unclean spirit but a withered hand.

    The man with a withered hand represents the synagogue rulers in charge of teaching the Word of God.
    His hand is withered for he goes on teaching the old Word while God gives a new Word (the Good News).
    The withered hand also refers to the withered tree that no longer bears fruit.

    Mark 3:2 In order to accuse Jesus, they were watching to see if He would heal on the
    Sabbath.

    ‘In order to accuse Jesus’ => Setting up the plot

    ‘Heal’ => Healing equates forgiveness of sins, this is the message that the Good News teach (Mark 2:9).

    Mark 3:3 Then Jesus said to the man with the withered hand, “Stand up (1453) among us.

    ‘Stand up among us’ => Jesus asks the synagogue rulers to leave the old Word of God in favor of the Good News.

    Mark 3:4 And He asked them, “Which is lawful on the Sabbath: to do good or to do evil,
    to save life or to destroy it?” But they were silent.

    ‘He asked them’ => Jesus speaks to those opposed to change

    ‘Which is lawful’ => Jesus contrasts the true meaning of the Sabbath day with its literal interpretation.

    * True meaning of Sabbath (according to the Good News)
    ‘to do good on the Sabbath, to save life’ => To heal (spiritual healing which means to forgive the sins)
    (Mark 2:9)

    * Literal interpretation of Sabbath (according to the Law of Moses)
    ‘to do evil, to destroy it’ => To heal (physical healing)

    Mark 3:5 Jesus looked around at them with anger and sorrow at their hardness of heart. Then He said to
    the man, “Stretch out your hand.” So he stretched it out, and it was restored
    .

    ‘Jesus looked around at them’ => Will Jesus’ opponents change their minds to follow him?

    ‘Jesus looked around at them with anger’ => Jesus’ failure and anger

    ‘Sorrow at their hardness of heart’ => Jesus’ opponents go on following the Moses’ Law

    ‘Stretch out your hand’ => Jesus uses his authority/power to impose the Good News

    ‘So he stretched it out’ => Finally, the man accepts the conversion to the Good News. As a result, his sin is
    forgiven and he is healed.

    ‘it was restored => From now, the synagogue rulers will teach the Good News. They regain their
    role
    as teachers of the Word of God.

    ‘they were silent’ => The purpose of the story is to teach the Good News, therefore the opponents will remain
    silent.

    Mark 3:6 At this, the Pharisees went out and began plotting with the Herodians how they might
    kill Jesus.

    Mark identifies two groups that want to kill Jesus

    2 – HEALING
    (to read more, see my Chapter 10)

    HEALING: FULFILMENT OF ISAIAH’S PROPHECY

    Healing equates forgiveness of sins. Jesus explicitly says it in (Mark 2:9) verse

    Mark 2:9 “Which is easier: to say to a paralytic, ‘Your sins are forgiven,or to say,
    Get up, pick up your mat, and walk’?

    Good News teaches us that the Son of Man forgives the men’s sins by taking them upon himself (Mark 2:10) in
    order to redeem them (Mark 8:31, Mark 10:45).

    Mark 2:10 But so that you may know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive
    sins
    …” He said to the paralytic,

    Mark 8:31 Then He began to teach (1321) them that the Son of Man must suffer many things
    and be rejected by the elders, chief priests, and scribes, and that He must be killed and after three days rise
    again.

    Mark 10:45 For even the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give His life as a
    ransom for many.

    OT SOURCES: THE SUFFERING SERVANT

    Isaiah 53:10 Yet it was the LORD’s will to crush Him and to cause Him to suffer; and when His
    soul is made a guilt offering, He will see His offspring, He will prolong His days, and the good pleasure of the
    LORD will prosper in His hand.

    Isaiah 53:11 After the anguish of His soul, He will see the light of life and be satisfied. By His knowledge
    My righteous Servant will justify many, and He will bear their iniquities.

    Isaiah 53:12 Therefore I will allot Him a portion with the great, and He will divide the spoils with the strong,
    because He has poured out His life unto death, and He was numbered with the transgressors. Yet He bore the
    sin of many
    and made intercession for the transgressors.

    He will bear their iniquities => The Son of Man forgives the sins by taking them upon himself (Mark 2:10)

    To cause Him to suffer => The Son of Man must suffer many things (Mark 8:31)

    He has poured out His life unto death => The Son of Man gives his life as a ransom for many (Mark 10:45)

    HEALING: TECHNICAL VIEW

    * Apparent and actual healing

    The forgiveness is a first step where the redeemer takes upon himself the sins. He must then redeem them by shedding
    the blood.
    In the narrative, the redemption cannot be immediate because it would mean the death of the redeemer.
    The forgiveness will therefore be a promise of redemption so as to postpone the death of the redeemer and continue the
    story.
    As a result, there is a mixture of present and future tense since we are sure that the promise will come true,
    So, a healing is both a promise of redemption (apparent healing) and the redemption itself (actual healing)

    * Jesus and the Son of Man

    The main character, Jesus, is a complex figure who represents the temporary link between God and mankind.
    His role is to teach the Good News i.e. the redemption. To fulfill this role, Mark gives the character a divine and
    human dimension.
    The human dimension of Jesus prevents him from forgivening the sins because the forgiveness of sins is a divine
    prerogative (Mark 2:7).
    In order to forgive and redeem the sins wihout any human intervention, Mark creates a fully divine figure (the son of
    man) who will die to redeem the sins.

    3 – A HEALING ON THE SABBATH DAY IN THE SYNAGOGUE

    Jesus has already entered the synagogue on the Sabbath day in order to teach the new Word of God (the Good News) and
    put it into the hearts of the Hebrews.

    Mark writes a new scene where Jesus enters the synagogue once again on the Sabbath day.
    Jesus will heal a man with a withered hand to mean that the synagogue rulers must teach the Good News.

    The Sabbath is the day dedicated to God and to the study of his Word. It is also the strong symbol that represents the
    old Word since God gave the very first manna (the spiritual bread) to his people when he established the first Sabbath
    (Exodus16:14-31)

    4 – THE WITHERED HAND

    The man with a withered hand represents the rulers of the synagogue in charge of teaching the Word of God
    His hand is withered for he goes on teaching the old Word while God gives a new Word (the Good News)
    As a result he separated from God and became a sinner.

    At this level, a first parallel appears with the Jeroboam’s hand (1 Kings 13:4) which becomes dry because he opposes
    the man of God.

    Mark 3:1 Once again Jesus entered the synagogue, and a man with a withered (3583) hand was there.

    Mark 3:5 Jesus looked around at them with anger and sorrow at their hardness of heart. Then He said to the
    man, “Stretch out your hand.” So he stretched it out, and it was restored.

    1 Kings 13:4 Now when King Jeroboam, who was at the altar in Bethel, heard the word that the man of God
    had cried out against it, he stretched out his hand and said, “Seize him!” But the hand he stretched
    out (7971)
    toward him withered, so that he could not pull it back.

    THE THEME OF DRYNESS IN MARK’S GOSPEL

    Mark 3:1 Once again Jesus entered the synagogue, and a man with a withered (3583) hand was there.

    Mark associates dryness and root to refer to the tree that is to bear fruit (Mark 4:6), (Mark 11:20-21).

    Mark 4:6 But when the sun rose, the seedlings were scorched, and they withered (3583)because
    they had no root.

    Mark 11:20 As they were walking back in the morning, they saw the fig tree withered (3583) from
    its roots
    .
    Mark 11:21 Peter remembered it and said, “Look, Rabbi! The fig tree You cursed has withered (3583).”

    Mark also associates dryness with the woman who is to give birth to God’s children (Mark 5:29).

    Mark 5:29 Immediately her bleeding stopped (3583), and she sensed in her body that she was healed of
    her affliction. (BSB)
    Mark 5:29 And immediately her flow of blood was dried up, and she knew in the body that she was healed
    from the affliction. (BLB)

    In our context (Mark 3:1), the withered hand symbolises the teaching of the ancient Word that does not bear fruit.
    In other Words, the old Word prevents the conversion of the pagans and is no longer suitable with the world in which
    the Hebrews live.
    Consequently, it must be replaced and the Good News must be taught.

    OT SOURCES

    Here are some verses to illustrate, May be the best one is (Hosea 9:16) verse. It combines the terms ‘withered’, ‘root’
    and expressions ‘bear fruit’, ‘bear children’.

    Hosea 9:16 Ephraim is struck down; their root is withered (3001); they cannot bear fruit. Even
    if they bear children, I will slay the darlings of their wombs.

    Ezekiel 19:1 “As for you, take up a lament for the princes of Israel

    Ezekiel 19:10 Your mother (Israel) was like a vine in your vineyard, planted by the water; it was
    fruitful and full of branches because of the abundant waters.

    Ezekiel 19:12 But it (vine/Israel) was uprooted in fury, cast down to the ground, and the east wind
    dried up (3001) its fruit. Its strong branches were stripped off and they withered (3001); the fire
    consumed them.

    Jeremiah 50:12 your mother (Babylon) will be greatly ashamed; she who bore you will be disgraced.
    Behold, she will be the least of the nations, a wilderness, a dry land, and a desert.

    Psalms 22:15 My strength is dried up (3001) like a potsherd , and my tongue sticks to the roof of my
    mouth. You lay me in the dust of death.

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/3001.htm yabesh: to be dry, dried up, or withered

    5 – STAND UP AMONG US!

    Jesus asks the synagogue rulers to join him so that they may be healed (saved).

    Mark 3:3 Then Jesus said to the man with the withered hand, “Stand up (1453) among us.

    STRONG’S CODE 1453: USAGE IN MARK’S GOSPEL

    https://biblehub.com/greek/1453.htm egeirÓ: to waken, to raise up

    Mark 1:31 So He went to her, took her by the hand, and helped (1453) her up. The fever left her,
    and she began to serve them.

    Mark 2:11 “I tell you, get up (1453) , pick up your mat, and go home.”

    Mark 3:3 Then Jesus said to the man with the withered hand, “Stand up (1453) among us.”

    Mark 4:27 Night and day he sleeps and wakes (1453), and the seed sprouts and grows, though he
    knows not how.

    Mark 5:41 Taking her by the hand, Jesus said, “Talitha koum!” which means, “Little girl, I say to you,
    get up (1453)!”

    Mark 9:27 But Jesus took him by the hand and helped him to his feet, and he stood up (1453).

    Mark 16:6 But he said to them, “Do not be alarmed. You are looking for Jesus the Nazarene, who was
    crucified. He has risen (1453) ! He is not here! See the place where they put Him.

    6 – STRETCH OUT YOUR HAND!

    The outstretched hand symbolises the power and will coming from God and His salvation.

    Mark 1:41 Moved with compassion, Jesus reached out (1614) His hand and touched the (leprous) man.
    “I am willing,” He said. “Be clean!” (BSB)

    Jesus reaches out his hand to mean that the son of man forgives the leper’s sin and will redeem it.

    In (Mark 3:5) verse, the idea of salvation is strengthened by the word ‘restored’

    Mark 3:5 Jesus looked around at them with anger and sorrow at their hardness of heart. Then He said
    to the man, “Stretch out (1614) your hand.” So he stretched (1614) it out, and it was restored (600).

    https://biblehub.com/greek/1614.htm ekteinÓ: to extend
    https://biblehub.com/greek/600.htm apokathistÉmi: to restore, give back

    OT SOURCES ABOUT THE (OUTSTRETCHED) HAND

    Exodus 14:21 Then Moses stretched out (5186) his hand over the sea. The LORD drove the sea back with
    a powerful east wind all that night and turned the sea into dry land. So the waters were divided

    By stretching out his hand, Moses means that God is going to act in order to save his people

    Isaiah 53:10 Yet it was the LORD’s will to crush Him and to cause Him to suffer; and when His soul is made a
    guilt offering, He will see His offspring, He will prolong His days, and the good pleasure of the LORD will prosper
    in His hand
    .

    OT SOURCES ABOUT THE REVIVAL AND SALVATION OF ISRAEL

    Isaiah 44:26 who confirms the message of his servant and fulfills the counsel of his messengers; who says to
    Jerusalem, “She will be inhabited,” and to the cities of Judah, “They will be rebuilt,” and I will restore
    (6965)
    her ruins;

    Isaiah 49:6 he says, “It is not enough for you to be my servant raising up (6965) the tribes of Jacob and
    restoring the protected ones of Israel. I will also make you a light for the nations, to be my salvation
    (3444)
    to the ends of the earth.”

    Isaiah 49:8 This is what the LORD says: I will answer you in a time of favor, and I will help you in the day
    of salvation (3444).
    I will keep you, and I will appoint you to be a covenant for the people, to restore (6965)
    the land,
    to make them possess the desolate inheritances,

    SYNTHESIS

    The rulers of the synagogue, and by extension Israel, must keep their place by adhering to the new Word of God
    In other words, since the Hebrew people (Israel) was the first to receive the Word of God, it must now accept the new
    Word. Otherwise it will be rejected and will be left behind the pagans who accept the new Word.

    Mark repeats what he has already said: (Mark 2:19 the guests of the bridegroom cannot fast), which means that the
    Hebrews (Israel) must eat the new manna (the new Word) that God gives them.

    I quote again the verse
    Mark 2:19 Jesus replied, “How can the guests of the bridegroom fast while He is with them? As long as
    He is with them, they cannot fast.

    7 – A MAN WITH AN UNCLEAN SPIRIT AND A MAN WITH THE WITHERED HAND

    A MAN IN THE SYNAGOGUE

    Mark 1:23 Suddenly a man with an unclean spirit cried out in the synagogue:

    Mark 3:1 Once again Jesus entered the synagogue, and a man with a withered (3583) hand was there.

    JESUS COMMANDS

    Mark 1:25 But Jesus rebuked the spirit. “Be silent!” He said. “Come out of him!

    Mark 3:5 … Then He said to the man, “Stretch out your hand.” So he stretched it out, and it was
    restored.

    IMMEDIATE OBEDIENCE TO JESUS

    Mark 1:26 At this, the unclean spirit threw the man into convulsions and came out with a loud shriek.

    Mark 3:5 …So he stretched it out, and it was restored.

    THE THEME OF DESTRUCTION

    Mark 1:24 “What do You want with us, Jesus of Nazareth? Have You come to destroy (622) us? I know who
    You are—the Holy One of God!”

    Mark 3:6 At this, the Pharisees went out and began plotting with the Herodians how they might kill (622)
    Jesus.

    https://biblehub.com/greek/622.htm apollumi: to destroy, destroy utterly

    8 – THE TEACHING HOUSES: THE SYNAGOGUE AND THE TEMPLE

    Mark 1:21 Then Jesus and His companions went to Capernaum, and right away Jesus entered the synagogue
    on the Sabbath and began to teach (1321).

    Mark 11:15 When they arrived in Jerusalem, Jesus entered the temple courts and began to drive out
    those who were buying and selling there …
    Mark 11:17 Then Jesus began to teach (1321) them, …

    https://biblehub.com/greek/strongs_1321.htm didaskÓ: to teach

    9 – A NEW TEACHING INSIDE THE SYNAGOGUE AND THE TEMPLE

    JESUS ENTERS, TEACHES AND THEN CASTS OUT THE UNCLEAN SPIRIT.

    Mark 1:21 Then Jesus and His companions went to Capernaum, and right away Jesus entered the synagogue
    on the Sabbath and began to teach.

    Mark 1:25 But Jesus rebuked the spirit. “Be silent!” He said. “Come out of him!

    JESUS COMMANDS TO TEACH THE GOOD NEWS

    Mark 3:3 Then Jesus said to the man with the withered hand, “Stand up among us.”

    Mark 3:5 Then He said to the man, “Stretch out (1614) your hand.” So he stretched (1614) it out,
    and it was restored.

    JESUS ENTERS, DRIVES OUT THOSE WHO PERVERT THE SPIRIT OF THE TEMPLE AND THEN TEACHES

    Mark 11:15 When they arrived in Jerusalem, Jesus entered the temple courts and began to drive out
    those who were buying and selling there. He overturned the tables of the money changers and the seats of
    those selling doves.

    Mark 11:17 Then Jesus began to teach them, and He declared, “Is it not written: ‘My house will be called
    a house of prayer for all the nations’? But you have made it ‘a den of robbers.’ ”

    JESUS ANNOUNCES THE DESTRUCTION OF THE TEMPLE

    Mark 13:1 As Jesus was leaving the temple, one of His disciples said to Him, “Teacher, look at the
    magnificent stones and buildings
    !”

    Mark 13:2 “Do you see all these great buildings?” Jesus replied. “Not one stone here will be left on another;
    every one will be thrown down.

    THE DESTRUCTION OF THE TEMPLE

    Mark 15:38 And the veil of the temple was torn in two from top to bottom.

    The temple is no longer the tabernacle where the Word of God dwells

    10 – WHAT IS LAWFUL ON THE SABBATH?

    https://biblehub.com/greek/1832.htm exesti: it is permitted, lawful

    Mark 3:4 And He asked them, “Which is lawful (1832) on the Sabbath: to do good or to do evil, to save
    life or to destroy it?” But they were silent.

    Mark contrasts the meaning of the Sabbath according to the Good News with its literal interpretation
    according to the Law of Moses.

    The true meaning of Sabbath (to do good on the Sabbath, to save life) :

    1 – (Mark 1:21) To teach the new Word of God
    2 – (Mark 2:23,24) To seek the new Word of God
    3 – (Mark 1:26), (Mark 3:2,5) Spiritual healing to convert hebrew people to the new Word of God

    The literal interpretation of Sabbath (to do evil on the Sabbath, to destroy)

    1 – (Mark 1:21) To teach a Word that does not come from Moses or the prophets
    2 – (Mark 2:23,24) To work (to pick the heads of grain)
    3 – (Mark 3:2,5) Physical healing

    Mark 1:21 Then Jesus and His companions went to Capernaum, and right away Jesus entered the synagogue on
    the Sabbath
    and began to teach.

    Mark 2:23 One Sabbath Jesus was passing through the grainfields, and His disciples began to pick the
    heads of grain
    as they walked along.
    Mark 2:24 So the Pharisees said to Him, “Look, why are they doing what is unlawful (1832) on the
    Sabbath?

    Mark 3:1 Once again Jesus entered the synagogue, and a man with a withered hand was there.
    Mark 3:2 In order to accuse Jesus, they were watching to see if He would heal on the Sabbath.

    Mark 3:4 And He asked them, “Which is lawful (1832) on the Sabbath: to do good or to do evil, to save
    life or to destroy it?” But they were silent.

    11 – DESTRUCTION AND DESTROYERS

    https://biblehub.com/greek/622.htm apollumi: to destroy, destroy utterly

    Mark 1:21 Then Jesus and His companions went to Capernaum, and right away Jesus entered the synagogue
    on the Sabbath and began to teach.

    Mark 1:24 What do You want with us, Jesus of Nazareth? Have You come to destroy (622) us? I know
    who You are—the Holy One of God!”

    Mark 3:6 At this, the Pharisees went out and began plotting with the Herodians how they might
    kill (622) Jesus.

    Mark 11:17 Then Jesus began to teach them, and He declared, “Is it not written: ‘My house will be called
    a house of prayer for all the nations’? But you have made it ‘a den of robbers.’ ”
    Mark 11:18 When the chief priests and scribes heard this, they looked for a way to kill (622) Him.
    For they were afraid of Him, because the whole crowd was astonished at His teaching.

    Mark 13:1 As Jesus was leaving the temple, one of His disciples said to Him, “Teacher, look at the
    magnificent stones and buildings
    !”
    Mark 13:2 “Do you see all these great buildings?” Jesus replied. “Not one stone here will be left on another;
    every one will be thrown down.

    Those who oppose Jesus understand that Good News will supplant the old Word. As a result, they want to destroy Jesus in
    order to go on living according to the old Word.
    The death of Jesus represents their refusal to accept the Good News.

    In the current scene (Mark 3:1-6), Mark identified the first groups wanting to destroy Jesus.
    This is an interesting point in terms of the narrative, but it didn’t learn us that Jesus was going to die.

    In fact, the death of Jesus is announced from the beginning of the gospel (Mark 1:7) through the message it conveys:
    the forgiveness of sins (through the redemption) is fulfilled by the death of the Redeemer.

    12 – OLD WORD VERSUS GOOD NEWS: INCOMPATIBILTY AND REPLACEMENT

    Mark 1:6 John the baptiser represents the Moses’ law and the voice of the prophets, for he wears the old garments.
    Mark 1:7 John announces the new Word that comes after him
    Mark 1:8 John announces the baptism of spirit that comes after the baptism of water. Mark 1:14 John will speak no more,
    the Good News become the Word of God

    Mark 1:15 Jesus proclaims the Good News, redemption is now
    Mark 1:17-18 Simon and Andrew leave their nets (the old Word) to follow Jesus
    Mark 1:19-30 James and John leave their father’s law (the Moses’ law) to follow Jesus

    Mark 1:24 The man in the synagogue grasps the incompatibility between the Good News and the old Word
    Mark 1:26 Jesus puts the Good News in the hearts/minds of the hebrews so that the new Word grows like a seed.
    Mark 1:29 The teaching of the Word moves from the synagogue to the house of Simon and Andrew.
    Mark 1:40-42 Jesus shows that Good News are more efficient than the Moses’ Law.

    Mark 2:21-22 Jesus uses images of clothes and wine to signify the incompatibility between Good News and the old Word.
    Mark 2:28 Jesus announces that the Good News will supplant what was before them i.e. the Moses’ law and the voice of
    the prophets

    Mark 3:5 The synagogue rulers must teach the Good News

    13 – MARK PREPARES THE NEXT SCENE

    Mark 3:6 At this, the Pharisees went out
    Mark 3:7 So Jesus withdrew with His disciples to the sea …

    SUMMARY

    The current scene (Mark 3:1-6) tells us that the synagogue rulers must teach the Good News.

    It is a new step in a story that describes the replacement of the old Word of God.

    The man with a withered hand represents the synagogue rulers in charge of teaching the Word of God
    His hand is withered for he goes on teaching the old Word while God gives a new Word (the Good News). As a result he
    separated from God and became a sinner.
    The withered hand also refers to the withered tree that no longer bears fruit.

    Jesus asks the rulers of the synagogue to join him so that they may be saved. (Mark 3:3 “Stand up among us.”)
    The rulers of the synagogue, and by extension Israel, must keep their place by adhering to the new Word of God
    In other words, since the Hebrew people (Israel) was the first to receive the Word of God, it must now accept the new
    Word. Otherwise it will be rejected and will be left behind the pagans who accept the new Word.

    In the current scene (Mark 3:1-6), Mark identified the first groups wanting to destroy Jesus.
    This is an interesting point in terms of the narrative, but it didn’t learn us that Jesus was going to die.
    In fact, the death of Jesus is announced from the beginning of the gospel (Mark 1:7) through the message it conveys:
    the forgiveness of sins (through the redemption) is fulfilled by the death of the Redeemer.

    NEXT STEPS

    (Mark 3:7-35) the kingdom, the apostles and brothers, the divided house
    (Mark 4-7) parables, miracles, John’s death, …, food laws, …, Third synthesis.

    My previous chapter:Reading Mark as a midrash, Chapter 10: Second synthesis
    (Mark 1-2) A NEW THOUGHT PUT INTO A NARRATIVE
    https://vridar.org/2019/10/05/ot-sources-for-the-gospel-of-mark-chapters-2-and-3/#comment-122729
    https://vridar.org/2019/10/05/ot-sources-for-the-gospel-of-mark-chapters-2-and-3/#comment-122730

  12. Reading Mark as a midrash, Chapter 12: The Kingdom
    Tags: Midrash, Maurice Mergui, Nanine Charbonnel

    (Mark 3:7-12) THE NEW INHERITANCE: THE KINGDOM OF GOD AND THE GARMENTS

    Here is my reading plan

    1 – FIRST READING TO GET AN OVERVIEW
    2 – THE SEA: THE BORDER, THE TEACHING AND THE BOAT
    3 – THE JORDAN: THE EASTERN BORDER
    4 – THE LAND OF CANAAN, THE KINGDOM OF GOD AND THE DIVISION BY CASTING LOTS
    5 – MORE ABOUT THE LAND OF CANAAN AND THE KINGDOM OF ISRAEL
    6 – GALILEE, AN HEBREW LAND
    7 – JUDEA, THE HEBREW LAND
    8 – JERUSALEM
    9 – IDUMEA/EDOM: THE RED COLOR, THAT OF GARMENT OF SPLENDOR AND THAT OF THE FRUIT OF THE VINE
    10 – THE REGION BEYOND THE JORDAN
    11 – THE VICINITY OF TYRE AND SIDON
    12 – “TO TOUCH JESUS” OR “TO TOUCH THE GARMENTS OF SALVATION
    13 – THE CROWD AND THE BLOOD OF JESUS
    14 – THE SON OF GOD, VARIOUS BEHAVIORS, SECRECY
    SUMMARY

    1 – FIRST READING TO GET AN OVERVIEW

    Mark 3:7 So Jesus withdrew with His disciples to the sea, accompanied by a large crowd from Galilee,
    Judea,

    The sea is the border between the Hebrews who received the Moses’ law and the pagans who
    don’t know it.

    Mark begins to list the various lands people come from to follow Jesus.

    In Mark’s gospel, Galilee and Judea are hebrew lands.

    Mark 3:8 Jerusalem, Idumea, the region beyond the Jordan, and the vicinity of Tyre and Sidon. The
    large crowd came to Him when they heard what great things He was doing.

    Jerusalem => The city where Jesus will shed his blood (the fruit of the vine) to redeem sins.

    Idumea => Idumea is a specific land since Jesus will not teach there.
    The interest of Idumea is due to its equivalence with Edom. In the bible, Edom is a pagan land, the word evokes the red
    color and the garment of splendor (Isaiah 63:1,2).
    The red color also refers to Esau, the twin of Jacob/Israel (Genesis 25:24-30).

    The region beyond the Jordan => the pagan land where people do not know God

    The vicinity of Tyre and Sidon => the land where people serve other gods than the God of Israel

    Mark 3:9 Jesus asked His disciples to have a boat ready for Him so that the crowd would not crush
    (2346)
    Him.

    https://biblehub.com/greek/2346.htm thlibÓ: to press, afflict

    “crush Him” => allusion to the wine press so as to evoke the fruit the vine and the blood of Jesus
    (Mark 14:23-25).

    “a boat ready for Him” => Jesus will soon use it to teach the hebrews and pagans (Mark 4:1,2).

    Mark 3:10 For He had healed so many that all who had diseases were pressing (1968) forward
    to touch Him.

    https://biblehub.com/greek/1968.htm epipiptÓ: to fall upon
    from Word Origin: from epi and piptÓ
    https://biblehub.com/greek/4098.htm piptÓ: to fall

    The crowd sees Jesus healing. As a result, the crowd falls upon Him to be healed.

    The behavior of the crowd must be put in perspective with the behavior of the unclean spirits (next verse).

    The unclean spirits see the same healings but they cry out “You are the Son of God!”.
    The unclean spirits have understood that the healings are forgiveness of sins (Mark 2:9) while the crowd has only seen
    physical healings.

    “To touch him” => allusion to the garments of salvation (Isaiah 61:10) worn by Jesus the savior

    Mark 3:11 And when the unclean spirits saw Him, they fell (4363) down before Him and cried out,
    “You are the Son of God!”

    https://biblehub.com/greek/4363.htm prospiptÓ: to fall upon, fall prostrate before
    Word Origin: from pros and piptÓ

    “the unclean spirits saw Him” => the unclean spirits saw Jesus forgiving the sins.

    As a result, they fall down before Him and cry out, “You are the Son of God!” because they know that the forgiveness
    of sins is a divine prerogative (Mark 2:7).

    Mark 3:12 But He warned them sternly not to make Him known.

    “Not to make Him known” => Jesus asks for secrecy so as to reduce oppositions before he enters Jerusalem, the
    city where he will shed his blood (the fruit of the vine) to redeem sins.

    “Them” => Jesus makes this request to the unclean spirits who grasp the true meaning of healing.

    2 – THE SEA: THE BORDER, THE TEACHING AND THE BOAT

    OT SOURCES: THE SEA AS A BORDER

    The sea is the border between the Hebrews who received the Moses’ law and the pagans who
    don’t know it.

    Deuteronomy 30:11 For this commandment which I command you today is not too mysterious for you,
    nor is it far off.
    13 Nor is it beyond the sea, that you should say, ‘Who will go over the sea for us and bring
    it to us
    , that we may hear it and do it
    14 But the word is very near you, in your mouth and in your heart, that you may do it

    MARK’S GOSPEL: THE SEA AS A PLACE TO ADDRESS HEBREWS AND PAGANS

    The call of the first disciples: Simon (an hebrew name) and Andrew (a pagan name)

    Mark 1:16 As Jesus was walking beside the Sea of Galilee, He saw Simon and his brother Andrew.
    They were casting a net into the sea, for they were fishermen.
    Mark 1:17 “Come, follow Me,” Jesus said, “and I will make you fishers of men.”

    The first common teaching for hebrews and pagans: the end of circumcision

    Mark 2:13 Once again Jesus went out beside the sea. All the people came to Him, and He
    taught them
    there.
    Mark 2:14 As He was walking along, He saw Levi son of Alphaeus sitting at the tax booth.
    “Follow Me,” He told him, and Levi got up and followed Him.

    The boat ready for Jesus

    Mark 3:7 So Jesus withdrew with His disciples to the sea, accompanied by a large crowd from Galilee,
    Judea,
    Mark 3:9 Jesus asked His disciples to have a boat ready for Him

    Jesus gets into the boat to teach hebrews and pagans

    Mark 4:1 Once again Jesus began to teach beside the sea, and such a large crowd gathered around Him
    that He got into a boat and sat in it, while all the people crowded along the shore.
    Mark 4:2 And He taught them many things in parables, and in His teaching He said,

    MARK’S GOSPEL: THE SEA AS BORDER

    The first crossing over the sea to teach the pagans

    Mark 5:1 On the other side of the sea, they arrived in the region of the Gerasenes.
    Mark 5:2 As soon as Jesus got out of the boat, He was met by a man with an unclean spirit, who was
    coming from the tombs.

    The second crossing over the sea to teach the pagans

    Mark 6:53 When they had crossed over, they landed at Gennesaret and moored the boat.
    Mark 6:54 As soon as they got out of the boat, the people recognized Jesus

    MARK’S GOSPEL: THE MUTIPLE HEALINGS PERFORMED NEAR THE SEA

    Multiple healings before crossing the sea

    Mark 3:7 So Jesus withdrew with His disciples to the sea,
    Mark 3:10 For He had healed so many that all who had diseases were pressing forward to touch Him.

    Multiple healings after crossing the sea

    Mark 6:54 As soon as they got out of the boat, the people recognized Jesus
    Mark 6:55 and ran through that whole region, carrying the sick on mats to wherever they heard He was

    3 – THE JORDAN: THE EASTERN BORDER

    OT SOURCES: THE EASTERN BORDER OF THE LAND OF CANAAN

    Numbers 34:1 Then the LORD said to Moses,
    Numbers 34:2 “Command the Israelites and say to them: When you enter the land of Canaan, it will be
    allotted to you as an inheritance with these boundaries:

    Numbers 34:10 And your eastern border will run straight from Hazar-enan to Shepham,
    Numbers 34:11 then go down from Shepham to Riblah on the east side of Ain and continue along the slopes east
    of the Sea of Chinnereth,
    Numbers 34:12 Then the border will go down along the Jordan and end at the Salt Sea.

    MARK’S GOSPEL: THE EASTERN BORDER OF THE HEBREW LANDS

    Mark 4:35 On the same day, when evening had come, He said to them, Let us cross over to the other
    side
    .”
    Mark 5:1 On the other side of the sea, they arrived in the region of the Gerasenes.

    4 – THE LAND OF CANAAN, THE KINGDOM OF GOD AND THE DIVISION BY CASTING LOTS

    OT SOURCES: Land Division West of the Jordan

    Joshua 14:1 Now these are the portions that the Israelites inherited in the land of Canaan,
    as distributed by Eleazar the priest, Joshua son of Nun, and the heads of the families of the tribes of
    Israel.
    Joshua 14:2 Their inheritance was assigned by lot (1486) for the nine and a half tribes, as the
    LORD had commanded through Moses.

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/1486.htm goral: a lot (for casting)

    MARK’S GOSPEL: THE KINGDOM OF GOD ON EARTH

    Mark 1:15 “The time is fulfilled,” He (Jesus) said, “and the kingdom of God is near. Repent and
    believe in the gospel!”

    Land of Canaan => The kingdom of God on earth (the hebrew and pagan lands)

    MARK’S GOSPEL: THE SPIRITUAL KINGDOM (THE SALVATION)

    Mark 15:24 And they crucified Him. They (the pagan soldiers) also divided His garments by casting (906)
    lots (2819)
    to decide what each of them would take.

    https://biblehub.com/greek/906.htm ballÓ: to throw, cast
    https://biblehub.com/greek/2819.htm klÉros: a lot

    The tribes of Israel inherits the Land of Canaan by casting lots => The pagans divides the garments
    of salvation by casting lots
    in order to take their share of salvation

    Salvation refers to the salvation of the soul, the spiritual dimension of the kingdom.
    Mark 8:36 What does it profit a man to gain the whole world, yet forfeit his soul?

    I recall that Jesus means savior
    https://biblehub.com/greek/2424.htm IÉsous: Jesus or Joshua, of Hebrew origin Yehoshua
    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/3091.htm Yehoshua: “the LORD is salvation,”

    And I quote again Isaiah 61:10
    Isaiah 61:10 I will rejoice greatly in the LORD, my soul will exult in my God;
    for He has clothed me with garments of salvation and wrapped me in a robe of righteousness,
    as a bridegroom wears a priestly headdress, as a bride adorns herself with her jewels.

    The garments of Jesus are therefore the garments of salvation that God gives to men

    Jesus is only the temporary link between God (the bridegroom) and men.
    Mark 2:20 But the time will come when the bridegroom will be taken from them

    Jesus teaches the Good News, a new forgiveness of sins which leads to salvation.

    Actual forgiveness of sins: Jesus pays the ransom to redeem sins
    Mark 15:37 But Jesus let out a loud cry and breathed His last.
    Salvation: Entry into the kingdom of God
    Mark 16:2 Very early on the first day of the week, just after sunrise, they went to the tomb.
    Mark 16:4 But when they looked up, they saw that the stone had been rolled away

    The open tomb is the symbolic place where the new Word of God dwells and reigns.

    5 – MORE ABOUT THE LAND OF CANAAN AND THE KINGDOM OF ISRAEL

    To read more
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Jewish_states_and_dynasties

    WESTERN LAND OF THE JORDAN (THE LAND OF CANAAN) AND EASTERN LAND OF THE JORDAN

    The second hebrew generation crosses the Jordan river opposite Jericho so as to conquer the Land of Canaan.

    The second hebrew generation is circumcised in the Jericho plain. The manna ceases.

    Before entering the land of Canaan, Moses distributes the land east of the Jordan River to two and half tribes
    (Reuben,Gad, and half of the tribe of Manasseh).

    All tribes participate in the conquest of the land of Canaan.

    After the conquest, Joshua and the chiefs distribute the land of Canaan to nine and a half tribes. Each tribe
    receive its portion by casting lots.

    The descendants of Joseph are the two tribes, Manasseh and Ephraim.

    No portion of the land is given to the Levites, except for cities.

    Six cities have a special status, the “six cities of refuge” where a person who kills someone unintentionally may
    flee there.

    Crossing the Jordan (Joshua 3)
    The second generation circumcised and the end of Manna (Joshua 5:1-12)
    The Inheritance East of the Jordan (Joshua 13) (Numbers 32:1–42) (Deuteronomy 3:12–22)
    Land division West of the Jordan: The land of Canaan divided by casting lot (Joshua 14-19)
    The Boundaries of Canaan (Numbers 34:1-15)
    Moses sees the land of Canaan and dies without entering it (Deuteronomy 32:48-52)
    Forty-Eight Cities for the Levites (Numbers 35:1–8) (1 Chronicles 6:54–81)
    Six Cities of Refuge (Joshua 20) (Numbers 35:9–34) (Deuteronomy 4:41–43) (Deuteronomy 19:1–14)

    The Map
    https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c2/12_Tribes_of_Israel_Map.svg

    THE UNITED KINGDOM OF ISRAEL

    According to the Bible, a united kingdom of Israel existed in the time of David and Solomon and then it was divided.

    THE DIVIDED KINGDOM

    The first Book of Kings describes the split of the unified kingdom into northern and southern parts
    The southern kingdom is composed of the house of Judah and the tribe of Benjamin, Jerusalem is the capital.
    The other tribes form the northern kingdom. Shechem is the capital.

    1 Kings 12: 21 And when Rehoboam came to Jerusalem, he assembled all the house of Judah with the tribe of
    Benjamin
    , …, to fight against the house of Israel
    1 Kings 12:25 Then Jeroboam built Shechem in the mountains of Ephraim, and dwelt there. Also he went out
    from there and built Penuel.

    The Map
    https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bd/Kingdoms_of_Israel_and_Judah_map_830.svg

    EXPECTATION FOR A REUNITED KINGDOM

    Isaiah 5.7 For the vineyard of the LORD of Hosts is the house of Israel, and the men of
    Judah are the plant
    of His delight. He looked for justice, but saw bloodshed; for righteousness, but heard a cry
    of distress.

    One Nation with One King (Ezekiel 37:15-28)

    Ezekiel 37:16 “<And you, son of man, take a single stick (6086) and write on it:
    ‘Belonging to Judah and to the Israelites associated with him.’ Then take another stick (6086) and
    write on it: ‘Belonging to Joseph—the stick of Ephraim—and to all the house of Israel associated with
    him.’
    Ezekiel 37:17 Then join them together into one stick, so that they become one in your hand.

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/6086.htm ets: tree, trees, wood

    Ezekiel 37:22 I will make them one nation in the land, on the mountains of Israel, and one king will
    rule over all of them. Then they will no longer be two nations and will never again be divided into two
    kingdoms
    .

    HASMONEAN DYNASTY

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hasmonean_dynasty

    Judea gained full independence and expanded into the neighboring regions of Samaria, Galilee, Iturea,
    Perea, and Idumea.
    The major source of information about the origin of the Hasmonean dynasty is the books 1 Maccabees and 2 Maccabees.

    The Map
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hasmonean_dynasty#/media/File:Hasmonean_kingdom.jpg

    6 – GALILEE, AN HEBREW LAND

    OT SOURCES:

    Naphtali’s inheritance (Joshua 19:32-39)
    Galilee is located in the hill country of Naphtali and Kedesh is a city of refuge

    Joshua 20:7 So they set apart Kedesh (6943) in Galilee in the hill country of Naphtali,
    Shechem in the hill country of Ephraim, and Kiriath-arba (that is, Hebron) in the hill country of Judah.

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/1551.htm galil
    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/6943.htm Qedesh: “sanctuary,”

    *Galilee, a northern land near Tyre

    1 Kings 9:10 Now at the end of the twenty years during which Solomon built these two houses, the house of
    the LORD and the royal palace
    1 Kings 9:11 King Solomon gave twenty towns in the land of Galilee (1551) to Hiram king of Tyre,
    who had supplied him with cedar and cypress logs and gold for his every desire

    MARK’S GOSPEL: AN HEBREW LAND

    The first land where Jesus begins to proclaim the Good News

    Mark 1:14 And after the delivering up of John, Jesus came into Galilee, proclaiming the gospel
    of God (Berean Literal and Aramaic Bible)

    Jesus teaches in the synagogues of Galilee

    Mark 1:21 Then Jesus and His companions went to Capernaum, and right away Jesus entered the synagogue
    on the Sabbath and began to teach
    Mark 1:28 And the news about Jesus spread quickly through the whole region of Galilee

    Mark 1:39 So He went throughout Galilee, preaching in their synagogues and driving out demons.

    Mark 3:1 Once again Jesus entered the synagogue, and a man with a withered hand was there.

    Jesus announces the new covenant that God (the bridegroom) offers to Israel (the mother-in-law)

    Mark 1:31 So He went to her, took her by the hand, and helped her up. The fever left her, and she
    began to serve them.

    Jesus shows to hebrew people that the Good News is more efficient than the Moses’ laws.

    Mark 1:40 Then a leper (an hebrew) came to Jesus, begging on his knees: “If You are willing, You can
    make me clean.”
    Mark 1:42 And immediately the leprosy left him, and the man was cleansed.

    The pagans come to Galilee to take their share of Good News and then leave.

    Mark 2:11 “I tell you (paralytic/pagan), get up, pick up your mat, and go home.”

    7 – JUDEA, THE HEBREW LAND

    OT SOURCES: THE END OF EXODUS

    CROSSING THE JORDAN OPPOSITE JERICHO

    Joshua 3:16 So the people crossed over opposite Jericho.
    Joshua 3:17 The priests carrying the ark of the covenant of the LORD stood firm on dry ground in the
    middle of the Jordan
    , while all Israel crossed over the dry ground, until the entire nation had crossed the
    Jordan.

    THE SECOND GENERATION CIRCUMCISED AND THE END OF MANNA (JOSHUA 5:1-12)

    Joshua 5:5 Though all who had come out were circumcised, none of those born in the wilderness on the
    journey from Egypt had been circumcised.
    Joshua 5:8 And after all the nation had been circumcised, they stayed there in the camp until they
    were healed
    .

    Joshua 5:11 The day after the Passover, on that very day, they ate unleavened bread and roasted
    grain from the produce of the land.
    Joshua 5:12 And the day after they had eaten from the produce of the land, the manna ceased. There was
    no more manna for the Israelites, so that year they began to eat the crops of the land of Canaan

    JUDAH’S INHERITANCE (JOSHUA 15:1-12)

    Joshua 15:1 Now the allotment for the clans of the tribe of Judah extended to the border of
    Edom, to the Wilderness of Zin at the extreme southern boundary:

    Joshua 15:5 The eastern border was the Salt Sea as far as the mouth of the Jordan.

    MARK’S GOSPEL: THE HEBREW LAND

    Mark begins his story in the same way as Isaiah. Both address the same audience, the people of Judea and Jerusalem.

    Isaiah 1:1 This is the vision concerning Judah and Jerusalem that Isaiah son of Amoz saw
    during the reigns of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah.

    Mark 1:2 As it is written in Isaiah the prophet: “Behold, I will send My messenger ahead of You,
    who will prepare Your way.”
    Mark 1:5 People went out to him (John) from all of Jerusalem and the countryside of Judea.
    Confessing their sins, they were baptized by him in the Jordan River.

    THE PARALLELS BETWEEN 2 SCENES: JOHN NEAR THE JORDAN RIVER AND JESUS NEAR THE SEA

    Scene 1: John addresses the hebrews and announces them a new forgiveness of sins.

    Mark 1:4 John appeared, baptizing in the wilderness and proclaiming a baptism of repentance for the
    forgiveness of sins

    Mark 1:5 People went out to him from all of Jerusalem and the countryside of Judea. Confessing
    their sins, they were baptized by him in the Jordan River.

    Scene 2: Jesus heals many people coming from hebrew and pagan lands.
    Healing equates forgiveness of sins (Mark 2:9) .

    Mark 3:7 So Jesus withdrew with His disciples to the sea, accompanied by a large crowd from
    Galilee, Judea,
    Mark 3:8 Jerusalem, Idumea, the region beyond the Jordan, and the vicinity of Tyre and Sidon. …
    Mark 3:10 For He had healed so many that all who had diseases were pressing forward to touch Him.

    JESUS COMES TO JUDEA AND BEGINS TO TEACH

    Mark 10:1 Then Jesus left that place and went into the region of Judea, beyond the Jordan. Again the
    crowds came to Him and He taught them, as was His custom.

    JESUS HEALS BARTIMAEUS NEAR JERICHO

    The scene takes place near Jericho, the first city after the crossing of the Jordan River (Joshua 3:16)

    Mark 10:46 Next, they came to Jericho. And as Jesus and His disciples were leaving Jericho
    with a large crowd, a blind beggar named Bartimaeus, the son of Timaeus, was sitting beside the road

    Mark 10:50 Throwing off his cloak (2440), Bartimaeus jumped up and came to Jesus.
    Mark 10:52 “Go,” said Jesus, “your faith has healed you.”

    Bartimaeus throws off his old cloak, which means that he leaves the Moses’ Law. As a result, he is healed
    (his sins are forgiven).

    8 – JERUSALEM

    OT SOURCES:

    DAVID CONQUERS JERUSALEM

    2 Samuel 5:6 Now the king (David) and his men marched to Jerusalem against the Jebusites who
    inhabited the land. The Jebusites said to David: “You will never get in here. Even the blind and lame can repel
    you.” For they thought, “David cannot get in here.”

    2 Samuel 5:7 Nevertheless, David captured the fortress of Zion (that is, the City of David)

    THE ARK BROUGHT TO JERUSALEM (SAMUEL AND CHRONICLES )

    2 Samuel 6:12 Now it was reported to King David, “The LORD has blessed the house of Obed-edom and all that
    belongs to him, because of the ark of God.”
    So David went and had the ark of God brought up from the house of Obed-edom into the City of David
    with rejoicing

    1 Chronicles 15:11 David summoned the priests Zadok and Abiathar and the Levites Uriel, Asaiah,
    Joel, Shemaiah, Eliel, and Amminadab.
    1 Chronicles 15:12 And he said to them, “You are the heads of the Levitical families. You and your
    relatives must consecrate yourselves so that you may bring the ark of the LORD, the God of Israel, to the place
    I have prepared for it.

    THE ARK ENTERS THE TEMPLE

    2 Chronicles 5:1 So all the work that Solomon had performed for the house of the LORD was
    completed.

    2 Chronicles 5:7 Then the priests brought the ark of the covenant of the LORD to its place in the
    inner sanctuary of the temple
    , the Most Holy Place, beneath the wings of the cherubim.

    THE HOLY CITY WHERE THE UNCIRCUMCISED (PAGANS) WILL NO LONGER ENTER

    Isaiah 52:1 Awake, awake, clothe yourself with strength, O Zion! Put on your garments of splendor, O
    Jerusalem, holy city! For the uncircumcised and unclean will no longer enter you.

    THE FEET ON THE MOUNT OF OLIVES AND THE GOOD NEWS

    Isaiah 52:7 How beautiful on the mountains are the feet of those who bring good news (1319),
    who proclaim peace, who bring good tidings, who proclaim salvation, who say to Zion, “Your God reigns!”

    Zechariah 14:3 Then the LORD will go out to fight against those nations, as He fights in the day of battle.
    Zechariah 14:4 On that day His feet will stand on the Mount of Olives, east of Jerusalem, and the
    Mount of Olives will be split in two from east to west, forming a great valley, with half the mountain moving to the
    north and half to the south.

    MARK’S GOSPEL:

    THE FEET ON THE MOUNT OF OLIVES (MARK 11:1) AND THE GOOD NEWS (MARK 11:15,17)

    Mark 11:1 As they approached Jerusalem and came to Bethphage and Bethany
    at the Mount of Olives, Jesus sent out two of His disciples

    Mark 11:15 When they arrived in Jerusalem, Jesus entered the temple courts and began to drive out
    those who were buying and selling there …
    Mark 11:17 Then Jesus began to teach them, …

    JESUS FULFILLS THE GOOD NEWS

    Jesus fulfills the new Word of God by shedding his blood in order to redeem the sins
    Mark 15:37 But Jesus let out a loud cry and breathed His last.

    As a result, the temple as a symbol of the old Word is destroyed
    Mark 15:38 And the veil of the temple was torn in two from top to bottom.

    (Mark 15:38 reinterprets Zechariah14:4)

    Zechariah 14:4 On that day His feet will stand on the Mount of Olives, east of Jerusalem, and the
    Mount of Olives will be split in two
    from east to west, forming a great valley, with half the
    mountain moving to the north and half to the south.

    9 – IDUMEA/EDOM: THE RED COLOR => ESAU, THE GARMENT OF SPLENDOR, THE FRUIT OF THE VINE

    EDOM => IDUMEA

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/123.htm edom: the name of a condiment
    Word Origin: from the same as adom
    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/122.htm adom: red

    https://biblehub.com/greek/2401.htm Idoumaia: Idumea, a region South of Judea
    Word Origin: of Hebrew origin edom

    OT SOURCES:

    EDOM, A PAGAN LAND

    Joshua 15:1 Now the allotment for the clans of the tribe of Judah extended to the border of Edom
    (123)
    , to the Wilderness of Zin at the extreme southern boundary:

    Isaiah 34:5 When My sword has drunk its fill in the heavens, then it will come down upon Edom
    (123)
    , upon the people I have devoted to destruction.
    Isaiah 34:6 The sword of the Lord is filled with blood,

    EDOM => RED COLOR => ESAU, THE TWIN OF JACOB

    Genesis 25:24 When her (Rebecca) time came to give birth, there were indeed twins (8380) in her womb
    Genesis 25:25 The first one came out red (132), covered with hair like a fur coat; so they named him
    Esau
    Genesis 25:26 After this, his brother came out grasping Esau’s heel; so he was named Jacob.

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/8380.htm taom: twins
    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/132.htm admoni: red, ruddy

    Genesis 25:30 He (Esau) said to Jacob, “Let me eat some of that red (122) stew, for I am
    famished.” (That is why he was also called Edom (123).)

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/122.htm adom: red
    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/123.htm edom: the name of a condiment

    EDOM => THE RED COLOR, THAT OF GARMENT OF SPLENDOR AND THAT OF THE FRUIT OF THE VINE

    Isaiah 63:1 Who is this coming from Edom (123), from Bozrah with crimson-stained garments?
    Who is this robed in splendor, marching in the greatness of His strength? “It is I, proclaiming
    vindication, mighty to save.”

    Isaiah 63:2 Why are Your clothes red (122), and Your garments like one who treads the
    winepress (1660) ?

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/122.htm adom: red
    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/123.htm edom: the name of a condiment
    Word Origin: from the same as adom
    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/1660.htm gath: a wine press

    Isaiah 52:1 Awake, awake, clothe yourself with strength, O Zion! Put on your garments of
    splendor, O Jerusalem,
    holy city! For the uncircumcised (6189) and unclean will no longer enter you.

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/899.htm beged: apparel
    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/8597.htm tipharah: beauty, glory
    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/6189.htm arel: having foreskin (uncircumcised)

    MARK’S GOSPEL:

    EDOM => RED COLOR => ESAU (THE TWIN) => THOMAS (ONE OF THE TWELVE)
    Mark 3:16 These are the twelve He appointed: Simon (whom He named Peter),
    Mark 3:18 Andrew, Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew, Thomas, James son of Alphaeus, Thaddaeus, Simon the
    Cananite,

    https://biblehub.com/greek/2381.htm ThÓmas: “the twin,”

    RED COLOR => THE BLOOD OF JESUS (THE FRUIT OF THE VINE)

    Mark 14:23 Then He took the cup, gave thanks, and gave it to them, and they all drank from it.
    Mark 14:24 He said to them, “This is My blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many.
    Mark 14:25 Truly I tell you, I will no longer drink of the fruit of the vine until that day when I
    drink it anew in the kingdom of God.”

    THE WINE PRESS

    Mark 14:32 Then they came to a place called Gethsemane (1068), and Jesus told His disciples, “Sit
    here while I pray.

    https://biblehub.com/greek/1068.htm GethsÉmani: Gethsemane
    Word Origin: of Hebrew origin gath
    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/1660.htm gath: a wine press

    RED COLOR => THE PAGAN GARMENT OF SPLENDOR: THE PURPLE ROBE (THE PALUDAMENTUM)

    Mark 15:17 They (the soldiers) dressed Him in a purple robe (4029), twisted together a crown of
    thorns, and set it on His head
    Mark 15:18 And they began to salute Him: “Hail, King of the Jews!”

    Mark 15:20 After they had mocked Him, they removed the purple robe (4029) and put His own clothes back
    on Him. Then they led Him out to crucify Him.

    https://biblehub.com/greek/4209.htm porphura: purple fish, purple dye, purple cloth
    Usage: a purple garment, indicating power or wealth.

    So as to salute Jesus as a king, the roman soldiers temporarily dress Jesus in their own garment of splendor,
    the red paludamentum

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paludamentum
    In Republican and Imperial Rome, the paludamentum was a cloak or cape fastened at one shoulder, worn
    by military commanders
    (e.g. the legionary Legatus)
    As supreme commander of the whole Roman army, Roman emperors were often portrayed wearing it in their
    statues
    (e.g. the Prima Porta Augustus) and on their coinage.
    The paludamentum was generally crimson, scarlet, or purple in colour, or sometimes white.

    I point out that the garments of splendor are not the own garments of Jesus.

    Mark 15:20 After they had mocked Him, they removed the purple robe and put His own clothes back on
    Him
    . Then they led Him out to crucify Him.

    The own garments of Jesus are the garments of salvation

    Mark 15:24 And they crucified Him. They also divided His garments by casting lots to decide what
    each of them would take

    See my Chapter : “The land of Canaan, the kingdom of God and the division by casting lots”

    TO SUM UP

    Step 1: The red garment of splendor

    Idumea/Edom => The red color and the pagans
    Isaiah 63:1, Isaiah 52:1 => Edom, The red garment of splendor
    Roman source => The red paludamentum worn by military commanders and emperors.
    Mark’s gospel => The roman soldiers temporarily dress Jesus in their own garment of splendor
    (the red paludamentum) so as to salute the king/emperor

    Step 2: The garments of salvation

    Idumea/Edom => The red color and the pagans
    Isaiah 63:2 => Edom, the fruit of the vine
    Isaiah 61:10 => The garment of salvation
    Mark’s gospel => The roman soldiers (the uncircumcised pagans) dress Jesus in his own garments
    (the garments of salvation) and then divide them by casting lots in order to take their share of salvation.

    10 – THE REGION BEYOND THE JORDAN, THE PAGAN LAND

    OT SOURCES

    The Inheritance East of the Jordan (Joshua 13:8-33)
    1 – Reuben’s Inheritance
    2 – Gad’s Inheritance
    3 – Manasseh’s Eastern Inheritance

    MARK’S GOSPEL: THE PAGAN LAND BEYOND THE SEA

    To make this clear, Mark writes that people feed pigs there.

    Mark 4:35 On the same day, when evening had come, He said to them, “Let us cross over to the other
    side
    .”
    Mark 5:1 On the other side of the sea, they arrived in the region of the Gerasenes.

    Mark 5:14 Those tending (1006) the pigs ran off and reported this in the town and countryside, and the
    people went out to see what had happened

    https://biblehub.com/greek/1006.htm boskÓ: to feed

    Leviticus 11:7 And the pig, though it has a split hoof completely divided, does not chew the cud; it
    is unclean for you.
    Leviticus 11:8 You must not eat their meat or touch their carcasses; they are unclean for you.

    11 – THE VICINITY OF TYRE AND SIDON, THE LAND WHERE PEOPLE SERVE OTHER GODS

    OT SOURCES:

    ASHER’S INHERITANCE

    Joshua 19:24 The fifth lot came out for the clans of the tribe of Asher:

    Joshua 19:28 It went on to Ebron, Rehob, Hammon, and Kanah, as far as Greater Sidon.

    Joshua 19:29 The border then turned back toward Ramah as far as the fortified city of Tyre,
    turned toward Hosah, and came out at the Sea

    THE LAND WHERE PEOPLE SERVE BAAL OR OTHER GODS

    1 Kings 16:31 And as if it were not enough for him to walk in the sins of Jeroboam son of Nebat,
    he (Ahab son of Omri) even married Jezebel the daughter of Ethbaal (856) king of the Sidonians,
    and he then proceeded to serve and worship [Baal].

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/856.htm Ethbaal: “with Baal,” a king of Sidon
    from eth and Baal

    Judges 10:6 And again the Israelites did evil in the sight of the LORD. They served the Baals
    (1168),
    the Ashtoreths, the gods of Aram (758), Sidon, and Moab, and the gods of the Ammonites and
    Philistines. Thus they forsook the LORD and did not serve Him.

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/758.htm Aram: Syria and its inhab
    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/1168.htm The same as ba’al; Baal, a Phoenician deity — Baal, (plural) Baalim.

    MARK’S GOSPEL:

    THE LAND WHERE PEOPLE SERVE OTHER GODS THAN THE GOD OF ISRAEL

    Mark uses the word Syrophoenician to evoke Baal and the gods of Aram (Syria)

    Mark 7:24 Jesus left that place and went to the region of Tyre.

    Mark 7:26 Now she was a Greek woman of Syrophoenician (4949) origin, and she kept asking Jesus to drive
    the demon out of her daughter

    https://biblehub.com/greek/4949.htm Surophoinikissa: a Syrophoenician (woman)

    12 – “TO TOUCH JESUS” OR “TO TOUCH THE GARMENTS OF SALVATION”

    Mark 3:10 For He had healed so many that all who had diseases were pressing forward to
    touch (680) Him
    .

    https://biblehub.com/greek/680.htm haptomai: touch

    To Touch Jesus => To touch his garments of salvation => To be healed

    Below are other verses setting the equivalences

    Mark 5:27 When the woman heard about Jesus, she came up through the crowd behind Him and
    touched (680) His cloak
    Mark 5:28 For she kept saying, “If only I touch (680) His garments, I will be healed.

    To touch His garments = To be healed

    Mark 5:30 At once Jesus was aware that power had gone out from Him. Turning to the crowd, He asked, “Who
    touched (680) My garments
    ?”
    Mark 5:31 His disciples answered, “You can see the crowd pressing in on You, and yet You ask, ‘Who touched
    (680) Me
    ?’”

    To touch the garments of Jesus = To touch Jesus

    Jesus the savior wears the garments of salvation
    Isaiah 61:10
    I will rejoice greatly in the LORD, my soul will exult in my God;
    for He has clothed me with garments of salvation and wrapped me in a robe of righteousness,

    13 – THE CROWD AND THE BLOOD OF JESUS

    *THE CROWD CRUSHES JESUS

    Mark 3:8 Jerusalem, Idumea, the region beyond the Jordan, and the vicinity of Tyre and Sidon. The large crowd
    came to Him when they heard what great things He was doing.
    Mark 3:9 Jesus asked His disciples to have a boat ready for Him so that the crowd (3793) would not
    crush (2346) Him.

    https://biblehub.com/greek/3793.htm ochlos: a crowd, multitude, the common people
    https://biblehub.com/greek/2346.htm thlibÓ: to press, afflict

    THE CROWD COMES TO SEIZE JESUS IN GETHSEMANE

    Mark 14:32 Then they came to a place called Gethsemane (1068), and Jesus told His disciples, “Sit
    here while I pray.”

    https://biblehub.com/greek/1068.htm GethsÉmani: Gethsemane
    Word Origin: of Hebrew origin gath
    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/1660.htm gath: a wine press

    Mark 14:43 While Jesus was still speaking, Judas, one of the Twelve, arrived, accompanied by a crowd
    (3793)
    armed with swords and clubs, sent from the chief priests, scribes, and elders.

    Mark 14:46 Then the men seized Jesus and arrested Him

    THE CROWD CONDEMNS JESUS TO SHED HIS BLOOD

    Mark 15:14 Then Pilate said to them, “Why, what evil has He done?” But they cried out all the more, “Crucify
    Him!”

    Mark 15:15 And wishing to satisfy the crowd (3793), Pilate released Barabbas to them. But he had
    Jesus flogged, and handed Him over to be crucified.

    14 – THE SON OF GOD, VARIOUS BEHAVIORS, SECRECY

    Mark 1:1 This is the beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God.

    FOR THE FIRST TIME, MARK PUTS THESE WORDS IN THE MOUTH OF HIS CHARACTERS.

    Mark 3:11 And when the unclean (169) spirits saw Him, they fell down before Him and cried out,
    You are the Son of God!”

    THE BEHAVIOR OF THE UNCLEAN SPIRITS (SCENE 1, SCENE 2)

    * Scene 1 (Mark 1:22-27) => The man with an unclean spirit cries out” the Holy One of God”

    Mark 1:22 The people were astonished at His teaching, because He taught as one who had authority,
    and not as the scribes.
    Mark 1:23 Suddenly a man with an unclean (169) spirit cried out in the synagogue:
    Mark 1:24 “What do You want with us, Jesus of Nazareth? Have You come to destroy us? I know who
    You are—the Holy One of God!

    The man with an unclean spirit grasps the full scope of the teaching. As a result, he discerns the high
    rank of Jesus.
    By saying “Nazareth, the Holy One of God”, he identifies Jesus as the Nazirite, the Holy One described in the Book of
    Numbers.
    To read more, see my Chapter 10: Second synthesis

    * Scene 2 (Mark 3:10,11) => The unclean spirit cry out “the Son of God”

    Mark 3:10 For He had healed so many that all who had diseases were pressing forward to touch Him.
    Mark 3:11 And when the unclean spirits saw Him, they fell down (4363) before Him and cried out, “You
    are the Son of God
    !”

    The unclean spirits see Jesus healing the sicks. As a result, they cry out “Son of God” because they know that
    1 – healing means forgiveness of sins (Mark 2:9)
    2 – the forgiveness of sins is a divine prerogative (Mark 2:7)

    THE BEHAVIOR OF THE PEOPLE (THE SAME SCENES)

    * Scene 1 (Mark 1:22-27) => People do not fully understand the teaching

    Mark 1:22 The people were astonished at His teaching, because He taught as one who had authority,
    and not as the scribes.

    Mark 1:27 All the people were amazed and began to ask one another, “What is this? A new teaching with
    authority!

    * Scene 2 (Mark 3:10,11) => People only see physical healings

    Mark 3:10 For He had healed so many that all who had diseases were pressing forward to
    touch Him.

    SECRECY

    Mark 1:34 But He would not allow the demons to speak, because they knew who He was.

    Mark 3:11 And when the unclean spirits saw Him, they fell down before Him and cried out, “You are the
    Son of God!”
    Mark 3:12 But He warned them sternly not to make Him known.

    Jesus asks for secrecy so as to reduce oppositions before he enters Jerusalem, the city where he will redeem the sins.
    To read more, see my Chapter 10: Second synthesis

    SYNTHESIS

    * Greek words: “piptÓ”, “epi”, “pros”

    Mark 3:10 … all who had diseases were pressing forward (1968) to touch Him.
    Mark 3:11the unclean spirits saw Him, they fell down before (4363) Him

    https://biblehub.com/greek/1968.htm epipiptÓ: to fall upon
    from Word Origin: from epi and piptÓ
    https://biblehub.com/greek/4363.htm prospiptÓ: to fall upon, fall prostrate before
    Word Origin: from pros and piptÓ

    https://biblehub.com/greek/4098.htm piptÓ: to fall
    https://biblehub.com/greek/1909.htm epi: on, upon
    https://biblehub.com/greek/4314.htm pros: advantageous for, at (denotes local proximity),
    toward (denotes motion toward a place)

    * Man with an unclean spirit, unclean spirits, demons

    The man with an unclean spirit (Mark 1:24) => “Jesus of Nazareth … You are—the Holy One of God!”
    The unclean spirits (Mark 3:11) => “You are the Son of God!”
    The unclean spirits (Mark 3:11) => Jesus warns them sternly not to make Him known.
    The demons (Mark 1:34) => Jesus does not allow them to speak, because they knew who He was.

    The man with an unclean spirit considers Jesus a Nazirite (a Nazirite is a man).
    The unclean spirits and demons refer to fallen angels in the book of Enoch.

    The man with an unclean spirit, the unclean spirits and demons fully understand the teaching of Jesus and oppose Him.

    SUMMARY

    Mark lists the various lands people come from so as to follow Jesus.

    In Mark’s gospel
    1 – Galilee and Judea are hebrew lands.
    2 – The region beyond the Jordan is the pagan land where people live without knowing God.
    3 – The vicinity of Tyre and Sidon is the land where people serve other gods than the God of Israel
    4 – Jerusalem is the city where Jesus will shed his blood (the fruit of the vine) to redeem sins.

    Jesus will go to these various lands so as to sow the new Word of God.

    The purpose of the gospel is the unification of these various lands through the new Word: one kingdom of God with
    one Word
    (the Good News).

    Idumea is a specific land since Jesus will not teach there.
    The interest of Idumea is due to its equivalence with Edom.
    In the bible, Edom is a pagan land, the word evokes the red color and the garment of splendor (Isaiah 63:1).

    The red color refers to Esau, the twin of Jacob/Israel (Genesis 25:24-30).
    In the next sequence, one of the apostles will be named Thomas, which means twin.

    The red color also evokes the wine press (Isaiah 63:2) and blood.
    Mark reinforces this reference to blood by writing that the crowd crushes Jesus (Mark 3:9).
    Note that Jesus asks for a boat to avoid that but he does not get into the boat.

    At the end of the gospel, Mark will reinterpret (Isaiah 63:1) in this way: So as to salute Jesus as a king, the roman
    soldiers will temporarily dress Jesus in their own garment of splendor, the red paludamentum.

    In the current sequence, Mark refers to other garments, the own garments of Jesus. He writes that the sick
    people want to touch Jesus (Mark 3:10), which means that the sick people want to touch his garments of salvation.

    The own garments of Jesus (the savior) are the garments of salvation (Isaiah 61:10)
    At the end of gospel, the roman soldiers (the pagans) will divide them by casting lots in order to take their share of
    salvation.

    Mark ends the sequence by contrasting 2 behaviors in the face of the healings

    1 – The crowd (the sick people) see only physical healings (Mark 3:10).
    As a result, the crowd falls upon Jesus to be healed.

    2 – The unclean spirits grasp the true meaning of healing (Mark 3:11): they know that healing means forgiveness of sins
    (Mark 2:9) and they know that the forgiveness of sins is a divine prerogative (Mark 2:7).
    As a result, the unclean spirits cry out “You are the Son of God!” (Mark 3:11).

    Then Jesus warns them sternly not to make Him known (Mark 3:12) so as to reduce oppositions before he enters Jerusalem,
    the city where he will shed his blood (the fruit of the vine) to redeem sins.

    NEXT STEPS

    (Mark 3:13-35) The apostles and brothers, the divided house
    (Mark 4-7) parables, miracles, John’s death, …, food laws, …, Third synthesis.

    PREVIOUS STEPS

    My previous chapter:
    Reading Mark as a midrash, Chapter 11: The withered hand
    https://vridar.org/2019/10/05/ot-sources-for-the-gospel-of-mark-chapters-2-and-3/#comment-124918

    My last synthesis:
    Reading Mark as a midrash, Chapter 10: Second synthesis
    (Mark 1-2) A NEW THOUGHT PUT INTO A NARRATIVE
    https://vridar.org/2019/10/05/ot-sources-for-the-gospel-of-mark-chapters-2-and-3/#comment-122729
    https://vridar.org/2019/10/05/ot-sources-for-the-gospel-of-mark-chapters-2-and-3/#comment-122730

  13. Reading Mark as a midrash, Chapter 13: The apostles
    Tags: Midrash, Maurice Mergui, Nanine Charbonnel

    (Mark 3:13-20) The generation to whom Jesus teaches the Good News

    1 – OVERVIEW
    2 – EXPLORING THE LAND OF CANAAN (THE 12 SPIES)
    3 – EXPLORING THE KINGDOM OF GOD (THE 12 APOSTLES)
    4 – ESAU/EDOM AND JACOB: THE TWIN BROTHERS
    5 – JACOB/ISRAEL AND HIS 12 SONS, MARK’S REINTERPRETATION
    6 – SIMON/PETER: THE SINFUL AND REPENTANT PEOPLE
    7 – JAMES AND JOHN: ISRAEL, THE GIFT OF GOD AND THE FIRE OF JUDGEMENT
    8 – ANDREW: THE GREEK ROCK
    9 – PHILIP: THE KING AND THE GREEK POPULATIONS
    10 – BARTHOLOMEW: THE KING AND THE ARAMEAN POPULATIONS
    11 – MATTHEW: THE MAN WHO MUTATED AND PREPARES THE BREAD
    12 – THOMAS: THE RED TWIN OF ISRAEL
    13 – THE SONS OF ISRAEL: 4 BROTHERS VERSUS 4 APOSTLES
    14 – JAMES SON OF ALPHAEUS: THE REBIRTH OF ISRAEL
    15 – THADDAEUS: THE SALVATION OF ISRAEL
    16 – SIMON THE CANANITE: THE CONQUEST OF THE LAND THAT GOD GIVES
    17 – JUDAS ISCARIOT: THE BETRAYAL
    18 – ISCARIOT (THE MAN OF KERIOTH): THE DESTRUCTION AT THE TIME OF JUDGEMENT
    19 – JUDAS ISCARIOT: THE END OF JEWISH ROYALTY
    20 – SYNTHESIS: THE 12 APOSTLES
    21 – THE HOUSE, THE WORD AND THE CROWD
    22 – ANOTHER SOURCE: THE FIRST BOOK OF MACCABEES
    SUMMARY

    1 – OVERVIEW

    Mark 3:13 Then Jesus went up on the mountain and called for those He wanted, and they came to Him.

    “Jesus went up on the mountain” => reference to Moses going up to Mount Nebo so as to view the land of Canaan
    (Deuteronomy 32:48-52)

    “called for those He wanted” => Jesus is the one who chooses men worthy to come to him

    Mark 3:14 He appointed twelve of them, whom He designated as apostles, to accompany Him, to be sent out to
    preach,

    “He appointed twelve of them” => reference to Moses appointing 12 tribal leaders so as to explore the land of
    Canaan (Numbers 13:1-16)

    “to preach” => to spread to the Good News so as to convert the inhabitants of the new land that God gives

    Mark 3:15 and to have authority to drive out demons.

    “to have authority to drive out demons” => to defeat those who oppose the Good News

    Mark 3:16 These are the twelve He appointed: Simon (whom He named Peter),

    Simon/Peter represents the new people of God made up of hebrews and pagans. This people is the imperfect people who can
    sin but repent.
    Peter, as a rock, evokes the God’s house to be built

    Mark 3:17 James son of Zebedee and his brother John (whom He named Boanerges, meaning “Sons of Thunder”),

    James represents Israel as the people who received the old Word and who now receive the new one i.e. the Good News.
    John represents the Good News.

    “Zebedee” => the Word of God as a gift
    “Thunder” => the Word of God as a law to be observed so as to escape the fire of judgment

    “Son of” => the new generation and inheritance

    Mark 3:18 Andrew, Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew, Thomas, James son of Alphaeus, Thaddaeus, Simon the Cananite,

    “Andrew, Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew and Thomas” represents the pagans who will spread the Good News

    “James the son of alphaeus, Thaddeus and Simon the cananite” represents the sons of Israel who will spread the
    Good News.

    Mark 3:19 and Judas Iscariot, who betrayed Jesus.

    Judas Iscariot (the man of Kerioth) represents those who oppose Jesus and his message.
    Judas also symbolizes the jewish royalty.

    Mark 3:20 Then Jesus went home, and once again a crowd gathered, so that He and His disciples
    could not even eat.

    “home” => The tabernacle where the Word of God dwells.

    “once again a crowd gathered” => The verse reminds us of the paralytic’s scene where the crowd prevents access
    to the Word of God.

    “To eat” => To take the new food i.e. the Good News. Jesus and the apostles need them to perform their mission

    2 – EXPLORING THE LAND OF CANAAN

    MOSES GOES UP TO THE MOUNT NEBO AND SEES THE LAND OF CANAAN

    Deuteronomy 32:48 On that same day the LORD said to Moses
    Deuteronomy 32:49 Go up into the Abarim Range to Mount Nebo, in the land of Moab across from
    Jericho, and view the land of Canaan, which I am giving to the Israelites as their own possession

    MOSES APPOINTS 12 TRIBAL LEADERS

    Numbers 13:1 And the LORD said to Moses,
    Numbers 13:2 “Send out for yourself men to spy out the land of Canaan, which I am giving to the Israelites.
    From each of their fathers’ tribes send one man who is a leader among them.”

    Numbers 13:4 and these were their names: From the tribe of Reuben, Shammua son of Zaccur;
    Numbers 13:5 from the tribe of Simeon, Shaphat son of Hori;
    Numbers 13:6 from the tribe of Judah, Caleb son of Jephunneh;
    Numbers 13:8 from the tribe of Ephraim, Hoshea son of Nun;
    Numbers 13:10 from the tribe of Zebulun, Gaddiel son of Sodi;
    Numbers 13:11 from the tribe of Manasseh (a tribe of Joseph), Gaddi son of Susi;

    Numbers 13:16 These were the names of the men Moses sent to spy out the land; and Moses gave to Hoshea son of
    Nun the name Joshua.

    SENDING OUT THE TWELVE AND INTRUCTIONS

    Numbers 13:18 See what the land is like and whether its people are strong or weak, few or many.

    Numbers 13:20 Is the soil fertile or unproductive? Are there trees in it or not? Be courageous, and bring back
    some of the fruit of the land.” (It was the season for the first ripe grapes.)

    THE MISSION OF THE 12 SPIES

    Numbers 13:21 So they went up and spied out the land from the Wilderness of Zin as far as Rehob, toward
    Lebo-hamath.

    Numbers 13:22 They went up through the Negev and came to Hebron, where Ahiman, Sheshai, and Talmai (8526),
    the descendants of Anak
    , dwelled. It had been built seven years before Zoan in Egypt.

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/8526.htm Talmay: a father-in-law of David, also a descendant of Anak

    THE REPORTS OF THE 12 SPIES

    Among the twelve spies sent by Moses to recognise the land of Canaan, Caleb and Joshua are the only ones to praise the
    Promised Land.

    Numbers 13:25 After forty days the men returned from spying out the land.
    Numbers 13:26 and they went back to Moses, Aaron, and the whole congregation of Israel in the Wilderness of
    Paran at Kadesh. They brought back a report for the whole congregation and showed them the fruit of the land
    Numbers 13:27 And they told him, “We came to the land to which you sent us. It flows with milk and honey,
    and this is its fruit.
    Numbers 13:28 Nevertheless, the people living in the land are strong, and the cities are large and
    fortified. We even saw the descendants of Anak there.

    Numbers 13:30 Then Caleb quieted the people before Moses and said, “We must go up and take possession
    of the land,
    for we can certainly conquer it!”

    Numbers 13:32 So they gave the Israelites a bad report about the land that they had spied out: “The land we
    explored devours its inhabitants
    , and all the people we saw there are great in stature.
    Numbers 13:33 We even saw the Nephilim (5303) there—the descendants of Anak that come from the
    Nephilim! We seemed like grasshoppers in our own sight, and we must have seemed the same to them!”

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/5303.htm Nephilim: “giants,”

    THE PEOPLE REBEL

    Numbers 14:2 And all the people of Israel grumbled against Moses and Aaron. The whole congregation said
    to them, “Would that we had died in the land of Egypt! Or would that we had died in this wilderness!
    Numbers 14:3 Why is the LORD bringing us into this land to fall by the sword? Our wives and children will
    become plunder. Would it not be better for us to go back to Egypt?”

    Numbers 14:6 Joshua son of Nun and Caleb son of Jephunneh, who were among those who had spied out
    the land, tore their clothes
    Numbers 14:7 and said to the whole congregation of Israel, “The land we passed through and explored is
    an exceedingly good land
    .

    Numbers 14:11 And the LORD said to Moses, “How long will this people treat Me with contempt? How long will
    they refuse to believe in Me, despite all the signs
    I have performed among them?

    GOD’S JUDGMENT

    Numbers 14:24 But because My servant Caleb has a different spirit and has followed Me wholeheartedly, I
    will bring him into the land he has entered, and his descendants will inherit it.

    Numbers 14:30 Surely none of you will enter the land in which I swore to settle you, except Caleb
    son of Jephunneh and Joshua son of Nun.

    Numbers 14:38 Of those men who had gone to spy out the land, only Joshua son of Nun and Caleb son
    of Jephunneh remained alive.

    3 – EXPLORING THE KINGDOM OF GOD

    JESUS GOES UP ON MOUNTAIN

    Mark 3:13 Then Jesus went up on the mountain and called for those He wanted,

    JESUS APPOINTS 12 APOSTLES

    Mark 3:14 He appointed twelve of them, whom He designated as apostles (652), to accompany Him, to be sent
    out to preach,

    Mark 3:16 These are the twelve He appointed: Simon (whom He named Peter),
    Mark 3:17 James son of Zebedee and his brother John (whom He named Boanerges, meaning “Sons of
    Thunder”),
    Mark 3:18 Andrew, Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew, Thomas, James son of Alphaeus, Thaddaeus, Simon the Zealot,
    Mark 3:19 and Judas Iscariot, who betrayed Jesus.

    https://biblehub.com/greek/652.htm apostolos: a messenger, one sent on a mission, an apostle

    SENDING OUT THE TWELVE AND INTRUCTIONS

    Mark 6:7 Then Jesus called the Twelve to Him and began to send them out two by two, giving them authority
    over unclean spirits.
    Mark 6:8 He instructed them to take nothing but a staff for the journey—no bread, no bag, no money in
    their belts—

    THE MISSION OF THE TWELVE APOSTLES

    Mark 6:12 So they set out and preached that the people should repent.
    Mark 6:13 They also drove out many demons and healed many of the sick, anointing them with oil.

    THE REPORTS OF THE APOSTLES

    Mark 6:30 Meanwhile, the apostles gathered around Jesus and brought Him news of all they had done and
    taught.

    THE SINFUL AND UNBELIEVING GENERATION

    Mark 8:38 If anyone is ashamed of Me and My words in this adulterous and sinful generation, the Son of
    Man will also be ashamed of him when He comes in His Father’s glory with the holy angels.”

    Mark 9:19 “O unbelieving generation!” Jesus replied. “How long must I remain with you? How long must I
    put up with you? Bring the boy to Me.”

    GOD’S JUDGMENT: THOSE WHO OPPOSE THE GOOD NEWS WILL DIE.

    Mark 3:29 But whoever blasphemes against the Holy Spirit will never be forgiven; he is guilty of
    eternal sin
    .”

    Mark 11:17 And he was teaching them and saying to them, “Is it not written, ‘My house shall be called a house of
    prayer for all the nations’? But you have made it a den of robbers (3027).”

    Mark 15:27 Along with Jesus, they crucified two robbers (3027), one on His right and one on His left.

    https://biblehub.com/greek/3027.htm lÉstÉs: a robber

    GOD’S JUDGMENT: THOSE WHO SERVE THE GOOD NEWS WILL ENTER THE KINGDOM OF GOD.

    Mark 15:40 And there were also women watching from a distance. Among them were Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother
    of James the younger and of Joses, and Salome.

    Mark 15:41 These women had followed Jesus and ministered (1247) to Him while He was in Galilee, and there were
    many other women who had come up to Jerusalem with Him.

    Mark 16:5 When they (the 3 women) entered the tomb, they saw a young man dressed in a white robe sitting
    on the right side, and they were alarmed.

    https://biblehub.com/greek/1247.htm diakoneÓ: to serve, minister

    THE PARELLELS BETWEEN THE 2 EXPLORATIONS

    1 – The land of Canaan => the kingdom of God
    2 – The 12 spies => the 12 apostles
    3 – The people rebel => the sinful and unbelieving generation
    4 – Only 2 spies enter the land of Canaan => 3 women enter the tomb and see a young man
    5 – Joshua changes his name => Most apostles change their name
    6 – Talmai, a descendant of Anak (the Giants) => (Bar Talmai = Bartholomew)

    THE GRASSHOPPERS AND THE GIANTS (NUMBERS 13:27,32,33) AND (MARK 1:6)

    Numbers 13:27 And they told him, “We came to the land to which you sent us. It flows with milk and honey,
    and this is its fruit.
    Numbers 13:32 … “The land we explored devours its inhabitants, and all the people we saw there are
    great in stature.
    Numbers 13:33 We even saw the Nephilim there—the descendants of Anak that come from the Nephilim! We
    seemed like grasshoppers
    in our own sight, and we must have seemed the same to them!”

    Mark 1:6 And John was clothed in camel’s hair and a belt of leather around his waist; and he is eating
    locusts and wild honey.

    John is eating wild honey => the land of Canaan as a gift of God
    John is eating locusts => the grasshoppers against the giants to conquer the land of Canaan

    4 – ESAU AND JACOB, THE TWIN BROTHERS

    ESAU (THE FIRST-BORN) AND JACOB (THE TWIN OF ESAU)

    Genesis 25:24 When her (Rebecca) time came to give birth, there were indeed twins (8380) in her womb
    Genesis 25:25 The first one came out red (132), covered with hair like a fur coat; so they named him
    Esau
    Genesis 25:26 After this, his brother came out grasping Esau’s heel; so he was named Jacob (3290).

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/8380.htm taom: twins
    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/132.htm admoni: red, ruddy
    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/3290.htm Yaaqob: a son of Isaac

    ESAU IS ALSO CALLED EDOM

    Genesis 25:30 He said to Jacob, “Let me eat some of that red (122) stew, for I am famished.” (That is why
    he (Esau) was also called Edom (123).)

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/122.htm adom: red
    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/123.htm edom: the name of a condiment

    JACOB SUPPLANTS ESAU AND GETS THE FIRSTBORN BLESSING

    Genesis 27:27 So he (Jacob) came near and kissed him. When Isaac smelled his clothing, he blessed him
    (Jacob)
    and said: “Ah, the smell of my son is like the smell of a field that the LORD has blessed.
    Genesis 27:28 May God give to you (Jacob) the dew of heaven and the richness of the earth—an
    abundance of grain (1715) and new wine
    (8492)

    Genesis 27:35 But Isaac replied, “Your brother (Jacob) came deceitfully and took your blessing.”
    Genesis 27:36 So Esau declared, “Is he not rightly named Jacob? For he has cheated me twice. He
    took my birthright, and now he has taken my blessing.”
    Then he asked, “Haven’t you saved a blessing for me?”

    Genesis 27:37 But Isaac answered Esau: “Look, I have made him (Jacob) your master and given him all his
    relatives as servants; I have sustained him (Jacob) with grain and new wine. What is left that I can do for you,
    my son?”

    5 – JACOB AND HIS 12 SONS, MARK’S REINTERPRETATION

    Genesis 35:22 … Jacob had twelve sons:

    Genesis 35:23 The sons of Leah; Reuben, Jacob’s firstborn, and Simeon, and Levi, and
    Judah, and Issachar, and Zebulun:
    Genesis 35:24 The sons of Rachel were Joseph and Benjamin.
    Genesis 35:25 The sons of Rachel’s maidservant Bilhah were Dan and Naphtali.
    Genesis 35:26 And the sons of Leah’s maidservant Zilpah were Gad and Asher. These are the sons of Jacob, who
    were born to him in Paddan-aram.

    BIRTH OF THE FIRST 11 SONS

    (Genesis 29:32-35) Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah
    Ruben => the firstborn, son of Leah

    (Genesis 30:1-24) Dan, Naphtali, Gad, Asher, Issachar, Zebulun, Joseph,
    Zebulun => 10th, son of Leah
    Joseph => 11th, son of Rachel

    JACOB IS RENAMED ISRAEL
    Genesis 32:28 Then the man said, “Your name will no longer be Jacob (3290), but Israel
    BIRTH OF BENJAMIN
    (Genesis 35:16-20)
    JACOB/ISRAEL PUTS EPHRAIM BEFORE MANASSEH

    Genesis 48:1 Some time later Joseph was told, “Your father is ill.” So he (Joseph) set out with
    his two sons, Manasseh and Ephraim.

    Genesis 48:14 But Israel stretched out his right hand and put it on the head of Ephraim, the
    younger;
    and crossing his hands, he put his left on Manasseh’s head, although Manasseh was the firstborn.

    Genesis 48:20 So that day Jacob blessed them ( Manasseh and Ephraim) and said: “By you shall Israel
    pronounce this blessing: ‘May God make you like Ephraim and Manasseh.’ ” So he (Jacob) put Ephraim before
    Manasseh.

    JACOB BLESSES HIS SONS
    Genesis 49:1-28
    THE DEATH OF JACOB
    Genesis 49:29-35
    JOSEPH BURIES HIS FATHER

    Genesis 50:13 They carried him (Jacob) to the land of Canaan and buried him in the cave at
    Machpelah in the field near Mamre, which Abraham had purchased from Ephron the Hittite as a burial site.
    Genesis 50:14 After Joseph had buried his father, he returned to Egypt with his brothers

    THE MAIN POINTS

    1 – The change of name: Jacob is named Israel
    2 – The younger supplants the firstborn: Jacob supplants Esau and Jacob/Israel puts Ephraim before Manasseh
    3 – Joseph buries his father

    MARK’ S REINTERPRETATION

    Apostles

    Jacob/Israel => James son of Zebedee
    Jacob/Israel => James son of Alphaeus

    Simeon => Simon/Peter
    Simeon => Simon the cananite

    Levi => (Levi son of Alphaeus) => Matthew

    Judah => Judas Iscariot

    Joseph => Thaddeus

    Esau (the twin brother of Jacob) => Thomas

    Other characters

    Zebulun => Zebedee, the father of James and John
    Simeon => Simon of Cyrene
    Joseph => Joseph of Arimathea

    The brothers of Jesus

    Jacob => James
    Jacob => James the less

    Simeon => Simon
    Judah => Judas
    Joseph => Joses

    6 – SIMON/PETER: THE SINFUL AND REPENTANT PEOPLE

    Mark 3:16 These are the twelve He appointed: Simon (whom He named Peter),

    THE THEME OF SUPPLANTING

    Simon refers to Simeon, the second son of Jacob.

    Simon, as the first apostle, means that the younger Word (the Good News) will supplant the first Word (the Moses’ law),

    SIMON, THE REPRESENTATIVE OF THE NEW PEOPLE OF GOD

    In a first step, Simon is a son of Israel (Mark 1:16).
    Andrew is his brother so as to mean that the Greeks will join the sons of Israel to make a new community.
    Mark 1:16 And passing by the Sea of Galilee, He saw Simon and Andrew, the brother of Simon,
    casting a net into the sea; for they were fishermen.

    Then, Israel becomes the Simon’s mother-in-law (Mark 1:30) due to the new covenant that God makes with mankind. At
    this point, Simon is no longer a son of Israel.
    Mark 1:30 Simon’s mother-in-law was sick in bed with a fever,
    Simon/Peter represents the sons of Israel and the pagans who follow Jesus. (Mark 3:16)
    Mark 3:16 These are the twelve He appointed: Simon (whom He named Peter),
    Change of name and change of role
    Simon => a son of Israel and a fisherman
    Simon/Peter => the first apostle who represents the new people of God

    SIMON, THE SINFUL MAN

    Simon-Peter is not the perfect disciple because he denies Jesus (Mark 14:71). However, he soon becomes aware of his sin
    (Mark 14:72).

    Note also that Simon is the name of the one who denies (Mark 14:37).

    Mark 14:37 And He comes and finds them sleeping. And He says to Peter, “Simon are you asleep? Were you
    not able to watch one hour?

    Mark 14:71 But he began to curse and swear, “I do not know this man of whom you speak!”

    Mark 14:72 And immediately the rooster crowed a second time.

    Then Peter remembered the word that Jesus had spoken to him: “Before the rooster crows twice, you will deny Me three
    times.” And he broke down and wept.

    SIMON, THE REPENTANT MAN

    At the end of the Gospel, a new Simon appears and plays a positive role as he carries the cross.

    Mark 15:21 And they compel one passing by, Simon of Cyrene, the father of Alexander and Rufus, coming
    from the country, that he might carry His cross.

    PETER, THE ROCK TO BUILD THE HOUSE OF GOD

    https://biblehub.com/greek/4074.htm Petros: Peter
    Word Origin: a noun akin to petra, used as a proper name

    https://biblehub.com/greek/4073.htm petra: a (large mass of) rock
    (a single occurrence in Mark’s Gospel)

    The tomb cut out of the rock represents the house where the Word of God dwells. Below is the parallel between (Mark
    15:46) and (Isaiah 51:1).

    Mark 15:46 So Joseph bought a linen cloth, took down the body of Jesus, wrapped it in the cloth, and placed it
    in a tomb that had been cut out of the rock (4073).

    Isaiah 51:1 “Listen to Me, you who pursue righteousness, you who seek the LORD: Look to the rock
    (6697) from which you were cut,
    and to the quarry from which you were hewn.

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/6697.htm tsur: rock, cliff

    THE HOUSE TO BE BUILT IS THE NEW COMMUNITY LIVING ACCORDING TO THE GOOD NEWS

    Mark 15:21 And they compel one passing by, Simon of Cyrene, the father of Alexander and Rufus,
    coming from the country, that he might carry His cross.

    Simon of Cyrene will bring the message of the cross (the Good News) to the greeks (Alexander)
    and the romans (Rufus).

    SYNTHESIS

    Simon/Peter represents the new people of God made up of hebrews and pagans. This people is the imperfect people who can
    sin but repent.

    Peter, as a rock, evokes the God’s house to be built. This house will be the new community living according to the Good
    News

    7 – JAMES AND JOHN: ISRAEL, THE GIFT OF GOD AND THE FIRE OF JUDGEMENT

    ZEBULUN/ZEBEDEE => THE WORD OF GOD AS A GIFT

    Genesis 30:20 God has given (2064) me a good gift (2065) … And she (Leah) named him
    Zebulun (2074)

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/2064.htm zabad: bestow upon, endow with
    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/2065.htm zebed: endowment, gift
    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/2074.htm Zebulun: a son of Jacob

    Zebedee noun is akin to Zebulun. Zebedee comes from the hebrew root “Z.B.D” (zabad, zebed) and means the Gift of
    God

    https://biblehub.com/greek/2199.htm Zebedaios: Zebedee, the father of James and John
    Word Origin of Hebrew origin Zebadyah (h2069)
    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/2069.htm Zebadyah or Zebadyahu: “Yah has bestowed,”
    from zabad (2064) and Yah
    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/3050.htm Yah: the name of the God of Israel
    Word Origin: contr. from Yhvh
    In Mark’s gospel, Zebedee refers to the old Word of God i.e. the law of Moses and the prophecies
    James and John leave the law of their father Zebedee to follow Jesus (Mark 1:20)

    Mark 1:20 Immediately Jesus called them, and they left their father Zebedee in the boat with the
    hired men and followed Him.

    JAMES SON OF ZEBEDEE AND HIS BROTHER JOHN => ISRAEL WHO RECEIVES THE NEW WORD OF GOD

    Mark 3:17 James son of Zebedee and his brother John (whom He named Boanerges, meaning “Sons of Thunder”),

    JAMES refers to ISRAEL as the people who received the old Word and who now receive the new one
    JOHN (2491): John noun evokes the gift of God.

    https://biblehub.com/greek/2491.htm IÓannÉs: John
    Word Origin: of Hebrew origin Yochanan/ Johanan

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/3083.htm Yehonathan: “the LORD has given,”
    NASB Translation: Jehonathan (2), Jonathan (120), Jonathan’s (2).

    The pair (James, John) symbolizes Israel receiving and accepting the Good News.
    James represents Israel as the people of the covenant who receive the Word of God.
    John represents the new Word that God gives.
    Change of Word and change of name
    The first pair (Jacob/Israel, John the Baptist) => Israel who received the law of Moses
    The second pair (James, John ) => Israel who receives the Good News

    James and John are sons of Zebedee because they represent the new generation who receives the new Word as
    the gift of God. They comes after Zebedee and John the Baptist.

    To highlight that the new Word is also given to Israel, John is the brother of James.

    THUNDER => THE WRATH OF GOD AND THE FIRE OF JUDGEMENT

    Isaiah 66:24 “As they go forth, they will see the corpses of the men who have rebelled against Me; for
    their worm will never die, their fire will never be quenched, and they will be a horror to all mankind.”

    Jeremiah 4:3 For this is what the LORD says to the men of Judah and Jerusalem:
    Jeremiah 4:4 Circumcise yourselves to the LORD, and remove the foreskins of your hearts, O men of Judah
    and people of Jerusalem. Otherwise, My wrath will break out like fire and burn with no one to extinguish it,
    because of your evil deeds.

    Deuteronomy 7:4 because they (the pagans) will turn your sons away from following Me to serve other gods.
    Then the anger of the LORD will burn against you, and He will swiftly destroy you.

    THUNDER => THE GOOD NEWS AS A LAW AND THE JUDGEMENT ACCORDING THIS LAW

    The Good News must be served

    Mark 1:31 So He went to her, took her by the hand, and helped her up. The fever left her, and she began to
    serve (1247) them
    .

    https://biblehub.com/greek/1247.htm diakoneÓ: to serve, minister

    The mother-in-law/Israel is healed because she has received and believed the Good News. In return, she must serve the
    new Word by observing it fully.

    The judgement according to the Word/Law of God

    Mark 4:24 He went on to say, “Pay attention to what you hear. With the measure you use, it will be measured
    to you,
    and even more will be added to you.

    the measure you use => the Good News as a Law
    it will be measured to you => the judgement according to the Good News

    The fire of judgement

    Mark 9:49 For everyone will be salted with fire.
    Mark 9:50 Salt is good, but if the salt loses its saltiness, with what will you season it? Have salt among
    yourselves, and be at peace with one another.”

    “salt” => salt gives flavour to food
    “everyone will be salted” => everyone will receive the spiritual food that has flavour .i.e. the Good News
    “everyone will be salted with fire” => Everyone will be judged, He who does not serve the Good News will suffer
    the wrath of God.

    JOHN AS SON OF THUNDER => THE GOOD NEWS AS A NEW LAW TO JUDGE THE PEOPLE

    Mark 3:17 James son of Zebedee and his brother John (whom He named Boanerges, meaning “Sons of
    Thunder”
    ),

    “Thunder” => the fire of judgement, the wrath of God
    “son of thunder” => the new generation who receives the new law and will be judged according it
    “John named Boanerges” => John as the other side of the Good News i.e. the new law to judge the people who
    received them

    JAMES AND JOHN => THE RIGHTEOUS PEOPLE WHO WILL ESCAPE THE WRATH OF GOD

    Mark 3:17 James son of Zebedee and his brother John (whom He named Boanerges, meaning “Sons of
    Thunder”
    ),

    James and John are ready to serve the Good News until death (Mark 10:38,39).
    As a result, they will be judged as righteous and will escape the wrath of God

    Mark 10:38 “You do not know what you are asking,” Jesus replied. “Can you drink the cup I will drink, or
    be baptized with the baptism I will undergo?

    Mark 10:39 “We can,” the brothers answered.

    I point out that James and John are not the 2 robbers
    Mark 15 :27 Along with Jesus, they crucified two robbers, one on His right and one on His left.

    SYNTHESIS

    James represents Israel as the people who received the old Word and who now receive the Good News.

    John represents the Good News with their 2 sides: the gift of God and the law to be observed so as to escape the fire
    of judgment

    The pair (James, John) symbolizes the new generation who receive the Good News and wholeheartedly serve them. As a
    result, they will be judged as righteous people and will escape the wrath of God

    In other words, Israel is invariant as the repository of the Word. The variation comes from its content, the Word (John
    the Baptist => John).

    8 – ANDREW: THE GREEK ROCK

    https://biblehub.com/greek/406.htm Andreas: “manly,” Andrew
    Word Origin from anÉr
    https://biblehub.com/greek/435.htm anÉr: a man

    The greek man who will join the sons of Israel to make a single community
    Mark 1:16 And passing by the Sea of Galilee, He saw Simon and Andrew, the brother of Simon, casting a net
    into the sea; for they were fishermen.
    The common house that shelters the sons of Israel and the greeks
    Mark 1:29 And immediately having gone forth out of the synagogue, they came into the house of Simon and
    Andrew
    , with James and John.

    The new house of God to be rebuilt

    Mark 13:1 As Jesus was leaving the temple, one of His disciples said to Him, “Teacher, look at the
    magnificent stones and buildings
    !”
    Mark 13:2 “Do you see all these great buildings?” Jesus replied. “Not one stone here will be left on
    another
    ; every one will be thrown down.”
    Mark 13:3 While Jesus was sitting on the Mount of Olives opposite the temple, Peter, James, John, and
    Andrew
    asked Him privately,

    “opposite the temple” => the destruction of the temple and its replacement by a new house of God
    “Peter” => the rock from which the stones are extracted so as to build the new house of God
    “James” => Israel as the people of the covenant
    “John” => the Good News that will dwell in the new community/house of God
    “Andrew” => the greek populations as member of the community/house

    SYNTHESIS

    Andrew only appears at the beginning and end of the gospel. He represents the greek/pagan populations who will join
    Israel to build the new community/house of God.

    9 – PHILIP: THE KING AND THE GREEK POPULATIONS

    https://biblehub.com/greek/5376.htm Philippos: Philip

    Philip refers to king Philip of Macedonia
    1 Maccabees 1:1 This history begins when Alexander the Great, son of Philip of Macedonia,

    PHILIP THE BROTHER OF HEROD

    Mark 6:14 Now King Herod heard about this,

    Mark 6:17 For Herod himself had ordered that John be arrested and bound and imprisoned, on account of
    his brother Philip’s wife Herodias, whom Herod had married.

    Philip is a greek king and therefore a pagan. Marrying Philip’s wife means marrying the greek culture and behaving like
    a pagan. Mark expresses the pagan behavior by writing that Herod is the brother of the pagans.

    Change of name and change of role
    King Herod => the jewish king who must serve the God of Israel
    Herod, brother of Philip => the man who behaves like a pagan

    PETER PROCLAIMS TO GRECO-ROMAN WORLD THAT JESUS IS THE CHRIST

    Mark 8:27 Then Jesus and His disciples went on to the villages around Caesarea Philippi. On the way,
    He questioned His disciples: “Who do people say I am?”
    Mark 8:29 But what about you?” Jesus asked. “Who do you say I am?” Peter answered, “You are the Christ

    Caesarea => the roman world
    Philippi => the greek world

    SYNTHESIS

    Philip represents the greek populations. His name evokes the power because he refers to king Philip of Macedonia,
    father of Alexander the Great.

    10 – BARTHOLOMEW: THE KING AND THE ARAMEAN POPULATIONS

    https://biblehub.com/greek/918.htm Bartholomaios: “son of Tolmai,”
    Word Origin: of Aramaic origin => bar and Talmay

    OT SOURCES: TALMAI, KING OF GESHUR

    2 Samuel 3:2 And sons were born to David in Hebron: His firstborn was Amnon, by Ahinoam of Jezreel;
    2 Samuel 3:3 and his second, Chileab, by Abigail the widow of Nabal the Carmelite;
    and the third, Absalom the son of Maacah, the daughter of Talmai (8526), king of Geshur (1650);

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/8526.htm Talmay a father-in-law of David, also a descendant of Anak
    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/1650.htm Geshur: a territory East of the upper Jordan

    OT SOURCES: TALMAI, A DESCENDANT OF THE GIANTS

    Numbers 13:22 They went up through the Negev and came to Hebron, where Ahiman, Sheshai, and Talmai (8526),
    the descendants of Anak
    , dwelled….

    Numbers 13:33 We even saw the Nephilim (5303) there—the descendants of Anak that come from the Nephilim
    (5303)
    ! We seemed like grasshoppers in our own sight, and we must have seemed the same to them!”

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/5303.htm Nephilim: “giants,”

    OT SOURCES: THE ARAMAIC LANGUAGE

    2 Kings 18:26 Then Eliakim son of Hilkiah, along with Shebnah and Joah, said to the Rabshakeh, “Please speak
    to your servants in Aramaic, since we understand it
    . Do not speak with us in Hebrew in the hearing of the people on
    the wall.”

    MARK’S GOSPEL: THE ARAMAIC LANGUAGE

    Mark 3:17 James son of Zebedee and his brother John (whom He named Boanerges, meaning “Sons of
    Thunder”),

    Mark 5:41 Taking her by the hand, Jesus said, “Talitha koum!” which means, “Little girl, I say to
    you, get up!”

    Mark 7:34 And looking up to heaven, He sighed deeply and said to him, “Ephphatha!” (which means,
    “Be opened!”).

    Mark 15:34 At the ninth hour, Jesus cried out in a loud voice, “Eloi, Eloi, lema sabachthani?” which
    means
    , “My God, My God, why have You forsaken Me?”

    SYNTHESIS

    Bartholomew represents the aramean populations because his name derives from an aramaic origin.
    Bartholomew evokes the power because he refers to Talmai as king of Geshur and Talmai as a descendant of the giants.

    In Mark’s gospel, Jesus speaks in Aramaic since people understand it (2 Kings 18:26)

    11 – MATTHEW, THE MAN WHO MUTATED AND PREPARES THE BREAD

    https://biblehub.com/greek/3156.htm Matthaios: Matthew
    Word Origin: variant reading for Maththaios, q.v.

    https://biblehub.com/greek/3102b.htm Maththaios: Matthew

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/4993.htm Mattithyah or Mattithyahu: “gift of Yah,”
    Word Origin: from mattath and Yah (Yhvh)

    CHANGE OF NAME AND CHANGE OF ROLE

    (Mark 2:13-17) Levi the circumciser mutates and becomes Matthew the apostle in charge of preparing the bread

    Levi son of Alphaeus => Levi, the priest in charge of ritual after child’s birth
    Matthew => the apostle in charge of preparing the bread i.e. the Good News as gift of God

    1 Chronicles 9:31 A Levite named Mattithiah (4993), the firstborn son of Shallum the Korahite, was
    entrusted with baking the bread
    .

    (To read more see my Chapter 8: Levi son of Alphaeus)

    SYNTHESIS: MATTHEW IS A NAME USED AS QUALIFIER

    Mark 3:18 Andrew, Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew, Thomas,

    The proper name is used as a qualifier to give more information about Andrew, Philip and Bartholomew
    The qualifier means that the greek and aramean pagans have accepted the Good News and that their leaders will spread
    them.

    Note also that Matthew does not refer to a direct descendant of Jacob/Israel.

    12 – THOMAS: THE RED TWIN OF ISRAEL

    https://biblehub.com/greek/2381.htm ThÓmas: “the twin,”

    ESAU/EDOM: THE RED TWIN OF JACOB/ISRAEL

    Genesis 25:24 When her (Rebecca) time came to give birth, there were indeed twins (8380) in her womb

    Genesis 25:25 The first one came out red (132), covered with hair like a fur coat; so they named him
    Esau

    Genesis 25:26 After this, his brother came out grasping Esau’s heel; so he was named Jacob.

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/8380.htm taom: twins
    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/132.htm admoni: red, ruddy

    Genesis 25:30 He (Esau) said to Jacob, “Let me eat some of that red (122) stew, for I am
    famished.” (That is why he was also called Edom (123).)

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/122.htm adom: red
    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/123.htm edom: the name of a condiment

    EDOM: THE PAGAN LAND AT THE EXTREME SOUTHERN BOUNDARY

    Joshua 15:1 Now the allotment for the clans of the tribe of Judah extended to the border of
    Edom (123)
    , to the Wilderness of Zin at the extreme southern boundary:

    Joshua 15:21 These were the southernmost cities of the tribe of Judah in the Negev toward the
    border (123) of Edom:

    (To read more about Edom/Idumea, see my Chapter 12: the Kingdom)

    SYNTHESIS: THOMAS IS A NAME USED AS QUALIFIER

    Mark 3:18 Andrew, Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew, Thomas,

    The proper name is used as a second qualifier to give more information about Andrew, Philip and Bartholomew

    The qualifier means that the greek and aramean populations will be the twin of Israel.

    Mark will later add another red twin, the Romans.

    https://biblehub.com/greek/4504.htm Rhouphos: “red,” Rufus
    Word Origin: of Latin origin

    12 – THOMAS: THE RED TWIN OF ISRAEL

    https://biblehub.com/greek/2381.htm ThÓmas: “the twin,”

    ESAU/EDOM: THE RED TWIN OF JACOB/ISRAEL

    Genesis 25:24 When her (Rebecca) time came to give birth, there were indeed twins (8380) in her womb

    Genesis 25:25 The first one came out red (132), covered with hair like a fur coat; so they named him
    Esau

    Genesis 25:26 After this, his brother came out grasping Esau’s heel; so he was named Jacob.

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/8380.htm taom: twins
    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/132.htm admoni: red, ruddy

    Genesis 25:30 He (Esau) said to Jacob, “Let me eat some of that red (122) stew, for I am
    famished.” (That is why he was also called Edom (123).)

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/122.htm adom: red
    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/123.htm edom: the name of a condiment

    EDOM: THE PAGAN LAND AT THE EXTREME SOUTHERN BOUNDARY

    Joshua 15:1 Now the allotment for the clans of the tribe of Judah extended to the border of
    Edom (123)
    , to the Wilderness of Zin at the extreme southern boundary:

    Joshua 15:21 These were the southernmost cities of the tribe of Judah in the Negev toward the
    border (123) of Edom:

    (To read more about Edom/Idumea, see my Chapter 12: the Kingdom)

    SYNTHESIS: THOMAS IS A NAME USED AS QUALIFIER

    Mark 3:18 Andrew, Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew, Thomas,

    The proper name is used as a second qualifier to give more information about Andrew, Philip and Bartholomew

    The qualifier means that the greek and aramean populations will be the twin of Israel.

    Mark will later add another red twin, the Romans.

    https://biblehub.com/greek/4504.htm Rhouphos: “red,” Rufus
    Word Origin: of Latin origin

  14. 13 – THE SONS OF ISRAEL: 4 BROTHERS VERSUS 4 APOSTLES

    THE SONS OF JACOB/ISRAEL

    Genesis 35:22 Jacob (3290) had twelve sons:

    Genesis 35:23 The sons of Leah; Reuben, Jacob’s firstborn, and Simeon (8095), and Levi, and Judah
    (3063)
    , and Issachar, and Zebulun:
    Genesis 35:24 The sons of Rachel were Joseph (3130) and Benjamin.

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/3290.htm Yaaqob: a son of Isaac
    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/8095.htm Shimon, Simeon: a son of Jacob
    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/3063.htm Yehudah: a son of Jacob
    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/3130.htm Yoseph: a son of Jacob

    THE 4 BROTHERS OF JESUS: THE SONS OF ISRAEL LIVING ACCORDING TO THE OLD WORD

    Mark 6:3 Is this not … brother of James (2385), Joses (2500), Judas (2455), and Simon (4613) ?
    (NKJ)

    https://biblehub.com/greek/2385.htm IakÓbos: James
    https://biblehub.com/greek/2500.htm IÓsÉs: Joses, an Israelite name
    https://biblehub.com/greek/2455.htm Ioudas: Judah, Judas
    https://biblehub.com/greek/strongs_4613.htm SimÓn: Simon

    Their names are akin to that of Jacob and his sons so as to mean that the Jesus’ brothers are the sons of Israel.

    Jacob => James
    Simeon => Simon
    Judah => Judas
    Joseph => Joses

    The brothers of Jesus are the sons of Israel who go on living according to the law of their father. They don’t
    understand what Jesus is doing and consider that he is out of his mind.

    Mark 3:21 When His family heard about this, they went out to take custody of Him, saying, “He
    is out of His mind.”

    THE 4 APOSTLES: THE SONS OF ISRAEL SPREADING THE GOOD NEWS

    Mark 3:18 …, James (2385) son of Alphaeus, Thaddaeus, Simon (4613) the Cananite,
    Mark 3:19 and Judas (2455) Iscariot, who betrayed Jesus.

    Change of name and change of role

    James => James the son of Alphaeus,

    Joses => Thaddeus

    Simon => Simon the Cananite
    Judas => Judas Iscariot

    The names of the 4 apostles change to distinguish them from their brothers and to mean that their role changes. From
    now, they will spread the Good News.

    SYNTHESIS

    The 4 Apostles represent the sons of Israel who accept the Good News while the 4 brothers of Jesus represent the sons
    of Israel who go on living according to the old Word.

    The 4 apostles will join the other apostles to spread the same Word of God, the Good News.

    14 – JAMES THE SON OF ALPHAEUS: THE REBIRTH OF ISRAEL

    JAMES REFERS TO JACOB/ISRAEL
    SON OF ALPHAEUS

    Mark 2:14 As He was walking along, He saw Levi son of Alphaeus
    Mark 3:18 … James the son of Alphaeus, Thaddaeus, Simon the Cananite;

    The expression “son of Alphaeus” evokes the disappearance in one form and reappearance in another form.
    (To read more see my Chapter 8: Levi son of Alphaeus)

    SYNTHESIS:
    James the son of alphaeus represents Israel and his rebirth/renewal thanks to the Good News.

    15 – THADDEUS: THE SALVATION OF ISRAEL

    https://biblehub.com/greek/2280.htm Thaddaios: Thaddaeus
    Phonetic Spelling: (thad-dah’-yos)

    ARAMAIC OR HEBREW ORIGIN: LIST OF AKIN WORDS

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/7699.htm shad: breast

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/2306.htm chadi: breast (1 Occurrence, Daniel 2:32)
    (Aramaic) corresponding to chazeh

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/2373.htm chazeh: breast (of animals)

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/2436.htm cheq: bosom

    OT SOURCES

    Joseph receives the blessing of the breast and becomes the prince of his brothers.

    Genesis 49:22 Joseph is a fruitful vine—a fruitful vine by a spring, whose branches scale the wall.

    Genesis 49:24 Yet he steadied his bow, and his strong arms were tempered by the hands of the Mighty (46) One
    of Jacob
    , in the name of the Shepherd, the Rock of Israel,

    Genesis 49:25 by the God of your father who helps you, and by the Almighty who blesses you, with
    blessings of the heavens above, with blessings of the depths below, with blessings of the breasts (7699) and
    womb.

    Genesis 49:26 The blessings of your father have surpassed the blessings of the ancient mountains and the
    bounty of the everlasting hills. May they rest on the head of Joseph, on the brow of the prince (5139) of his
    brothers
    .

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/7699.htm shad: breast
    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/5139.htm nazir: one consecrated, devoted

    Joseph saves his family from famine

    Genesis 49:12 If you are honest, leave one of your brothers in custody while the rest of you go and take back
    grain to relieve the hunger of your households.

    SYNTHESIS

    Thaddeus refers to Joseph the son of Jacob. He represents the son of Israel who will save his brothers by giving them
    the new grain i.e. the Good News

    Below are the elements that refer to Joseph
    1 – the comparison between the list of 4 brothers and the list of 4 apostles
    2 – the aramaic or hebrew origin (Chadi/Shad/Cheq => Thaddaios/Thaddaeus)
    3 – Joseph receives the blessing of the breast and womb.
    4 – Joseph is the prince of his brothers
    5 – Joseph saves his family from famine

    16 – SIMON THE CANANITE: THE CONQUEST OF THE LAND THAT GOD GIVES

    * Simon

    Simon refers to Simeon, the second son of Jacob. Note again that Mark ignores Ruben the firstborn

    The Cananite (2581)

    https://biblehub.com/greek/2581.htm Kananaios: Cananaean

    OT SOURCES: THE LAND OF CANAAN

    THE LAND THAT GOD GIVES

    Numbers 13:2 Send out for yourself men to spy out the land of Canaan (3667), which I am giving to the
    Israelites.
    From each of their fathers’ tribes send one man who is a leader among them.”

    Numbers 14:25 Now since the Amalekites and Canaanites (3669) are living in the valleys, turn back
    tomorrow and head for the wilderness along the route to the Red Sea.”

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/3667.htm Kna’an: Canaan
    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/3669.htm Kna’aniy: Canaanite

    THE LAND TO BE CONQUERED.

    Numbers 13:30 Then Caleb quieted the people before Moses and said, “We must go up and take possession of the
    land
    , for we can certainly conquer it!

    SYNTHESIS

    Simon the cananite refers to the land of Canaan and its conquest.

    Simon the cananite represents the sons of Israel spreading the Good News over the new land (the kingdom of God) in
    order to conquer/convert its inhabitants.

    17 – JUDAS ISCARIOT: THE BETRAYAL

    * Judas
    Judas refers to Judah, the fourth son of Jacob.

    OT SOURCES: THE SALE OF JOSEPH

    Judah suggests that Joseph be sold into slavery instead of killing him

    Genesis 37:18 Now Joseph’s brothers saw him in the distance, and before he arrived, they plotted to
    kill him
    .
    Genesis 37:23 So when Joseph came to his brothers, they stripped him of his robe—the robe of many colors
    he was wearing—
    Genesis 37:24 and they took him and threw him into the pit. Now the pit was empty, with no water in it.
    Genesis 37:26 Then Judah said to his brothers, “What profit will we gain if we kill our brother and cover
    up his blood?
    Genesis 37:27 Come, let us sell him to the Ishmaelites and not lay a hand on him; for he is our
    brother, our own flesh.
    ” And they agreed.

    MARK’S GOSPEL: SHAME AND DESTRUCTION TO THAT MAN WHO BETRAYS

    Judas sells Jesus to the chief priests (Mark 14:10-11) and betrays him

    Mark 3:19 and Judas Iscariot, who betrayed (3860) Jesus.

    Mark 14:10 Then Judas Iscariot, one of the Twelve, went to the chief priests to betray (3860)
    Jesus
    to them.
    Mark 14:11 They were delighted to hear this, and they promised to give him money. So Judas began to look
    for an opportunity to betray (3860) Jesus.

    https://biblehub.com/greek/3860.htm paradidÓmi: to hand over, to give or deliver over, to betray
    Word Origin from para and didÓmi
    https://biblehub.com/greek/1325.htm didÓmi: to give (in various senses lit. or fig.)

    Betrayal => shame and destruction

    Mark 14:21 The Son of Man will go just as it is written about Him, but woe (3759) to that man by whom
    He is betrayed (3860)
    ! It would be better for him if he had not been born.”

    https://biblehub.com/greek/3759.htm ouai: alas! woe! (an expression of grief or denunciation)

    18 – ISCARIOT: THE MAN WHO WILL BE DESTROYED AT THE TIME OF JUDGMENT

    ISCARIOT

    The derivation is from the Hebrew lsh-Kerioth, “a man of Kerioth,’ a city of the tribe of Judah.

    https://biblehub.com/greek/2469.htm IskariÓtÉs:Iscariot, surname of Judas
    Word Origin: of Hebrew origin => ish and qirya

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/376.htm ish: man

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/7152.htm Qeriyyoth:
    Kerioth-hezron, a city in Judah (1 Occurrence)
    Kerioth a city in Moab (3 Occurrences)

    KERIOTH-HEZRON, A CITY IN JUDAH TOWARD THE BORDER OF EDOM

    Joshua 15:21 These were the southernmost cities of the tribe of Judah in the Negev toward the border
    of Edom (123)
    :
    Joshua 15:25 Hazor-hadattah, Kerioth-hezron (7152) (that is, Hazor)

    KERIOTH AND BOZRAH (2 CITIES IN MOAB) => JUDGMENT AND DESTRUCTION

    Jeremiah 48:20 Moab is put to shame, for it has been shattered. Wail and cry out! Declare by the Arnon that
    Moab is destroyed.
    Jeremiah 48:21 Judgment has come upon the high plain—upon Holon, Jahzah, and Mephaath,
    Jeremiah 48:24 upon Kerioth (7152), Bozrah (1224), and all the towns of Moab, those far and
    near.

    BOZRAH (A CITY IN EDOM) => RED GARMENT OF SPLENDOR AND WINE PRESS

    Isaiah 63:1 Who is this coming from Edom (123), from Bozrah (1224) with crimson-stained garments?
    Who is this robed in splendor, marching in the greatness of His strength? “It is I, proclaiming vindication,
    mighty to save.”
    Isaiah 63:2 Why are Your clothes red (122), and Your garments like one who treads the winepress
    (1660)?

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/1224.htm Botsrah: Bozrah, “fortress”
    a city in Moab (Jeremiah 48:24),
    a city in Edom (Isaiah 63:1), (Isaiah 34:6), (Jeremiah 49:13,22), (Amos 1:12)

    THE DESTRUCTION BY FIRE

    Judgment on Israel’s Neighbors (Amos 1)

    Amos 1:12 So I will send fire upon Teman to consume the citadels of Bozrah.”

    Judgment on Moab, Judah, and Israel (Amos 2)
    Amos 2:2
    So I will send fire against Moab to consume the citadels of Kerioth.

    Amos 2:5 So I will send fire upon Judah to consume the citadels of Jerusalem.

    I already quoted other verses, see my previous paragrah “James and John: Israel, the gift of god and the fire of
    judgement”

    KERIOTH AND BOZRAH

    Kerioth refers to the tribe of Judah (Joshua 15:21,25)
    Kerioth also evokes shame and destruction at the divine judgment (Jeremiah 48:20,21,24).

    Bozrah evokes the pagans, the robe of splendor and the wine press (Isaiah 63:1,2)

    It is interesting to note that (Jeremiah 48:24) verse associates Kerioth with Bozrah
    The connection between Keriot and Bozrah can also be seen in the following way.

    Keriot
    Because he delivers Jesus over to the pagans, Judas is guilty of eternal sin (Mark 3:29). As a result, he becomes “the
    man of Keriot”, which means the man who will be destroyed by the fire at divine Judgement.
    Bozrah
    The pagans will dress Jesus in their own garment of splendor and then in his own garment of salvation.
    Then the wine press will extract the blood of Jesus (the fruit of the vine).
    The blood of Jesus will thus redeem the sins of repentant people (Mark 3:28) but his blood will not redeem the eternal
    sin (Mark 3:29) of Judas.

    Mark 3:28 Truly I tell you, the sons of men will be forgiven all sins and blasphemies, as many as they
    utter.
    Mark 3:29 But whoever blasphemes against the Holy Spirit will never be forgiven; he is guilty of
    eternal sin.”

    “blaspheme against the Holy Spirit” => opposition to the new spirit that the Good News bring.

    SYNTHESIS

    Iscariot derives from the Hebrew lsh-Kerioth, “a man of Kerioth”

    Judas Iscariot (the man of Kerioth) represents the fate of man opposed to Good News. He will not get salvation and will
    be destroyed by fire at the divine judgment.

    19 – JUDAS ISCARIOT, THE END OF JEWISH ROYALTY

    OT SOURCES: JUDAH, THE JEWISH ROYALTY

    JACOB BLESSES JUDAH

    Genesis 49:8 Judah, your brothers shall praise you. Your hand shall be on the necks of your enemies;
    your father’s sons shall bow down to you.

    Genesis 49:10 The scepter (7626) will not depart from Judah, nor the staff (2710) from between his feet, until
    Shiloh comes and the allegiance of the nations is his.

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/7626.htm shebet: rod, staff, club, scepter, tribe
    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/2710.htm chaqaq: to cut in, inscribe, decree

    JUDAH IS A DISTANT ANCESTOR OF KING DAVID.

    Ruth 4:12 And may your house become like the house of Perez, whom Tamar bore to Judah, because of
    the offspring the LORD will give you by this young woman.

    Ruth 4:18 Now these are the generations of Perez: Perez was the father of Hezron,
    Ruth 4:19 Hezron was the father of Ram,Ram was the father of Amminadab,
    Ruth 4:20 Amminadab was the father of Nahshon, Nahshon was the father of Salmon,
    Ruth 4:21 Salmon was the father of Boaz, Boaz was the father of Obed,
    Ruth 4:22 Obed was the father of Jesse, and Jesse was the father of David.

    DAVID, KING OF ISRAEL

    2 Samuel 7:8 Now then, you are to tell My servant David that this is what the LORD of Hosts says: I
    took you
    from the pasture, from following the flock, to be the ruler over My people Israel.

    2 Samuel 7:12 And when your days are fulfilled and you rest with your fathers, I will raise up your
    descendant (2233) after you
    , who will come from your own body, and I will establish his kingdom.

    2 Samuel 7:16 Your house and kingdom will endure forever before Me, and your throne will be established forever.”

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/2233.htm zera: a sowing, seed, offspring

    THE JEWISH EXPECTATION OF ONE NATION WITH ONE KING

    Ezekiel 37:15 Again the word of the LORD came to me, saying,
    Ezekiel 37:16 “And you, son of man, take a single stick and write on it: ‘Belonging to Judah and to the
    Israelites associated with him.’ Then take another stick and write on it: ‘Belonging to Joseph—the stick of
    Ephraim—and to all the house of Israel associated with him.’
    Ezekiel 37:17 Then join them together into one stick, so that they become one in your hand.

    Ezekiel 37:25 They will live in the land that I gave to My servant Jacob, where your fathers lived. They will
    live there forever with their children and grandchildren, and My servant David will be their prince (5387) forever.

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/5387.htm nasiy’: captain

    MARK’S GOSPEL: THE END OF JEWISH ROYALTY

    The destruction of Judas as symbol of the jewish royalty goes hand in hand with the destruction of Judas as betrayal.
    The expression “Judas Iscariot, who betrayed Jesus” (Mark 3:19) announces the 2 destructions: the fire for the eternal
    sinner and the death of Jesus as Jewish king.

    The death of the jewish king means the death of jewish hope for an independent nation.
    The sons of Israel will have to live in a Greco-Roman world (Mark 8:27 Caesarea Philippi).

    20 – SYNTHESIS: THE 12 APOSTLES

    Simon-Peter represents the new people of God made up of hebrews and pagans. This people is the imperfect people
    who can sin but repent.

    Peter, as a rock, evokes the God’s house to be built. This house will be the new community living according to
    the Good News.

    James represents Israel as the people who received the old Word and who now receive the Good News.

    John represents the Good News with their 2 sides: the gift of God and the law to be observed so as to escape the
    fire of judgment.

    The pair (James, John) symbolizes the people who receive the Good News and wholeheartedly serve them. As a
    result, they will be judged as righteous people and will escape the wrath of God

    Andrew represents the greek populations who will join the son of Israel to build the new community/house of God.

    Philip represents the greek populations. His name evokes the power because he refers to king Philip of
    Macedonia, father of Alexander the Great.

    Bartholomew represents the aramean populations. His name evokes the power because he refers to Talmai as king of
    Geshur and Talmai as a descendant of the giants.
    Jesus will speak in Aramaic to evoke the aramean populations

    Thomas represents the pagans (arameans, greeks and romans) as the twins of Israel.

    Matthew represents the pagans who have accepted the Good News and who will spread them.

    James the son of alphaeus represents Israel and his rebirth/renewal thanks to the Good News
    The expression “son of Alphaeus” evokes the disappearance in one form and reappearance in another form.

    Thaddeus represents the son of Israel who will save his other brothers by giving them the new grain i.e. the
    Good News
    Thaddeus refer to Joseph who saved his hebrew brothers from famine and became the prince of his brothers after the
    blessing of the breast.

    Simon the cananite represents the sons of Israel spreading the Good News over the new land (the kingdom of God)
    in order to conquer/convert its inhabitants.
    “Cananite” refers to the land of Canaan and its conquest.

    Judas Iscariot (the man of Kerioth) represents the fate of man opposed to Good News. He will not get salvation
    and will be destroyed by fire at the divine judgment.

    Judas Iscariot also symbolizes the end of jewish hope for an independent nation, which means that the sons of
    Israel will have to live in a Greco-Roman world

    ANOTHER VIEW ABOUT THEIR ROLE

    James represents Israel as the people of the covenant who received the old Word and who now receive the Good
    News.

    John represents the Good News

    James and John the people who wholeheartedly serve the Good News. As a result, they will be judged as righteous
    people and will escape the wrath of God

    Simon/Peter represents the imperfect people who can sin but repent.

    Judas Iscariot (the man of Kerioth) represents the eternal sinners who will be destroyed by fire at the divine
    judgment.

    Judas Iscariot (the man of Kerioth) also symbolizes the end of jewish hope for an independent nation

    James the son of alphaeus, Thaddeus and Simon the cananite represents the sons of Israel who will spread
    the Good News

    Andrew, Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew and Thomas represents the pagans who will spread the Good News

    Simon/Peter and Andrew represents the God’s house to be built i.e. the new community living according to the
    Good News.

    THE QUALIFIERS

    Zebedee => the Word of God as a gift
    Son of Zebedee => the new generation who receives the Good News as gift of God

    Thunder => the fire of judgement, the wrath of God,
    Son of thunder => the new generation who receives the Good News as a law to be observed so as to escape the fire
    of judgment

    Son of alphaeus => the disappearance in one form and reappearance in another form, which means renewal/rebirth

    Iscariot (the man of Kerioth) => shame and destruction by fire at the divine judgment.

    The cananite => the land that God gives and its conquest i.e. its conversion to the Good News

    THE PROPER NAMES USED AS A QUALIFIER

    Thaddeus => the salvation of Israel

    Matthew => the new bread/Word that the apostles must spread

    Thomas => the twinning with the sons of Israel

    21 – THE HOME, THE WORD AND THE CROWD (MARK 3:20)

    HOME

    “Home”, without any other precision, indicates the tabernacle where the Word of God dwells.

    THE PARALLEL WITH THE PARALYTIC’S SCENE

    The hebrew crowd prevents the pagans from taking their share of the Word i.e. the Good News>

    Mark 2:1 … And when the people heard that He was home,
    Mark 2:2 they (the hebrew crowd) gathered in such large numbers that there was no more room, not even
    outside the door, as Jesus spoke the word to them.
    Mark 2:4 Since they (the paralytics/pagans) were unable to get to Jesus through the crowd, they uncovered
    the roof above Him, made an opening, and lowered the paralytic on his mat.

    The hebrew crowd prevents Jesus and his disciples from taking the new food i.e. the Good News

    Mark 3:20 Then Jesus went home, and once again a crowd gathered, so that He and His disciples could
    not even eat
    .

    THE NEED FOR THE WORD OF GOD (MARK 3:20)

    The apostles need it to perform their mission.
    Mark 3:14 He appointed twelve of them, whom He designated as apostles, to accompany Him, to be sent out to
    preach,
    Mark 3:15
    and to have authority to drive out demons.

    “to preach” => to teach and spread the Good News
    “to have authority to drive out demons” => to defeat those who oppose the Good News

    MARK PREPARES THE NEXT SCENE

    Mark 3:20 Then Jesus went home
    Mark 3:21 When His family heard about this, they went out to take custody of Him, saying, “He is
    out of His mind.”

    Jesus is at home, his family will come to get him because he is out of his mind.

    22 – OTHER SOURCE: THE FIRST BOOK OF MACCABEES

    https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=1%20Maccabees%201&version=GNT
    (GNT) Good News Translation

    1 M 1:1 This history begins when Alexander the Great, son of Philip of Macedonia,

    1 M 2:1 During that time, a priest of the Jehoiarib family named Mattathias, who was the son of
    John and the grandson of Simeon, moved from Jerusalem and settled in Modein.

    1 M 2:2 Mattathias had five sons: John (also called Gaddi),
    1 M 2:3 Simon (also called Thassi),
    1 M 2:4 Judas (also called Maccabeus),
    1 M 2:5 Eleazar (also called Avaran), and Jonathan (also called Apphus).

    SIMON SON OF MATTATHIAS, LEADER AND HIGH PRIEST UNTIL A TRUE PROPHET APPEARS (1 M 14:41)

    1 M 14:27 Often when wars broke out in the country, Simon son of Mattathias, a priest of the Jehoiarib
    family, and his brothers risked their lives in protecting our nation, our Temple, and our Law against our
    enemies. They have brought great glory to our nation.

    1 M 14:35 When the people saw Simon‘s patriotism and how he wanted to bring glory to his nation, they
    made him their leader and High Priest

    1 M 14:41 Therefore, the Jews and their priests are happy to have Simon and his descendants as their
    leaders and High Priests, until a true prophet appears.

    SIMON SON OF MATTATHIAS (WIKIPEDIA)

    He became the first prince of the Hebrew Hasmonean Dynasty. He reigned from 142 to 135 BCE.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simon_Thassi

    SUMMARY

    The number 12 reminds us of the 12 sons of Jacob and the 12 tribal leaders that Moses sent to explore the land of Canaan
    before conquering it
    Jesus appoints 12 apostles so as to spread the Good News and convert the inhabitants of the new land i.e. the kingdom
    of God.

    THE MAIN APOSTLES WHO WILL PLAY A SPECIAL ROLE
    James represents Israel as the people of the covenant
    John represents the Good News with their 2 sides, the gift of God and the fire of jugement
    Simon/Peter represents the hebrew and pagan people who can sin but repent.

    Judas Iscariot (the man of Kerioth) represents the eternal sinners who will be destroyed by fire at the divine
    judgment. He also symbolizes the end of jewish hope for an independent nation

    THE REPRESENTATIVES OF THE GENERATION TO WHOM JESUS TEACHES THE GOOD NEWS.
    Andrew, Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew and Thomas symbolize the pagan populations who believe the Good News.
    James the son of alphaeus, Thaddeus, Simon the cananite symbolize the sons of Israel who leave the
    law of their fathers to follow Jesus
    What the names and qualifiers mean

    Andrew, Philip => the greek populations
    Bartholomew => the aramean populations
    Matthew => the new bread/Word that the apostles must spread
    Thomas => the twinning with the sons of Israel
    The son of alphaeus => the rebirth of Israel
    Thaddeus => the salvation of Israel
    The cananite => the land that God gives and its conquest i.e. its conversion to the Good News

    SIMON/PETER AND ANDREW
    Peter, as a rock, evokes the God’s house to be built. This house will be the new community living according to
    the Good News.
    Andrew represents the greek/pagan community who will join the sons of Israel so as to build the new house of God.
    THE MEANING OF THE SEQUENCE
    1 – Good News are a gift of God that will save the sons of Israel and the pagans.
    2 – Good News are as a law to be observed so as to escape the fire/thunder of judgment
    3 – Apostles will have to spread the Good News to convert other hebrews and pagans
    4 – The sons of Israel will have to live in a Greco-Roman world.
    MARK REINTERPRETS THE OT SOURCES
    1 – The theme of supplanting since he ignores Rubens the firstborn
    2 – The change of name that goes hand in hand with the change of role
    3 – The gift of God and the fire of judgment
    4 – The land as a gift to be conquered (the honey but also the grasshoppers against the giants)

    NEXT STEPS

    (Mark 3:21-35) the divided house.
    (Mark 4-7) parables, miracles, John’s death, …, food laws, …, miracles.
    (Mark 8:1-26) miracles, third synthesis.

    PREVIOUS STEPS

    My previous chapter:

    Reading Mark as a midrash, Chapter 12: The kingdom
    https://vridar.org/2019/10/05/ot-sources-for-the-gospel-of-mark-chapters-2-and-3/#comment-128605

    My last synthesis:
    Reading Mark as a midrash, Chapter 10: Second synthesis
    (Mark 1-2) A NEW THOUGHT PUT INTO A NARRATIVE
    https://vridar.org/2019/10/05/ot-sources-for-the-gospel-of-mark-chapters-2-and-3/#comment-122729
    https://vridar.org/2019/10/05/ot-sources-for-the-gospel-of-mark-chapters-2-and-3/#comment-122730

  15. Reading Mark as a midrash, Chapter 14: The divided house
    Tags: Midrash, Maurice Mergui, Nanine Charbonnel

    (Mark 3:21-35) A call for unity and the definition of unclean spirit

    1 – OVERVIEW
    2 – JESUS GOES HOME TO SPEAK TO HIS FAMILY (THE SONS OF ISRAEL)
    3 – THE SCRIBES, JERUSALEM, SATAN AND THE DEMONS
    4 – BEELZEBUL: THE BAAL WHO IS NOT THE GOD OF ISRAEL
    5 – THE ETERNAL DIVISION/SEPARATION FROM THE GOD/ROCK OF ISRAEL
    6 – THE DIVISION/OPPOSITION WITHIN A COMMUNITY
    7 – THE WORD AS A SOURCE OF DIVISION AMONG THE SONS OF ISRAEL
    8 – THE STRONG MAN, THE TIED MAN AND THE PLUNDERED HOUSE
    9 – THE TEMPORARY SINS OF MEN AND THE ETERNAL SIN AGAINST GOD
    10 – THE DIVIDED FAMILY
    11 – THE WILL OF GOD
    12 – SYNHTESIS ABOUT THE DIVIDED KINGDOM/HOUSE/FAMILY
    13 – THE EXTENDED FAMILY (SONS OF ISRAEL, PAGANS, VARIOUS GENERATIONS)
    14 – THE SYNAGOGUE AND THE TEMPLE OF JERUSALEM
    15 – THE ROCK AND THE HOUSE OF GOD
    16 – BEELZEBUL, THE UNCLEAN SPIRIT AND THE DEMONS
    17 – WHAT DOES CASTING THE UNCLEAN SPIRIT MEAN ?
    18 – PARALLEL WITH THE PARALYTIC’S HEALING
    19 – NARRATIVE VIEWS
    FIRST SUMMARY ABOUT DIVISION
    SECOND SUMMARY ABOUT MARK’S GOSPEL

    1 – OVERVIEW

    Mark 3:21 When His family heard about this, they went out to take custody of Him, saying, “He is out
    of His mind.”

    “to take custody of Him” => His family wants him to return to the Moses’ law.
    “He is out of His mind” => His family considers that he is mistaken by teaching the Good News

    Mark 3:22 And the scribes who had come down from Jerusalem were saying, “He is possessed by
    Beelzebul,” and, “By the prince of the demons He drives out demons.”

    “scribes who had come down from Jerusalem” => first relationship between the scribes and Jerusalem

    “Beelzebul” = Baal (a pagan god) + Zebul (house)

    “He is possessed by Beelzebul” => First accusation: The scribes accuse Jesus of wanting to separate the sons of
    Israel from their God by leading them to Baal.

    “By the prince of the demons He drives out demons” => Second accusation: The scribes accuse Jesus of
    getting his power from the prince of the demons

    Mark 3:23 So Jesus called them together and began to speak to them in parables: “How can Satan drive out
    Satan?

    Jesus refutes the allegations by pointing out the lack of logic in the second accusation: “How can someone rise against
    himself?”

    Mark 3:24 If a kingdom is divided against itself, it cannot stand.
    The divided kingdom refers to the Kingdom of Israel and evokes another division, which is the complete separation of
    Israel from his God by serving and worshiping Baal

    Mark 3:25 If a house is divided against itself, it cannot stand.
    The divided house refers to the house of Israel and also evokes the complete separation of the God/Rock from which
    Israel was hewn.

    Mark 3:26 And if Satan is divided and rises against himself, he cannot stand; his end has come.

    Jesus describes the Satan’s division in order to warn the sons of Israel about the danger of disunity.
    The message is:
    If the sons of Israel separate themselves from their God and divide among themselves, they cannot stand; their end will
    come

    Mark 3:27 Indeed, no one can enter a strong man’s house to steal his possessions unless he first ties up the
    strong man. Then he can plunder his house.

    Israel is a strong man when he serves his God and walks in his way otherwise he becomes a sinner. The sinful man will
    suffer the wrath of God, the chains of exile (Jeremiah 40:1-3) and delivery to plunderers (Isaiah 42:24,25).
    The message is: If you do not obey God, you separate yourself from him and you will suffer his wrath

    Mark 3:28 Truly I tell you, the sons of men will be forgiven all sins and blasphemies,
    as many as they utter.

    “the sons of men” => the sons of Israel and the pagans

    “the sons of men will be forgiven all sins” => the disobedience to God (the sin) is a temporary separation that
    God forgives
    “the sons of men will be forgiven blasphemies” => the blasphemies are also a temporary separation that God
    forgives

    Mark links ‘sins of men’ and ‘blasphemies of men’ so as to introduce another blasphemy in the next verse

    Mark 3:29 But whoever blasphemes against the Holy Spirit will never be forgiven; he is guilty of
    eternal sin.”

    “Whoever” => the sons of Israel and the pagans

    “Whoever blasphemes against the Holy Spirit” => The opposition to the new spirit that the Good News bring
    “he is guilty of eternal sin” => whoever opposes the Good News will suffer the eternal punishment/separation

    Mark 3:30 Jesus made this statement because they were saying, “He has an unclean spirit.”

    Jesus concludes his speech about the division by making the equivalence between division and unclean spirit

    Mark 3:31 Then Jesus’ mother and brothers came and stood outside. They sent someone in to summon Him,
    “mother and brothers stood outside=> they do not beleive the Good News

    Mark 3:32 and a crowd was sitting around Him. “Look,” He was told, “Your mother and brothers are
    outside
    , asking for You.”

    The crowd materializes the separation/incomprehension between Jesus and his family

    Mark 3:33 But Jesus replied, “Who are My mother and My brothers?”
    Are those who stand outside my true brothers?

    Mark 3:34 Looking at those seated in a circle around Him, He said, “Here are My mother and My
    brothers!

    Those seated in a circle are those who beleive the Good News
    Jesus says that those seated in a circle are his true family

    Mark 3:35 For whoever does the will of God is My brother and sister and mother.”

    “Whoever” => the sons of Israel and the pagans
    Those who do the will of God are the true family of Jesus

    SYNTHESIS

    The family of Jesus (the sons of Israel) does not undertand him (Mark 3:21)

    The double accusation (Mark 3:22) of the scribes serves as an introduction to Jesus’ speech about the
    division/separation

    At the same time, Jesus evokes the separation within the same community (Mark 3:23-26) and the eternal separation from
    the God/Rock of Israel (Mark 3:24,25)

    Then Jesus evokes another separation from God which is disobedience to God.
    If the sons of Israel do not obey their God, they separate themselves from him. They will suffer his wrath (Mark 3:27)
    instead of being protected from their enemies

    Jesus continues his speech about the disobedience to God i.e. the sin
    He specifies that all sins will be forgiven (Mark 3:28) except the opposition to new Word of God (Mark 3:29)

    Thus, the sin is a temporary separation from God while the opposition to his Word is an eternal separation.

    Jesus concludes his speech about the division by making the equivalence between division and unclean spirit (Mark 3:30)

    Then Jesus makes a distinction among the sons of Israel. There are two classes of people
    1 – those who are outside (Mark 3:31,32), which means the sons of Israel who remain faithful to the old Word
    2 – those who are within (Mark 3:34), which means the true sons of Israel who beleive the Good News

    Jesus makes it clear that the sons of Israel must leave the Moses’ law and serve the Good News in order to do his will
    (Mark 3:35)

    In his speech, Jesus also addresses all men i.e. the sons of Israel and the pagans
    1 – the sins of men will be forgiven (Mark 3:28) except the opposition to the Good News (Mark 3:29)
    2 – Whoever does the will of God is his brother (Mark 3:35)

    2 – JESUS GOES HOME TO SPEAK TO HIS FAMILY (THE SONS OF ISRAEL)

    “Home”, without any other precision, indicates the tabernacle where the Word of God dwells (Mark 3:20 and Mark 2:1,2)

    Mark 3:20 Then Jesus went home, and once again …

    Mark 2:1 … And when the people heard that He was home,
    Mark 2:2 … as Jesus spoke the word to them.

    The family of Jesus => The sons of Israel who have already received the Word of God i.e. the Moses’ law and the
    prophecies.

    Mark 3:20 Then Jesus went home,

    Mark 3:21 When His family heard about this, they went out to take custody of Him, saying, “He is
    out of His mind.”

    “to take custody of Him” => His family wants him to return to the Moses’ law.
    “He is out of His mind” => His family considers that he is mistaken by teaching the Good News

    3 – ACCUSATION, JERUSALEM, SATAN AND THE DEMONS

    THE POWER/ AUTHORITY TO DRIVE OUT DEMONS

    Mark 1:34 And He healed many who were ill with various diseases and drove out many demons
    Mark 1:39 So He went throughout Galilee, preaching in their synagogues and driving out demons.

    Mark 3:15 … and to have authority to drive out demons

    ACCUSATION

    The scribes, who come from Jerusalem, accuse Jesus of getting his power from Satan, the prince of the demons (Mark
    3:22,23)

    Mark 3:22 And the scribes who had come down from Jerusalem were saying, “He (Jesus) is possessed
    by Beelzebul,” and, “By the prince of the demons He drives out demons.
    Mark 3:23 So Jesus (2424) called them together and began to speak to them in parables: “How can Satan
    drive out Satan?

    Satan accuses Joshua the high priest but God chooses Jerusalem (Zachariah 3:1,2)

    Zachariah 3:1 Then the angel showed me Joshua the high priest standing before the angel of the LORD,
    with Satan standing at his right hand to accuse him.
    Zachariah 3:2 And the LORD said to Satan: “The LORD rebukes you, Satan! Indeed, the LORD, who has
    chosen Jerusalem
    , rebukes you! Is not this man a firebrand snatched from the fire?”

    https://biblehub.com/greek/2424.htm IÉsous: Jesus or Joshua,
    Usage: Jesus; the Greek form of Joshua

    THE DEMONS

    The demons know Jesus and Jesus does not allow them to speak (Mark 1:34)
    Mark 1:34 But He would not allow the demons to speak, because they knew who He was.

    God speaks to Satan and rebukes him (Zachariah 3:2)
    Zachariah 3:2 And the LORD said to Satan: “The LORD rebukes you, Satan!

    4 – BEELZEBUL: THE BAAL WHO IS NOT THE GOD OF ISRAEL

    MARK’S GOSPEL: “Beelzebul” = Baal (a pagan god) + Zebul (house)

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/1168.htm Ba’al: Baal ,a heathen god
    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/2073.htm zebul: elevation, height, lofty abode
    Word Origin: from zabal
    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/2082.htm zabal: probably to dwell

    Mark 3:22 … “He is possessed (2192) by Beelzebul,” BSB
    Mark 3:22 … “He has (2192) Beelzebul,” BLB

    “Beelzebul” evokes Baal or the house of Baal

    OT SOURCES

    AHAZIAH AND BAAL-ZEBUB THE GOD OF EKRON

    Ahaziah, the king of Samaria, has just been wounded. Immediately he sends his messengers to Baal-zebub and ignores the
    God of Israel.
    Because of this, God through the voice of Elijah announces that the king will surely die

    2 Kings 1:1 After the death of Ahab, Moab rebelled against Israel.

    2 Kings 1:2 Now Ahaziah had fallen through the lattice of his upper room in Samaria and injured
    himself. So he sent messengers and instructed them: “Go inquire of Baal-zebub (1176), the god of Ekron, whether
    I will recover from this injury.”

    2 Kings 1:3 But the angel of the LORD said to Elijah the Tishbite, “Go up to meet the messengers of the
    king of Samaria and ask them, ‘Is it because there is no God in Israel that you are on your way to inquire of
    Baal-zebub (1176),
    the god of Ekron?’

    2 Kings 1:4 Therefore this is what the LORD says: ‘You will not get up from the bed on which you are lying.
    You will surely die.’ ” So Elijah departed.

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/1176.htm Baal-zebub Word Origin: from Baal and zebub
    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/1168.htm Ba’al: Baal
    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/2070.htm zebub: a fly

    AHAZIAH (KING OF ISRAEL) SERVES AND WORSHIPS BAAL

    2 Kings 22:51 Ahaziah son of Ahab became king of Israel, and he reigned in Samaria two
    years.
    2 Kings 22:53 Ahaziah served and worshiped Baal (1168) , provoking the LORD, the God of Israel,
    to anger, just as his father had done.

    ISRAEL WORSHIPS BAAL OF PEOR

    Numbers 25:1 While Israel was staying in Shittim, the men began to indulge in sexual immorality with
    the daughters of Moab,
    Numbers 25:2 who also invited them to the sacrifices for their gods. And the people ate and bowed down to these
    gods.
    Numbers 25:3 So Israel joined in worshiping Baal of Peor, and the anger of the LORD burned against
    them
    .
    Numbers 25:5 So Moses told the judges of Israel, “Each of you must kill all of his men who have
    joined in worshiping Baal of Peor (1187).”

    5 – THE ETERNAL DIVISION/SEPARATION FROM THE GOD/ROCK OF ISRAEL

    Mark 3:22 And the scribes who had come down from Jerusalem were saying, “He is possessed by Beelzebul,
    and, “By the prince of the demons He drives out demons.”

    “TO HAVE BEELZEBUL” => TO SERVE OTHER GODS THAN THE GOD OF ISRAEL

    “Beelzebul” = Baal (a pagan god) + Zebul (house)

    Mark 3:24 If a kingdom is divided against itself, it cannot stand.
    The divided kingdom refers to Israel or the king of Israel serving and worshiping Baal. This division means the
    complete separation of Israel from his God

    “TO HAVE BEELZEBUL” => TO ENTER THE HOUSE OF ANOTHER GOD

    “Beelzebul” = Baal (a pagan god) + Zebul (house)

    Mark 3:25 If a house is divided against itself, it cannot stand.
    The divided house refers to Israel or the king of Israel entering the house of Baal to serve and worship him
    The house also refers to the rock from which Israel was hewn.
    This division means the abandonment of the God who made Israel and the refusal of his salvation

    OT SOURCES ABOUT THE ROCK OF ISRAEL

    Isaiah 44:8 Do not tremble or fear. Have I not told you and declared it long ago? You are My witnesses!
    Is there any God but Me? There is no other Rock (6697); I know not one.”

    Isaiah 51:1 Listen to Me, you who pursue righteousness, you who seek the LORD: Look to the rock
    (6697) from which you were cut,
    and to the quarry from which you were hewn.

    Deuteronomy 32:18 You (Israel) ignored the Rock (6697) who brought you forth; you forgot the
    God who gave you birth.

    Isaiah 17:10 For you have forgotten the God of your salvation and failed to remember the Rock (6697)
    of your refuge (4581)
    . Therefore, though you cultivate delightful plots and set out cuttings from exotic vines

    Deuteronomy 32:16 But Jeshurun/Israel (3484) grew fat and kicked—becoming fat, bloated, and gorged.
    He (Israel) abandoned the God who made him and scorned the Rock (6697) of his salvation.

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/4581.htm maoz or mauz: a place or means of safety, protection
    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/6697.htm tsur: rock, cliff
    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/3484.htm Yeshurun: “upright one,” poetic name for Israel

    Jacob blesses Joseph
    Genesis 49:24 Yet he steadied his bow, and his strong arms were tempered by the hands of the Mighty One of
    Jacob, in the name of the Shepherd, the Rock of Israel,

    6 – THE DIVISION/OPPOSITION WITHIN A COMMUNITY

    Mark 3:22 And the scribes who had come down from Jerusalem were saying, “He is possessed by Beelzebul,” and,
    By the prince of the demons He drives out demons.
    Mark 3:23 So Jesus called them together and began to speak to them in parables: “How can Satan drive out
    Satan?

    Mark 3:24 If a kingdom [the kingdom of Israel] is divided against itself, it cannot stand .
    Mark 3:25 If a house [the house of Israel)] is divided against itself, it cannot stand.

    Mark 3:26 And if Satan is divided and rises against himself, he cannot stand; his end has come.

    Jesus describes the Satan’s division in order to warn the sons of Israel about the danger of disunity. The message is:
    If Israel is divided and rised against himself, it cannot stand; its end will come.

    OT SOURCE
    1 Chronicles 21:1 Then Satan rose up against Israel and incited David to take a census of Israel

    7 – THE WORD AS A SOURCE OF DIVISION AMONG THE SONS OF ISRAEL

    The old Word versus the Good News: What is lawful ?

    Mark 2:23 One Sabbath Jesus was passing through the grainfields, and His disciples began to pick the
    heads of grain
    as they walked along.
    Mark 2:24 So the Pharisees said to Him, “Look, why are they doing what is unlawful (1832) on the Sabbath?”

    Mark 3:3 Then Jesus said to the man with the withered hand, “Stand up among us.”
    Mark 3:4
    And He asked them, “Which is lawful (1832) on the Sabbath: to do good or to do evil, to save life
    or to destroy it?” But they were silent.

    https://biblehub.com/greek/1832.htm exesti: it is permitted, lawful

    8 – THE STRONG MAN, THE TIED MAN AND THE HOUSE PLUNDERED

    Mark 3:27 Indeed, no one can enter a strong man’s house to steal his possessions unless he first
    ties up the strong man. Then he can plunder his house.

    THE STRONG MAN => THE RIGHTEOUS MAN WHO WALKS IN THE WAY OF GOD

    Deuteronomy 11:8 You shall therefore keep every commandment I am giving you today, so that you
    may have the strength (2388)
    to go in and possess the land that you are crossing the Jordan to possess,

    Deuteronomy 11:9 and so that you may live long in the land that the LORD swore to your fathers to give
    them and their descendants, a land flowing with milk and honey.

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/2388.htm chazaq: to be or grow firm or strong, strengthen

    THE TIED MAN => THE SINFUL MAN WHO SUFFERS THE WRATH OF GOD

    The sinful man will be bound in chains and exiled (Jeremiah 40:1-3)

    Jeremiah 40:1 This is the word that came to Jeremiah from the LORD after Nebuzaradan captain of the
    guard had released him at Ramah, having found him bound in chains among all the captives of Jerusalem and Judah
    who were being exiled to Babylon.

    Jeremiah 40:2 The captain of the guard found Jeremiah and said to him, “The LORD your God decreed this
    disaster on this place,

    Jeremiah 40:3 and now the LORD has fulfilled it; He has done just as He said. Because you people have sinned
    against the LORD
    and have not obeyed His voice, this thing has happened to you.

    THE PLUNDERED HOUSE => THE SINNER’S HOUSE THAT GOD DELIVERS TO THE PLUNDERERS

    Isaiah 42:24 Who gave Jacob up for spoil, and Israel to the plunderers? Was it not the LORD, against
    whom we have sinned
    ? They were unwilling to walk in His ways, and they would not obey His law.

    Isaiah 42:25 So He poured out on them His furious anger and the fierceness of battle. It enveloped
    them in flames,
    but they did not understand; it consumed them, but they did not take it to heart.

    TO TIE UP THE STRONG MAN => TO MAKE HIM SINNER SO THAT HE LOSES THE PROTECTION OF GOD

    SYNTHESIS

    Mark 3:27 Indeed, no one can enter a strong man’s house to steal his possessions unless he first ties up the
    strong man. Then he can plunder his house.

    The message is
    If you do not walk in the ways of your God, you separate yourself from him and your are sinners
    As a result we will suffer his wrath

    9 – THE TEMPORARY SINS OF MEN AND THE ETERNAL SIN AGAINST GOD

    THE ETERNAL SIN AGAINST GOD

    Mark 1:8 I baptize you with water, but He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit.”
    Mark 3:29 But whoever blasphemes against the Holy Spirit will never be forgiven; he is guilty of eternal
    sin.”

    THE TEMPORARY SINS OF MEN AND THE ETERNAL SIN AGAINST GOD

    Mark 3:28 Truly I tell you, the sons of men will be forgiven all sins and blasphemies, as many
    as they utter.
    Mark 3:29 But whoever blasphemes against the Holy Spirit will never be forgiven; he is guilty of
    eternal sin
    .”

    OT SOURCE

    1 Samuel 2.23 “Why are you doing these things?” Eli said to his sons. “I hear about your wicked deeds
    from all these people.
    1 Samuel 2.25 If a man sins against another man, God can intercede for him; but if a man
    sins against the LORD,
    who can intercede for him?” But they would not listen to their father, since the LORD
    intended to put them to death
    .

    MARK’S REINTERPRETATION: 1 SAMUEL 2.23,25 => MARK 3:28,29

    “Eli said to his sons” => Truly I tell you, the sons

    “a man sins against another man” => the sons of men will be forgiven all sins and blasphemies

    “a man sins against the LORD” => whoever blasphemes against the Holy Spirit

    “guilty of eternal sin” => the LORD intended to put them to death

    In Mark’s gospel, the blasphemy against the Holy Spirit is the opposition to the new spirit that the Good News bring

    10 – THE FAMILY OF JESUS

    THE FAMILY WHO DOES NOT BELIEVE THE GOOD NEWS

    Mark 3:21 When His family heard about this, they went out to take custody of Him, saying, “He is out
    of His mind.”

    “to take custody of Him” => His family wants him to return to their father’s law.
    “He is out of His mind” => His family considers that he is mistaken by teaching another Word

    Mark 3:31 Then Jesus’ mother and brothers came and stood outside. They sent someone in to summon
    Him,
    Mark 3:32 and a crowd was sitting around Him. “Look,” He was told, “Your mother and brothers are outside,
    asking for You.”

    At this point, the Jesus’ family stands oustide

    QUESTION

    Mark 3:33 But Jesus replied, “Who are My mother and My brothers?”
    Are those who stand outside my true brothers?

    THE TRUE FAMILY WHO BELEIVE THE GOOD NEWS

    Mark 3:34 Looking at those seated in a circle around Him, He said, “Here are My mother and My
    brothers
    !

    “those seated in a circle around him” are the true family of Jesus

    Mark 3:35 For whoever does the will of God is My brother and sister and mother.”
    those who do the will of God” are the true family of Jesus.

    THE CROWD AS AN OBSTACLE AND SEPARATOR

    The crowd symbolizes the separation/division between Jesus and his hebrew brothers living according to the Moses’ law.
    What’s more, they communicate through a third person

    Mark 3:31 Then Jesus’ mother and brothers came and stood outside. They sent someone in to summon Him,
    Mark 3:32 and a crowd was sitting around Him. “Look,” He was told, “Your mother and brothers are
    outside
    , asking for You.”

    We have to distinguish between
    “those who are outside=> The sons of Israel who keep the old Word
    “the crowd sitting around Him” => Obstacle and separator
    “those seated in a circle around Him” => The true family of Jesus

    11 – THE WILL OF GOD

    Mark 1:1 This is the beginning of the gospel (2098) of Jesus Christ, the Son of God.

    Mark 1:14 After the arrest of John, Jesus went into Galilee and proclaimed the gospel of God.
    Mark 1:15 The time is fulfilled,” He said, “and the kingdom of God is near. Repent and believe in the
    gospel
    !”

    https://biblehub.com/greek/2098.htm euaggelion: good news

    Mark 3:35 For whoever does the will of God is My brother and sister and mother.”

    “whoever does the will of God” => Whoever believes in the gospel of God does the will of God

    12 – SYNTHESIS ABOUT THE DIVIDED KINGDOM/HOUSE/FAMILY

    The sons of Israel are those who have already received the law of Moses and the prophecies. Mark identifies them
    by using the terms kingdom, house, family.

    The expressions ‘divided kingdom’ and ‘divided house’ also contain other meanings.
    The divided kingdom refers to the kingdom of Israel and the complete separation of Israel from his God by
    serving and worshiping other gods
    The divided house also refers the house of Israel and the complete separation of the God/Rock from which Israel
    was hewn.

    DIVISION/SEPARATION FROM GOD

    1 – First charge against Jesus

    Mark 3:22 He is possessed by Beelzebul,
    The scribes accuse Jesus of wanting to separate the sons of Israel from their God by leading them to Baal

    2 – Jesus’ answer

    Mark 3:24 If a kingdom is divided against itself, it cannot stand.
    If the sons of Israel leave their God by worshiping Baal or other gods, they cannot stand.

    Mark 3:25 If a house is divided against itself, it cannot stand.
    If the sons of Israel leave the God/Rock from which Israel was hewn, they cannot stand

    DIVISION/SEPARATION WITHIN THE SAME COMMUNITY

    1 – Second charge against Jesus

    Mark 3:22 “By the prince of the demons He drives out demons.”
    The scribes accuse Jesus of getting his power from the prince of the demons

    2 – Jesus’ answer

    Mark 3:23 “How can Satan drive out Satan?
    How can satan give the power to drive out himself ?

    Mark 3:26 And if Satan is divided and rises against himself, he cannot stand; his end has
    come.

    Jesus speaks of Satan’s division in order to say this:
    If the sons of Israel are divided and rise against themselves , they cannot stand; their end will
    come

    JESUS ASKS THE SONS OF ISRAEL TO BECOME STRONG MEN AGAIN

    Mark 3:27 Indeed, no one can enter a strong man’s house to steal his possessions unless he first ties
    up
    the strong man. Then he can plunder his house.

    Israel (the sons of Israel) is a strong man when he serves his God and walks in his way, otherwise he becomes a sinner.
    The sinful man will suffer the wrath of God, the chains of exile (Jeremiah 40:1-3) and delivery to plunderers (Isaiah
    42:24,25).

    The message is: If you do not walk in the ways of your God, you separate yourself from him and your end will
    come

    THE SONS OF ISRAEL MUST NOT OPPOSE THE GOOD NEWS

    Mark 3:28 Truly I tell you, the sons of men will be forgiven all sins and blasphemies, as many as they
    utter.

    Mark 3:29 But whoever blasphemes against the Holy Spirit will never be forgiven; he is guilty of eternal
    sin.”

    All sins and blasphemies will be forgiven except opposition to Holy Spirit i.e. the Word of God.

    In other words, the sons of Israel can remain faithful to the law of Moses as long as they do not oppose the Good News
    (Mark 3:28,29)

    THE SONS OF ISRAEL WHO REMAIN FAITHFUL TO THE MOSES’ LAW

    Mark 3:21 When His family heard about this, they went out to take custody of Him, saying, “He is out
    of His mind.”

    Mark 3:31 Then Jesus’ mother and brothers came and stood outside. They sent someone in to summon
    Him,
    Mark 3:32 and a crowd was sitting around Him. “Look,” He was told, “Your mother and brothers are outside,
    asking for You.

    THE SONS OF ISRAEL WHO BELEIVE THE GOOD NEWS

    Mark 3:34 Looking at those seated in a circle around Him, He said, “Here are My mother and My
    brothers!
    Mark 3:35 For whoever does the will of God is My brother and sister and mother.”

    13 – THE EXTENDED FAMILY (SONS OF ISRAEL, PAGANS, VARIOUS GENERATIONS)

    Mark 3:10 But so that you may know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins...”

    Mark 3:28 Truly I tell you, the sons of men will be forgiven all sins and blasphemies, as many as they
    utter.

    Mark 3:29 But whoever blasphemes against the Holy Spirit will never be forgiven; he is guilty of
    eternal sin
    .”

    Mark 3:35 For whoever does the will of God is My brother and sister and mother.

    The expression ‘sons of men’ identifies the sons of Israel and the pagans. The pronoun ‘whoever’ refers to ‘sons
    of men’.
    So Jesus says
    1 – that sins will be forgiven in the same way whether the man is a son of israel or a pagan
    2 – that he who makes the will of God is his brother whether the man is a son of israel or a pagan

    Notice that the ‘Son of Man’ is a divine figure while the ‘sons of men’ are sinners

    BROTHER, SISTER AND MOTHER

    The terms ‘brother’, ‘sister’ represent the current generation who receives the Good News
    The term ‘mother’ represents either the previous generation or the next generation

    Brother/sister of Jesus => the sons of Israel who remain faithful to the old Word
    True brother/sister of Jesus => the sons of Israel and the pagans who do the will of God

    Mother of Jesus => the Israelites women who gave birth to the sons of Israel
    True mother of Jesus => the women who will give birth to children of God

    14 – THE SYNAGOGUE AND THE TEMPLE

    Step 1: Jesus drives the unclean spirit out of the synagogue, which means that he drives out the opponents and
    puts a new spirit in the hearts of the sons of Israel.

    Mark 1:23 Suddenly a man with an unclean spirit cried out in the synagogue:
    Mark 1:25 But Jesus rebuked the spirit. “Be silent!” He said. “Come out of him!”

    Step 2: Jesus asks the rulers of the synagogue to teach the Good News.

    Mark 3:5 Jesus looked around at them with anger and sorrow at their hardness of heart. Then He said to the man,
    “Stretch out your hand.” So he stretched it out, and it was restored.

    Step 3: Jesus drives out those who pervert the house of God, which means that Jesus drives the unclean spirit
    out of the temple

    Mark 11:15 When they arrived in Jerusalem, Jesus entered the temple courts and began to drive out (1544)
    those who were buying and selling there
    . He overturned the tables of the money changers and the seats of those
    selling doves.

    https://biblehub.com/greek/1544.htm ekballo: I throw, cast, put out, banish, bring forth, produce

    Step 4: The temple is destroyed to make way for the new house/community of God, which Peter and Andrew will
    build.

    Mark 15:38 And the veil of the temple was torn in two from top to bottom.

    SYNTHESIS

    The synagogue will teach only one Word, the Good News and there will be only one house of God, the community gathering
    together the true sons of Israel and the converted pagans.

    15 – THE ROCK AND THE HOUSE OF GOD

    OT SOURCES

    Isaiah 51:1 “Listen to Me, you who pursue righteousness, you who seek the LORD: Look to the rock
    (6697) from which you were cut,
    and to the quarry from which you were hewn.

    Isaiah 44:8 Do not tremble or fear. Have I not told you and declared it long ago? You are My witnesses! Is
    there any God but Me? There is no other Rock (6697);
    I know not one.”

    Deuteronomy 32:18 You (Israel) ignored the Rock (6697) who brought you forth; you forgot the
    God who gave you birth.

    MARK’S GOSPEL: THE HOUSE OF GOD AS A BUILDING

    Mark 15:46 So Joseph bought a linen cloth, took down the body of Jesus, wrapped it in the cloth, and
    placed it in a tomb that had been cut out of the rock (4073).

    The tomb cut out of the rock represents the house where the Word of God dwells.
    Joseph takes down the body of Jesus (the ark containing the Good News) and places it in the house.

    MARK’S GOSPEL: THE HOUSE OF GOD AS A NEW COMMUNITY TO BE BUILD

    Mark 1:29 And immediately having gone forth out of the synagogue, they came into the house of Simon
    and Andrew
    , with James and John.
    Mark 3:16 These are the twelve He appointed: Simon (whom He named Peter)

    Simon/Peter, as a rock, evokes the God’s house to be built. This house will be the new community living
    according to the Good News.
    Andrew represents the greek/pagan community who will join the sons of Israel so as to build the new house of God.

    STRONG’S CODE

    Mark 3:25 If a house (3614) is divided against itself, it cannot stand.

    https://biblehub.com/greek/3614.htm oikia: a house, dwelling
    Word Origin from oikos
    https://biblehub.com/greek/3624.htm oikos: a house, a dwelling
    https://biblehub.com/greek/3625.htm oikoumenÉ: the inhabited earth

    https://biblehub.com/greek/4074.htm Petros: Peter
    Word Origin: a noun akin to petra, used as a proper name
    https://biblehub.com/greek/4073.htm petra: a (large mass of) rock
    (a single occurrence in Mark’s Gospel)

    To sum up
    Simon/Peter (4074) will build the new house (3624) of God by spreading the Good News across the inhabited earth (3625)

    16 – BEELZEBUL, THE UNCLEAN SPIRIT AND THE DEMONS

    TO HAVE BEELZEBUL = TO HAVE AN UNCLEAN SPIRIT

    Mark 3:22 … “He is possessed (2192) by Beelzebul,” BSB
    Mark 3:22 … “He has (2192) Beelzebul,” BLB

    Mark 3:30 … because they were saying, “He has (2192) an unclean spirit.” BSB
    Mark 3:30 … For they were saying, “He has (2192) an unclean spirit.” BLB

    https://biblehub.com/greek/2192.htm echÓ: to have, hold

    UNCLEAN SPIRIT => THE INNER FORCE THAT OPPOSES THE GOOD NEWS

    Mark 1:23 Suddenly a man with an unclean spirit cried out in the synagogue:
    Mark 1:25 But Jesus rebuked the spirit. “Be silent!” He said. “Come out of him!

    Mark 5:2 As soon as Jesus got out of the boat, He was met by a man with an unclean spirit, who was
    coming from the tombs.
    Mark 5:8 For Jesus had already declared, “Come out of this man, you unclean spirit!”

    Mark 9:17 Someone in the crowd replied, “Teacher, I brought You my son, who has a spirit that makes him
    mute.
    Mark 9:25 When Jesus saw that a crowd had come running, He rebuked the unclean spirit. “You deaf and mute
    spirit,” He said, “I command you to come out and never enter him again.”

    DEMON => THE EXTERNAL FORCE THAT OPPOSES THE GOOD NEWS

    Mark 1:34 And He healed many who were ill with various diseases and drove out many demons
    Mark 1:39 So He went throughout Galilee, preaching in their synagogues and driving out demons.

    Mark 3:15 … and to have authority to drive out demons.

    Mark 3:22 And the scribes who had come down from Jerusalem were saying, “He is possessed by Beelzebul,” and,
    By the prince of the demons He drives out demons.

    17 – WHAT DOES EXPELLING THE UNCLEAN SPIRIT MEAN ?

    Unclean spirit: The singular form indicates his strength
    Mark 1:25 But Jesus rebuked the spirit. “Be silent!” He said. “Come out of him!”
    Mark 1:26 At this, the unclean spirit threw the man into convulsions and came out with a loud shriek.

    Unclean spirits: The plural form indicates the division and the failure
    Mark 1:27 He commands even the unclean spirits, and they obey Him!”

    Thus, “To expel the unclean spirit” means “to divide it in order to destroy it”

    18 – PARALLEL WITH THE PARALYTIC’S HEALING

    Step 1:The crowd as an obstacle (Mark 2:1,2 => Mark 3:20)
    Step 2: The accusation of the scribes ( Mark 2:6,7 => Mark 3:22)
    Step 3: The speech of Jesus (Mark 2:8-11 => Mark 3:23-35)

    PARALYTIC’S HEALING

    Mark 2:1 … And when the people heard that He was home
    Mark 2:2 they gathered in such large numbers that there was no more room, not even outside the
    door, as Jesus spoke the word to them

    Mark 2:6 But some of the scribes were sitting there and thinking in their hearts
    Mark 2:7 “Why does this man speak like this? He is blaspheming! Who can forgive sins but God alone?”

    Mark 2:8-11 Speech about the forgiveness of sins

    THE DIVIDED HOUSE

    Mark 3:20 Then Jesus went home, and once again a crowd gathered, so that He and His disciples
    could not even eat.

    Mark 3:22 And the scribes who had come down from Jerusalem were saying, “He is possessed by
    Beelzebul,” and, “By the prince of the demons He drives out demons.”

    Mark 3:23-35 Speech about the division and the sin

    19 – NARRATIVE VIEWS

    QUESTION => JUDGEMENT => ANSWER

    Jesus judges negatively those who oppose the Good News

    Mark 3:4 And He asked them, “Which is lawful
    Mark 3:5 Jesus looked around at (4017) them with anger and sorrow at their hardness of heart. Then He said
    to the man, “Stretch out your hand.” So he stretched it out, and it was restored.

    Jesus judges positively those who beleive the Good News

    Mark 3:33 But Jesus replied, “Who are My mother and My brothers?”
    Mark 3:34 Looking at (4017) those seated in a circle around Him, He said, “Here are My mother and My
    brothers!

    https://biblehub.com/greek/4017.htm periblepÓ: to look around

    THE CHARGES AGAINST JESUS

    Mark 2:7 “Why does this man speak like this? He is blaspheming! Who can forgive sins but God alone?

    Mark 3:2 In order to accuse Jesus, they were watching to see if He would heal on the Sabbath.

    Mark 3:22 And the scribes who had come down from Jerusalem were saying, “He is possessed by Beelzebul,”
    and, “By the prince of the demons He drives out demons.

    INVERSION

    The Son of Man is a divine figure who forgives the sins
    Mark 3:10 But so that you may know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins...”

    The sons of men are sinners
    Mark 3:28 Truly I tell you, the sons of men will be forgiven all sins and blasphemies, as many as they
    utter.

    REPETITION

    Mark 3:24 If a kingdom is divided against itself, it cannot stand.
    Mark 3:25 If a house is divided against itself, it cannot stand.
    Mark 3:26 And if Satan is divided and rises against himself, he cannot stand; his end has come.

    TWO CLASSES OF PEOPLE

    Those who are outside
    Mark 3:32 “Look,” He was told, “Your mother and brothers are outside, asking for You.”

    Those who are within
    Mark 3:34 Looking at those seated in a circle around Him, He said, “Here are My mother and My
    brothers
    !

    FIRST SUMMARY ABOUT (MARK 3:21-35)

    The sequence (Mark 3:21-35) evokes the confusions and divisions that the new Word can generate among the sons of Israel

    The first verse in the sequence (Mark 3:21) is about the family who does not understand the Good News because it
    remains faithful to the law of Moses
    The last verse in the sequence (Mark 3:35) defines the true family, the one that does the will of God by serving the
    Good News

    The sons of Israel are those who have already received the law of Moses and the prophecies. Mark identifies them by
    using the terms ‘family’, ‘house’ and ‘kingdom’

    The divided kingdom refers to the kingdom of Israel and evokes another division, which is the complete separation of
    Israel from his God by serving and worshiping Baal

    The divided house refers to the house of Israel. It expresses the same as the divided kingdom
    and adds the complete separation of the God/Rock from which Israel was hewn

    The double accusation (Mark 3:22) of the scribes serves as an introduction to Jesus’ speech about the
    division/separation

    At the same time, Jesus evokes the separation within the same community (Mark 3:23-26) and the eternal separation from
    the God of Israel (Mark 3:24,25)

    Then Jesus evokes another separation from God which is disobedience to God.
    If the sons of Israel do not obey their God, they separate themselves from him (Mark 3:27). They will suffer his wrath
    (the chains of exile, the delivery to plunderers) instead of being protected from their enemies

    Jesus continues his speech about the disobedience to God i.e. the sin
    He specifies that all sins will be forgiven (Mark 3:28) except the opposition to the Good News (Mark 3:29)

    Thus, the sin is a temporary separation from God while the opposition to his Word is an eternal separation

    Jesus concludes his speech by making the link between unclean spirit and division (Mark 3:30). “To have an unclean
    spirit” means the division against oneself and the separation from God

    Then Jesus makes a distinction among the sons of Israel. There are two classes of people
    1 – those who are outside (Mark 3:31,32), which means the sons of Israel who remain faithful to the old Word
    2 – those who are within (Mark 3:34), which means the true sons of Israel who beleive the Good News

    Jesus makes it clear that the sons of Israel must leave the Moses’ law and serve the Good News in order to do his will
    (Mark 3:35)
    However, the sons of Israel can remain faithful to the law of Moses as long as they do not oppose the Good News (Mark
    3:28,29)

    In his speech, Jesus also addresses all men i.e. the sons of Israel and the pagans
    1 – the sins of men will be forgiven (Mark 3:28) except the opposition to Good News (Mark 3:29)
    2 – Whoever does the will of God is his brother (Mark 3:35)

    SECOND SUMMARY ABOUT MARK’S GOSPEL

    THE FIRST TWO SYNTHESIS ABOUT THE GOOD NEWS

    (Mark 2:18-28)
    The Good News are a gift of God and there are 3 classes of people
    1 – The disciples of John who remain faithful to the old Word
    2 – The disciples of Jesus who seek the Word of God
    3 – The pharisees who oppose the Good News

    (Mark 3:21-35)
    The Good News must be served and there are 3 classes of people
    1 – The sons of Israel who remain faithful to the old Word
    2 – The sons of Israel and the pagans who believe the Good News and do the will of God
    3 – The eternal sinners who oppose the Good News

    STRUCTURE OF THE GOSPEL

    (Mark 1-2)
    God gives a new Word that erases the barriers between hebrew and pagan people since there will be no circumcision of
    flesh (Mark 2:13-17) and no Sabbath (Mark 2:27,28)

    (Mark 3:1-6)
    The new Word should be taught in the synagogues

    (Mark 3:7-12)
    Mark lists the hebrew and pagan lands where the new Word will be spread.

    (Mark 3:13-20)
    Jesus chooses 12 apostles whom he will teaches in order to spread the new Word across the hebrew and pagan lands.
    The inhabitants of these lands will be judged according to the new Word and will suffer the wrath/thunder of God if
    they do not walk in his new ways.

    (Mark 3:21-35)
    Jesus asks the sons of Israel to remain faithful to their God and not to be divided over the Word
    Jesus says that the sons of Israel and the pagans will have to serve the Good News in order to be strong and obtain
    salvation.
    Jesus equates unclean spirit, division and separation from God
    Jesus makes it clear that his true brothers are those who follow him
    For the first time, Jesus speaks in parables

    (Mark 4:1-34)
    Parables about the kingdom of God

    (Mark 4:34-40)
    The first crossing to the other shore in order to spread the Good News among the pagans

    (Mark 5:1-20)
    The unclean spirit divides against itself by entering into 2000 unclean animals. As a result, it cannot stand and its
    end immediately comes

    NEXT STEPS

    (Mark 4) Parables, the first crossing
    (Mark 5-7) The demon, the Jairus’ daughter, John’s death, …, food laws, …, miracles.
    (Mark 8:1-26) miracles, third synthesis

    PREVIOUS STEPS

    My previous chapter:
    Reading Mark as a midrash, Chapter 13: The apostles
    https://vridar.org/2019/10/05/ot-sources-for-the-gospel-of-mark-chapters-2-and-3/#comment-132290
    https://vridar.org/2019/10/05/ot-sources-for-the-gospel-of-mark-chapters-2-and-3/#comment-132291

    My last synthesis:
    Reading Mark as a midrash, Chapter 10: Second synthesis
    (Mark 1-2) A NEW THOUGHT PUT INTO A NARRATIVE
    https://vridar.org/2019/10/05/ot-sources-for-the-gospel-of-mark-chapters-2-and-3/#comment-122729
    https://vridar.org/2019/10/05/ot-sources-for-the-gospel-of-mark-chapters-2-and-3/#comment-122730

  16. Reading Mark as a midrash, Chapter 15: Parables
    Tags: Midrash, Maurice Mergui, Nanine Charbonnel

    (Mark 4:1-34) First knowledges about the kingdom of God

    1 – OVERVIEW
    2 – TEACHING ON THE SEASHORE
    3 – THE PURPOSE OF THE PARABLE: THE DISCOVERY OF GOD’S MYSTERY
    4 – THE PURPOSE OF THE PARABLE: THOSE INSIDE AND THOSE OUTSIDE
    5 – THE SEED/WORD PUT IN HIS HEART SO THAT IT GROWS TO MATURITY
    6 – THE LIGHT TO ILLUMINATE THE WORD AND THE WAY
    7 – THE MEASURE TO JUDGE THE GAIN THAT MAN DRAWS FROM THE WORD
    8 – THE BASKET, THE MEASURE AND THE LIGHT
    9 – THE SEED GROWING DAY AND NIGHT: THE ASSIMILATION OF THE WORD THANKS TO THE DIVINE ACTION
    10 – THE DIVINE SALIVA AS THE AGENT TO ASSIMILATE THE WORD
    11 – THE MUSTAR SEED: THE POWER OF THE NEW WORD
    12 – THE PARABLE AS RIDDLE
    13 – THE PARABLE AS COMPARISON
    14 – MARK 4:4 COMPARED TO MARK 4:32, INVERSION AND TEXTUAL UNITY
    15 – PSALM 1 AS A TEMPLATE
    16 – PARABLES AND MIRACLES
    17 – THE KINGDOM OF GOD AND ITS SPIRITUAL DIMENSION
    SUMMARY

    1 – OVERVIEW

    Mark 4:1 Once again Jesus began to teach beside the sea, and such a large crowd gathered around Him
    that

    He got into a boat and sat in it, while all the people crowded along the shore.
    Jesus gets into the boat to address the people located on both shores, that of the hebrews and that of the pagans

    Mark 4:2 And He taught them many things in parables, and in His teaching He said
    Jesus teaches the Good News in parables and all men hear the parables whether they are Hebrews or pagans

    Mark 4:3 “Listen! A farmer went out to sow his seed.
    The parable begins with an image from everyday life. The seed evokes the vocation to grow
    Jesus sows the seed and there are four kinds of grounds

    Mark 4:4 And as he was sowing, some seed fell along the path, and the birds came and devoured it.
    Mark 4:5 Some fell on rocky ground, where it did not have much soil. It sprang up quickly because the soil was
    shallow.
    Mark 4:6 But when the sun rose, the seedlings were scorched, and they withered because they had no root.
    Mark 4:7 Other seed fell among thorns, which grew up and choked the seedlings, and they yielded no crop.
    Mark 4:8 And other fell into the good soil and began yielding fruit, growing up and increasing, and one
    bearing thirtyfold, and one sixty, and one a hundred.”

    Mark 4:9 Then Jesus said, He who has ears to hear, let him hear.”
    Jesus asks his listeners to discover the meaning of the parable

    Mark 4:10 As soon as Jesus was alone with the Twelve and those around Him, they asked Him about the
    parable.

    The Twelve and those around Him want to know the meaning

    Mark 4:11 He replied, “The mystery of the kingdom of God has been given to you, but to those on the
    outside everything is expressed in parables,
    Mark 4:12 so that, ‘they may be ever seeing but never perceiving, and ever hearing but never understanding;
    otherwise they might turn and be forgiven.’ ”

    The mystery of the kingdom of God is what belongs to God. Let us remember that the forgiveness of sins belongs to
    God (Mark 2:7 “Who can forgive sins but God alone?”).
    So the purpose of parables is to teach people that God changes the way sins are forgiven

    Jesus will explain the first parable to those inside. Those inside are those who want to know the true meaning because
    they are interested in the things of God.
    Those outside are those who are only interested in the things of men. What is the point of explaining to them ?

    Mark 4:13 Then Jesus said to them, “Do you not understand this parable? Then how will you understand any of
    the parables?

    Jesus will explain the parable of the sower so that those inside can understand for themselves the the following ones.

    Mark 4:14 The farmer sows the word.
    The Word of God is like the seed because both are intented to grow.
    The Word falls into the mind/heart/soul of man.

    Jesus sows the Word of God and there are four kinds of people who hear the Word

    Mark 4:15 Some are like the seeds along the path, where the word is sown. As soon as they hear it, Satan
    comes and takes away the word that was sown in them.

    Some hear the Word in a hostile outer environment, as a result the Word immediately disappears.

    Mark 4:16 Some are like the seeds sown on rocky ground. They hear the word and at once receive it with joy.
    Mark 4:17 But they themselves have no root, and they remain for only a season. When trouble or persecution
    (1375) comes because of the word, they quickly fall away.

    Some are not strong enough to keep the Word in their hearts when external events raise against them

    Mark 4:18 And these are those sown among the thorns. These are those having heard the word,
    Mark 4:19 but the worries of this life, the deceitfulness of wealth, and the desire for other things come in
    and choke the word, and it becomes unfruitful.

    Others make the Word grow but they also have also other desires in their hearts. As a result, the Word is choked and
    becomes unfruitful.

    Mark 4:20 Still others are like the seeds sown on good soil. They hear the word, receive it, and produce
    a crop – thirtyfold, sixtyfold, or a hundredfold.”

    Still others are ready to accept the Word. The Word multiplies a hundredfold in their hearts as soon as they hear it

    Mark 4:21 Jesus also said to them, “Does anyone bring in a lamp to put it under a basket (3426) or under a
    bed ? Doesn’t he set it on a stand?

    Jesus asks a logical question about the light in order to say that God also gives light to discover the meaning of the
    Word. What is the point of giving people the Word if they do not understand it?

    Mark 4:22 For there is nothing hidden that will not be disclosed, and nothing concealed that will not be
    brought to light.

    As a result, the whole content of the new Word will be brought to light so that man understand it.
    However, the receivers must pay careful attention to the Word and make the effort to discover its meaning.

    Mark 4:23 If anyone has ears to hear, let him hear.”
    Jesus will not explain this second parable because he has already illuminated the parable of the sower. He now invites
    his listeners to discover for themselves the meaning of his sayings

    Mark 4:24 He went on to say, “Pay attention to what you hear. With the measure you use, it will be measured
    to you, and even more will be added to you.

    Pay attention to the new Word God is giving you, You will be judged according the gain that you draw from it.

    Mark 4:25 For whoever has will be given more. But whoever does not have, even what he has will be taken away
    from him.”

    He who has made the Word fruitful in his heart will receive his reward i.e. the entry into the kingdom. As for the one
    who has not made the Word fruitful, God will take away the Word from his heart

    Mark 4:26 Jesus also said, “The kingdom of God is like a man who scatters seed on the ground.
    In this parable, it is the man who puts himself the Word (the Good News) in his heart

    Mark 4:27 Night and day he sleeps and wakes, and the seed sprouts and grows, though he knows not how.
    The word grows thanks to divine action without man being aware of it

    Mark 4:28 All by itself the earth produces a crop – first the stalk, then the head, then grain that ripens
    within.

    The Word grows to maturity

    Mark 4:29 And as soon as the grain is ripe, he swings the sickle, because the harvest has come.”
    As soon as the man notices that the Word has filled his heart, he swings the sickle to signal that he is ready for
    divine judgment

    Mark 4:30 Then He asked, “To what can we compare the kingdom of God? With what parable shall we
    present it?
    Mark 4:31 It is like a mustard seed, which is the smallest of all seeds sown upon the earth.

    At first, the Word only falls into the hearts of a small group

    Mark 4:32 But after it is planted, it grows to be the largest of all garden plants and puts forth great
    branches, so that the birds of the air nest in its shade.”

    Then, the Word spreads across the world, the conversions multiply, the most powerful community is built and
    shelters his members

    Mark 4:33 With many such parables Jesus spoke the word to them, to the extent that they could
    understand
    .

    Jesus teaches his hebrew and pagan listeners in a progressive way. The Hebrews need time to change their minds and
    accept the new remission of sins which means the end of Moses’ laws. As for the pagans, they are discovering the Word
    of God

    Mark 4:34 He did not tell them anything without using a parable. But privately He explained everything to His
    own disciples.

    Mark reminds the purpose of parables: the teaching of a new forgiveness to those wanting to discover the things of God

    2 – TEACHING ON THE SEASHORE

    THOSE WHO HEAR THE PARABLES

    Mark 4:1 Once again Jesus began to teach beside the sea, and such a large crowd gathered around
    Him that He got into a boat and sat in it, while all the people crowded along the shore.

    The sea is the border between the Hebrews who received the Moses’ law and the pagans who don’t know it (Deuteronomy
    30:11-14).
    The sea is also the symbolic place to address both the hebrews and the pagans.
    Jesus gets into the boat to address the people located on both shores, that of the hebrews and that of the pagans
    The boat and the crowd also recall the wine press (Mark 3:9 … a boat ready for Him so that the crowd
    would not crush Him)

    Mark 4:2 And He taught them many things in parables, and in His teaching He said
    Mark 4:33 With many such parables Jesus spoke the word to them, to the extent that they could
    understand.
    Mark 4:34 He did not tell them anything without using a parable

    Jesus teaches the Good News in parables and all men hear the parables whether they are Hebrews or pagans

    THOSE WHO WANT TO DISCOVER THE MEANING OF PARABLES

    Mark 4:10 As soon as Jesus was alone with the Twelve and those around Him, they asked Him about
    the parable.
    Mark 4:34 … But privately He explained everything to His own disciples.

    The twelve and those around Jesus represent the same group of people as the disciples. They are those who ask Jesus
    about the parable to know more

    3 – THE PURPOSE OF THE PARABLE: THE DISCOVERY OF GOD’S MYSTERY

    THE MYSTERY OF THE KINGDOM OF GOD AND THE FORGIVENESS OF SINS

    Mark 4:2 And He taught them many things in parables, and in His teaching He said,

    Mark 4:11 He replied, “The mystery of the kingdom of God has been given to you, but to those on the
    outside everything is expressed in parables,

    The mystery of the kingdom of God is what belongs to God.

    Mark 4:12 so that, ‘they may be ever seeing but never perceiving, and ever hearing but never understanding;
    otherwise they might turn and be forgiven.’ ”

    The forgiveness of sins belongs to God (Mark 2:7 “Who can forgive sins but God alone?”).

    God has the power to change what is His. Therefore, God has the power to change the way sins are forgiven. The time has
    come for change (Mark 1:4, 15) and the new way is the redemption (Mark 1:7).
    Jesus teaches this new forgiveness which frees men from sin since Jesus takes upon himself their sins in order to
    redeem them. As a result, the man whose sins are forgiven will return to God. The entry into the kingdom represents
    this return to God.
    In a practical way, the new teaching frees man from the laws handed down to Moses: laws about the forgiveness of sins
    (Mark 2:1-12), the circumcision of the flesh (Mark 2:13-17), the Sabbath (Mark 2:27,28), the food laws (Mark 7:15).
    To read more, see my Chapter 10: Second synthesis

    THE THINGS OF GOD AND THE THINGS OF MEN

    Mark 8:33 And having turned and having looked upon His disciples, He rebuked Peter, and said, “Get behind Me,
    Satan, for your thoughts are not of the things of God, but the things of men.”

    Mark 12:17 Then Jesus told them, “Give to Caesar what is Caesar’s, and to God what is God’s.” And
    they marveled at Him.

    THE STRONG PARALLEL BETWEEN Mark 4:12 and Isaiah 6:10

    Mark 4:12 so that, ‘they may be ever seeing but never perceiving, and ever hearing but never
    understanding
    ; otherwise they might turn and be forgiven.’ 

    Isaiah 6:10 Make the hearts of this people calloused; deafen their ears and close their eyes. Otherwise
    they might see with their eyes, hear with their ears, understand with their hearts, and turn and be
    healed
    .”

    I remind that forgiveness of sins equates healing (Mark 2:9)

    OT SOURCES about the sinful people who do not hear/see/understand the Word of God

    Isaiah 44:9 All who fashion idols are nothing, and the things they delight in do not profit. Their
    witnesses neither see nor know, that they may be put to shame.
    Isaiah 44:17 From the rest he makes a god, his graven image. He bows down to it and worships; he
    prays to it and says, “Save me, for you are my god.”
    Isaiah 44:18
    They do not comprehend or discern, for He has shut their eyes so they cannot see and closed
    their minds so they cannot understand.

    Jeremiah 5:19 And when the people ask, ‘For what offense has the LORD our God done all these things to
    us?’ You are to tell them, ‘Just as you have forsaken Me and served foreign gods in your land, so will you serve
    foreigners in a land that is not your own.’ ”
    Jeremiah 5:20 Declare this in the house of Jacob and proclaim it in Judah:
    Jeremiah 5:21 “Hear this, O foolish and senseless people, who have eyes but do not see, who have ears but do
    not hear
    .

    OT SOURCES about the revealed Word

    Deuteronomy 29:29 The secret things belong to the LORD our God, but the things revealed (1540)
    belong to us and to our children forever, so that we may follow all the words of this law.

    Daniel 2:19 During the night, the mystery was revealed (1541) to Daniel in a vision, and he blessed the
    God of heaven
    Daniel 2:22 He (God) reveals the deep and hidden things; He knows what lies in darkness, and light dwells
    with Him.

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/1540.htm galah: to uncover, remove
    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/1541.htm gelah or gela: to reveal

    Ezechiel 28:1 And the word of the LORD came to me, saying,
    Ezechiel 28:2 “Son of man, tell the ruler of Tyre that this is what the Lord GOD says:
    Ezechiel 28:3 Behold, you are wiser than Daniel; no secret is hidden from you!

    SYNTHESIS

    The mystery of the kingdom of God is what belongs to God. In Mark’ Gospel, the mystery is a new forgiveness of sins
    allowing the return to God. The entry into the kingdom represents this return to God.
    Jesus teaches the new forgiveness (the Good News) so that people known the new will of God and walk in the new way

    4 -THE PURPOSE OF THE PARABLE: THOSE INSIDE AND THOSE OUTSIDE

    Mark 4:10 As soon as Jesus was alone with the Twelve and those around Him, they asked Him about the
    parable.

    Mark 4:11 He replied, “The mystery of the kingdom of God has been given to you, but to those on
    the outside
    everything is expressed in parables,

    Those who ask Jesus about the parable (Mark 4:10) are inside while the others who do not ask about the parable are
    outside.

    The 2 verses point out that the positioning inside or outside depends on the will of the listener

    Jesus teaches the Good News in parables and all men hear the parables
    Those inside are interested in the things of God. So they hear the Word of God and consequently they are on the right
    way to enter into the kingdom of God
    Those outside are only interested in earthly things. So, they only hear a discourse describing scenes from everyday
    life and consequently they will remain outside the kingdom of God

    THE PARALLEL WITH THE TRUE FAMILY

    Mark 3:31 Then Jesus’ mother and brothers came and stood outside. They sent someone in to summon Him,
    “mother and brothers stood outside=> The hebrews who do not beleive the Good News

    Mark 3:34 Looking at those seated in a circle around Him, He said, “Here are My mother and My
    brothers!

    ”those seated in a circle=> The hebrews and the pagans who will beleive the Good News

    5 – THE SEED/WORD PUT IN HIS HEART SO THAT IT GROWS TO MATURITY

    The parable of the seed (Mark 4:3-8) and its explanation (Mark 4:14-20)
    Mark considers 4 kinds of ground where the seed falls and associates them with 4 classes of heart where the Word falls

    A – THE SEED AND THE WORD (Mark 4:3 => Mark 4:14)

    Mark 4:3Listen! A farmer went out to sow his seed.
    Mark 4:14 The farmer sows the word.

    The Word of God is like the seed because both are intented to grow.

    OT SOURCE about the Word to hear

    Isaiah 28:33 Listen and hear my voice. Pay attention and hear what I say.

    OT SOURCES about the new Word/Spirit to put in his heart

    Ezekiel 11:9 And I will give them singleness of heart and put a new spirit within them; I will
    remove their heart of stone
    and give them a heart of flesh,

    OT SOURCES about the seedlings and the vocation to grow

    Deuteronomy 11:10 For the land that you are entering to possess is not like the land of Egypt, from
    which you have come, where you sowed your seed and irrigated on foot, like a vegetable garden.

    Jeremiah 31:27 “The days are coming,” declares the LORD, “when I will sow the house of Israel
    and the house of Judah
    with the seed of man and of beast.

    Isaiah 55:10 For just as rain and snow fall from heaven and do not return without watering the earth,
    making it bud and sprout, and providing seed to sow and food to eat,
    Isaiah 55:11 so My word that proceeds from My mouth will not return to Me empty, but it will accomplish
    what I please, and it will prosper where I send it.

    Isaiah 61:11 For as the earth brings forth its growth, and as a garden enables seed to spring up,
    so the Lord GOD will cause righteousness and praise to spring up before all the nations.

    B – THE SEED/WORD ALONG THE PATH (Mark 4:4 => Mark 4:15)

    First scenario: The hearts where the Word immediately disappears because of external forces

    Mark 4:4 And as he was sowing, some seed fell along the path, and the birds came and
    devoured it
    .
    Mark 4:15 Some are like the seeds along the path, where the word is sown. As soon as they hear it,
    Satan
    comes and takes away the word that was sown in them.

    ‘Some seed fell along the path’ => Some are like the seeds along the path
    ‘The birds came and devoured it’ => Satan comes and takes away the Word

    OT SOURCES

    Genesis 40:16 When the chief baker saw that the interpretation was favorable, he said to Joseph, “I too had
    a dream: There were three baskets of white bread on my head.
    Genesis 40:17 In the top basket were all sorts of baked goods for Pharaoh, but the birds were eating
    them
    out of the basket on my head.”

    THE SEED/WORD ON ROCKY GROUND (Mark 4:5,6 => Mark 4:16,17)

    Second scenario: The hearts where the Word does not grow enough to resist external attacks

    Mark 4:5 Some fell on rocky ground, where it did not have much soil. It sprang up quickly because the soil
    was shallow.
    Mark 4:6 But when the sun rose, the seedlings were scorched, and they withered because
    they had no root.
    Mark 4:16 Some are like the seeds sown on rocky ground. They hear the word and at once receive it
    with joy.
    Mark 4:17 But they themselves have no root, and they remain for only a season. When trouble or
    persecution (1375) comes because of the word, they quickly fall away.

    https://biblehub.com/greek/1375.htm diÓgmos: persecution (Mark 4:17 and Mark 10:30)

    Some fell on rocky ground => Some are like the seeds sown on rocky ground
    they (the seedlings) had no root => they (the men) have no root.
    the sun rose => trouble or persecution comes
    the seedlings were scorched => they remain for only a season
    they withered => they quickly fall away.

    OT SOURCES about the rocky ground

    Ezekiel 11:9 And I will give them singleness of heart and put a new spirit within them; I will
    remove their heart of stone
    and give them a heart of flesh,

    Zechariah 7:12 They made their hearts like flint and would not listen to the law or to the words that
    the LORD
    of Hosts had sent by His Spirit through the earlier prophets. Therefore great anger came from the
    LORD of Hosts.

    OT SOURCES about the drought and the roots

    Isaiah 40:23 He brings the princes to nothing and makes the rulers of the earth meaningless.
    Isaiah 40:24 No sooner are they planted, no sooner are they sown, no sooner have their stems taken
    root in the ground, than He blows on them and they wither, and a whirlwind sweeps them away like
    stubble
    .

    Jonah 4:8 As the sun was rising, God appointed a scorching east wind, and the sun beat down on
    Jonah’s head so that he grew faint and wished to die, saying, “It is better for me to die than to live.”

    THE SEED/WORD AMONG THORNS (Mark 4:7 => Mark 4:18,19)

    Third scenario: The hearts where the Word grows along with desires for other things. As a result, the Word is
    choked and becomes unfruitful.

    Mark 4:7 Other seed fell among thorns, which grew up and choked the seedlings, and they
    yielded no crop.
    Mark 4:18 And these are those sown among the thorns. These are those having heard the word,
    Mark 4:19 but the worries of this life, the deceitfulness of wealth, and the desire for other things come in
    and choke the word, and it becomes unfruitful.

    Other seed fell among thorns => these are those sown among the thorns
    Thorns => the worries of this life, the deceitfulness of wealth, and the desire for other things
    choked the seedlings => choke the word
    They yielded no crop => it becomes unfruitful

    OT SOURCES about the thorns and the other desires/thoughts in the human heart

    Jeremiah 4:3 For this is what the LORD says to the men of Judah and Jerusalem: “Break up your unplowed
    ground
    , and do not sow among the thorns.
    Jeremiah 4:4 Circumcise yourselves to the LORD, and remove the foreskins of your hearts, O men of Judah
    and people of Jerusalem. Otherwise, My wrath will break out like fire and burn with no one to extinguish it, because
    of your evil deeds.”

    remove the foreskins of your hearts => remove from your heart all that prevents the Word from growing

    Jeremiah 12:13 They have sown wheat but harvested thorns. They have exhausted themselves to no avail.
    Bear the shame of your harvest because of the fierce anger of the LORD.”

    Deuteronomy 22:9 Do not plant your vineyard with two types of seed; if you do, the entire harvest
    will be defiled – both the crop you plant and the fruit of your vineyard.

    Esaiah 57:17 I was enraged by his sinful greed, so I struck him and hid My face in anger; yet he kept
    turning back to the desires of his heart.

    Esaiah 65:2 All day long I have held out My hands to an obstinate people who walk in the wrong
    path, who follow their own imaginations
    ,

    Proverbs 22:5 Thorns and snares lie on the path of the perverse; he who guards his soul stays far
    from them.

    THE SEED/WORD ON GOOD SOIL (Mark 4:8 => Mark 4:20)

    Fourth scenario: The hearts ready to receive the Word. In these hearts, the Word multiplies a hundredfold as
    soon as it is received.

    Mark 4:8 And other fell into the good soil and began yielding fruit, growing up and increasing, and
    one bearing thirtyfold, and one sixty, and one a hundred.”
    Mark 4:20 Still others are like the seeds sown on good soil. They hear the word, receive it, and
    produce a crop – thirtyfold, sixtyfold, or a hundredfold.”

    other fell into the good soil => others are like the seeds sown on good soil.
    began yielding fruit, growing up and increasing => receive it
    one bearing thirtyfold, and one sixty, and one a hundred => produce a crop – thirtyfold, sixtyfold, or a hundredfold.

    OT SOURCE

    Genesis 26:12 Now Isaac sowed seed in the land, and that very year he reaped a hundredfold.
    And the LORD blessed him,

    SYNTHESIS

    Jesus sows the Word of God and there are four kinds of people who hear the Word
    1 – Those in a hostile outer environment, as a result the Word immediately disappears.
    2 – Those who are not strong enough to keep the Word in their hearts when external events raise against them
    3 – Those who make the Word grow but also have also other desires in their hearts. As a result, the Word is choked and
    becomes unfruitful.
    4 – Those who are ready to accept the Word. The Word multiplies a hundredfold in their hearts as soon as it is
    received.

    The parable tells us that man will receive the new Word of God and will have to make it grow in his heart. Man must
    therefore prepare himself to resist external events and fight against its own internal desires so that the received
    Word multiplies a hundredfold

    6 – THE LIGHT TO ILLUMINATE THE WORD AND THE WAY

    THE ILLUMINATING OF THE WORD TO GIVE US UNDERSTANDING

    Mark 4:21 Jesus also said to them, “Does anyone bring in a lamp to put it under a basket (3426) or under a
    bed ? Doesn’t he set it on a stand?

    Jesus asks a logical question about the light in order to say that God also gives light to discover the meaning of his
    Word. What is the point of giving people a Word if they do not understand it?

    Mark 4:22 For there is nothing hidden that will not be disclosed, and nothing concealed that will not
    be brought to light.

    As a result, the whole content of the new Word will be brought to light so that man understand it.
    However, the receivers must pay careful attention to the Word and make the effort to discover its meaning.

    Mark 4:23 If anyone has ears to hear, let him hear.”
    Jesus will not explain the second parable because he has already illuminated the parable of the sower. He now invites
    his listeners to discover for themselves the meaning of his sayings and deeds

    OT SOURCES about the Word and the light

    Psalm 119:105 Your word is a lamp to my feet and a light to my path.

    Proverbs 6:23 For this commandment is a lamp, this teaching is a light, and the reproofs of discipline
    are the way to life,

    Daniel 2:22 He (God) reveals the deep and hidden things; He knows what lies in darkness, and light
    dwells with Him
    .

    THE ILLUMINATING OF THE WAY LEADING TO THE KINGDOM

    Mark 1:15 “The time is fulfilled,” He said, “and the kingdom of God is near. Repent and believe in
    the gospel!”

    Mark 4:11 He replied, “The mystery of the kingdom of God has been given to you, but to those on the
    outside everything is expressed in parables,

    Mark 4:14 The farmer sows the word.

    Mark 4:22 For there is nothing hidden that will not be disclosed, and nothing concealed that will not be
    brought to light.

    Mark 16:2 Very early on the first day of the week, just after sunrise, they went to the tomb.
    The sun rises for the first time. The three women enter the kingdom where the Word of God dwells

    OT SOURCES about light and salvation

    Isaiah 58:8 Then your light will break forth like the dawn, and your healing will come
    quickly. Your righteousness will go before you, and the glory of the LORD will be your rear guard.

    Psalm 119:105 Your word is a lamp to my feet and a light to my path.

    Psalm 27:1 Of David. The LORD is my light and my salvation – whom shall I fear? The LORD is the
    stronghold of my life – whom shall I dread?

    OT SOURCES about light and eternal life

    Isaiah 60:19 No longer will the sun be your light by day, nor the brightness of the moon shine on your night;
    for the LORD will be your everlasting light, and your God will be your splendor.
    Isaiah 60:20 Your sun will no longer set, and your moon will not wane; for the LORD will be your everlasting
    light
    , and the days of your sorrow will cease.

    OT SOURCE about eternal life, light and understanding

    Psalm 36:9 For with You is the fountain of life<; in Your light we see light.

    SYNTHESIS

    God also gives the light so that man can discover the meaning of his Word. What is the point of giving people a Word if
    they do not understand it?
    The light illuminates the Word so that man can discover its meaning and understand it
    So, if man uses this light to understand the Word then he will know the path leading to the kingdom. The entry into the
    kingdom of God (Mark 16:2) symbolizes the return to God, which also means salvation and eternal life

    7 – THE MEASURE TO JUDGE THE GAIN THAT MAN DRAWS FROM THE WORD

    Mark 4:24 He went on to say, “Pay attention to what you hear. With the measure you use, it will be measured
    to you, and even more will be added to you.

    Pay attention to what you hear => Pay attention to the new Word God is giving you
    With the measure you use, it will be measured to you => You will be judged according the gain that you draw from it
    even more will be added to you => the judgment will be amplified, see the next verse

    Mark 4:25 For whoever has will be given more. But whoever does not have, even what he has will be taken away
    from him.”

    whoever has will be given more => he who has made the Word fruitful in his heart will receive his reward i.e. the entry
    into the kingdom
    whoever does not have, even what he has will be taken away from him => As for the one who has not made the Word
    fruitful, God will take away the Word from his heart

    OT SOURCES about the need to not go back to God empty-handed

    Ruth 3:17 And she (Ruth) said, “He (Boaz the redeemer) gave me these six measures of barley, for he
    said, ‘Do not go back to your mother-in-law empty-handed.’ ”

    Isaiah 55:11 so My word that proceeds from My mouth will not return to Me empty, but it will accomplish
    what I please, and it will prosper where I send it.

    OT SOURCES about the reward

    Psalms 28:4 Repay them according to their deeds and for their works of evil. Repay them for what their hands
    have done; bring back on them what they deserve.

    Esaiah 62:11 Behold, the LORD has proclaimed to the ends of the earth, “Say to Daughter Zion: See, your
    Savior comes
    ! Look, His reward (7939) is with Him, and His recompense goes before Him.”

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/7939.htm sakar: hire, wages

    OT SOURCE about the benefit and the way to follow

    Esaiah 48:17 Thus says the LORD your Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel: “I am the LORD your God, who
    teaches you for your benefit, who directs you in the way you should go
    .

    OT SOURCES about the judgment

    Psalm 96:13 before the LORD, for He is coming – He is coming to judge the earth. He will judge the
    world in righteousness and the peoples in His faithfulness.

    Psalm 97:11 Light shines on the righteous, gladness on the upright in heart.

    PARALLEL BETWEEN MARK’S GOSPEL AND THE BOOK OF RUTH

    1 – Jesus performs various healings. The healing represents the forgiveness of sins (Mark 2:9) and the promise that
    the sins will be redeemed
    .
    2 – Jesus says that people will be measured/judged (Mark 4:24,25) according to the new Word that advocates the
    forgiveness of sins through the redemption
    3 – Jesus redeems the sins (Mark 15:37)

    1 – Boaz tells Ruth that he will redeem her (Ruth 3:13). The scene takes place in the threshing floor
    2 – Boaz gives Ruth six measures of barley (Ruth 3:17)
    3 – Boaz redeems Ruth (Ruth 4:10)

    To read more about the book of Ruth, the healings, the forgiveness and the redemption see my Chapter 10: Second
    synthesis

    SYNTHESIS
    Jesus makes it clear that man will be judged/measured according to the profit he makes from this Word. If man succeed
    in making the Word fruitful in himself, God will judge him favourably and reward his work by opening the doors of
    kingdom

    8 – THE BASKET, THE MEASURE AND THE LIGHT

    Mark 4:21 Jesus also said to them, “Does anyone bring in a lamp to put it under a basket (3426) or
    under a bed ? Doesn’t he set it on a stand?

    https://biblehub.com/greek/3426.htm modios: modius, a dry measure of one peck
    a container for dry goods holding up to eight liters (roughly two gallons); a dry measure (the chief grain unit)
    equivalent to one peck (8.81L).
    https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/modius
    From Latin modius, from modus (“a measure”) + -ius (“forming adjectives”).

    The basket hiding the light is also the tool used to measure/judge

    OT SOURCES about the light and the judgement

    Micah 7:9 Because I have sinned against Him, I must endure the rage of the LORD, until He argues my case and
    executes justice for me. He will bring me into the light; I will see His righteousness.

    Malachi 4:2 “But for you who fear My name, the sun of righteousness will rise with healing in its wings,
    and you will go out and leap like calves from the stall.

    Hosea 6:4 What shall I do with you, O Ephraim? What shall I do with you, O Judah? For your loyalty is like a
    morning mist, like the early dew that vanishes.
    Hosea 6:5 Therefore I have hewn them by the prophets; I have slain them by the words of My mouth, and My
    judgments go forth like lightning (216)
    .
    Hosea 6:6 For I desire mercy, not sacrifice, and the knowledge of God rather than burnt offerings.

    Psalm 32:7 He will bring forth your righteousness like the dawn (216), your justice like the noonday
    sun

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/216.htm or: a light

    SYNTHESIS

    The basket hiding the light is also the tool used to measure/judge
    The light also evokes the judgment and the time when God judges/measures

    9 – THE SEED GROWING DAY AND NIGHT: THE ASSIMILATION OF THE WORD THANKS TO THE DIVINE ACTION

    Mark 4:26 Jesus also said, “The kingdom of God is like a man who scatters seed on the ground.
    a man who scatters seed on the ground => a man who puts himself the Word in his heart

    Mark 4:27 Night and day he sleeps and wakes, and the seed sprouts and grows, though he knows not how.
    Night and day, the seed sprouts and grows => the Word continuously grows there
    though he knows not how => the word grows through divine action without man being aware of it

    Mark 4:28 All by itself the earth produces a crop – first the stalk, then the head, then grain that ripens
    within.

    The Word grows to maturity

    Mark 4:29 And as soon as the grain is ripe, he swings the sickle, because the harvest has come.”

    as soon as the grain is ripe => as soon as the man notices that the Word has filled his heart
    The sickle => The two sides of the judgment: reward or punishment
    he swings the sickle => he signals that he is ready for divine judgment
    because the harvest has come => because there is no point in waiting any longer

    OT SOURCES about the Word and the work day and night

    Joshua 1:8 This Book of the Law must not depart from your mouth; meditate on it day and night, so that
    you may be careful to do everything written in it. For then you will prosper and succeed in all you do.

    Psalm 1:2 But his delight is in the Law of the LORD, and on His law he meditates day and night.

    OT SOURCES about the Word and the sickle/judgment

    Joel 3:12 Let the nations be roused and advance to the Valley of Jehoshaphat, for there I will sit down
    to judge all the nations
    on every side.
    Joel 3:13 Swing the sickle, for the harvest is ripe. Come, trample the grapes, for the winepress is
    full; the wine vats overflow because their wickedness is great.
    Joel 3:14 Multitudes, multitudes in the valley of decision (2742)! For the Day of the LORD is near in the
    valley of decision.

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/3092.htm Yehoshaphat: “the LORD has judged”
    Word Origin: from Yhvh and shaphat
    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/2742.htm charuwts: decision

    SYNTHESIS

    This seed represents the Word growing continuously in the hearts thanks to divine action.
    In this parable, it is the man who puts himself the Word in his heart and it is God who acts without the man being
    aware of the divine action. When the word becomes fruitful, the man asks for judgment in order to enter the kingdom.

    The divine action which continuously works in the heart can be represented by saliva since the
    divine action and saliva share the same features: both work day and night and both work without man being aware of it.

    So there is another way to read the parable.
    The man who puts himself the Word in his heart represents those who are willing to know the Good News.
    Through his saliva, God helps this man to assimilate the Word so that he is fit to enter the kingdom.
    In other words, the kingdom of God helps those who want to enter it

    In short, this parabole means two things
    1 – God helps those who are willing to know the Good News
    2 – God will give them their reward at the time of the judgment

    10 – THE DIVINE SALIVA AS THE AGENT TO ASSIMILATE THE WORD

    In Mark’s gospel, the bread represents the Word and the saliva represents the divine agent allowing its assimilation.

    Divine action and saliva share the same features, both work day and night and both work without man being aware of it.

    Jesus will use his saliva in an accelerated mode so that the deaf man and the blind man quickly assimilate the Good
    News (Mark 7:33 and Mark 8:23).

    OT SOURCES about the assimilation/digestion of the Word (Ezekiel 3:1-10, The scroll as the written Word)

    Ezekiel 3:1 “Son of man,” He said to me, “eat what you find here. Eat this scroll, then go and speak
    to the house of Israel.”
    Ezekiel 3:2 So I opened my mouth, and He fed me the scroll.
    Ezekiel 3:3 “Son of man,” He said to me, “eat and fill your stomach (4578) with this scroll I am
    giving you.” So I ate, and it was as sweet as honey in my mouth.
    Ezekiel 3:4 Then He said to me, “Son of man, go now to the house of Israel and speak My words to them

    Ezekiel 3:5 For you are not being sent to a people of unfamiliar speech or difficult language, but to
    the house of Israel
    Ezekiel 3:10 “Son of man,” He added, “listen carefully to all the words I speak to you, and
    take them to heart
    .

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/4039.htm megillah: a scroll
    Word Origin: from galal
    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/4039.htm galal: to roll, roll away

    https://biblehub.com/greek/4429.htm ptuÓ: to spit (Mark 7:33, Mark 8:23)
    https://biblehub.com/greek/4427.htm ptusma: spittle

    11 – THE MUSTAR SEED: THE POWER OF THE NEW WORD

    Mark 4:30 Then He asked, “To what can we compare the kingdom of God? With what parable shall we
    present it?
    Mark 4:31 It is like a mustard seed, which is the smallest of all seeds sown upon the earth.

    At first, the Word only falls into the hearts of a small group

    Mark 4:32 But after it is planted, it grows to be the largest of all garden plants and puts forth great
    branches, so that the birds of the air nest in its shade.”

    Then, the Word spreads across the world, the conversions multiply, the most powerful community is built and
    shelters his members

    OT SOURCES about the expansion

    Genesis 9:7 But as for you, be fruitful and multiply; spread out across the earth and multiply upon it.”

    Jeremiah 29:6 Take wives and have sons and daughters. Take wives for your sons and give your daughters in
    marriage, so that they too may have sons and daughters. Multiply there; do not decrease.

    Isaiah 51:16 I have put My words in your mouth, and covered you with the shadow of My hand, to
    establish the heavens, to found the earth,
    and to say to Zion, ‘You are My people.’ ”

    OT SOURCES about the shelter giving shade

    Isaiah 4:6 a shelter to give shade from the heat by day, and a refuge and hiding place from the
    storm and the rain.

    Isaiah 30:2 They set out to go down to Egypt without asking My advice, to seek shelter under Pharaoh’s
    protection
    and take refuge in Egypt’s shade.

    OT SOURCES about expansion, tree, great branches and nested birds

    Daniel 4:20-22 => Daniel Interprets the Second Dream

    Daniel 4:20 The tree you saw that grew large and strong, whose top reached the sky
    and was visible to all the earth,
    Daniel 4:21 whose foliage was beautiful and whose fruit was abundant, providing food for all, under which the
    beasts of the field lived, and in whose branches the birds of the air nested
    Daniel 4:22 you, O king, are that tree! For you have become great and strong; your greatness has grown
    to reach the sky,
    and your dominion extends to the ends of the earth.

    Ezekiel 17:22,23 => The Parable of Two Eagles and a Vine

    Ezekiel 17:22 This is what the Lord GOD says: ‘I will take a shoot from the lofty top of the
    cedar
    , and I will set it out. I will pluck a tender sprig from its topmost shoots, and I will plant it on a
    high and lofty mountain.
    Ezekiel 17:23 I will plant it on the mountain heights of Israel so that it will bear branches; it
    will yield fruit and become a majestic cedar. Birds of every kind will nest under it, taking
    shelter in the shade of its branches.

    Ezekiel 31:2-6 Egypt will Fall Like Assyria

    Ezekiel 31:2 “Son of man, say to Pharaoh king of Egypt and to his multitude: ‘Who can be
    compared to your greatness
    ?

    Ezekiel 31:3 Look at Assyria, a cedar in Lebanon, with beautiful branches that shaded the
    forest. It towered on high; its top was among the clouds.
    Ezekiel 31:5 Therefore it towered higher than all the trees of the field. Its branches multiplied, and
    its boughs grew long as it spread them out because of the abundant waters.

    Ezekiel 31:6 All the birds of the air nested in its branches, and all the beasts of the field gave birth
    beneath its boughs; all the great nations lived in its shade.

    SYNTHESIS

    The parable of the mustard seed describes how the kingdom of God starts and grows slowly but then builds up with many
    members and turns into the most powerful community.
    This parable symbolizes the power of the Good News and their expansion across the world. This parable also invites
    people to believe in success of the new Word.

    12 – THE PARABLE AS RIDDLE

    Mark 4:11 He replied, “The mystery (3466) of the kingdom of God has been given to you, but to those on
    the outside everything is expressed in parables,

    https://biblehub.com/greek/3466.htm mustÉrion: a mystery or secret doctrine
    https://biblehub.com/greek/3453.htm mueÓ: to initiate into the mysteries, hence to instruct

    OT SOURCES Ezekiel 17: The Parable of Two Eagles and a Vine
    https://biblehub.com/bsb/ezekiel/17.htm

    Ezekiel 17:1 Now the word of the LORD came to me, saying,
    Ezekiel 17:2 “Son of man, pose a riddle (2420) ; speak a parable to the house of Israel
    Ezekiel 17:3 … A great eagle … came to Lebanon and took away the top of the cedar.

    https://biblehub.com/hebrew/2420.htm chidah: a riddle, an enigmatic, perplexing saying or question

    A FEW COMMENTS ABOUT EZEKIEL 17

    http://www.bibleenligne.com/commentaire-intermediaire/commentaire/ez/2476-chapitre-17.html
    https://enduringword.com/bible-commentary/ezekiel-17/

    http://the-strait-gate.faithweb.com/eagle1.html (explanation about Lebanon)
    1 Kings7:2 He (Solomon) built the House of the Forest of Lebanon a hundred cubits long, fifty cubits
    wide, and thirty cubits high, with four rows of cedar pillars supporting the cedar beams.

    13 – THE PARABOLE AS COMPARISON

    Mark 4:26 Jesus also said, “The kingdom of God is like a man who scatters seed on the ground.

    Mark 4:30 Then He asked, “To what can we compare the kingdom of God? With what parable shall we
    present it
    ?

    OT SOURCE

    Isaiah 40:18 To whom will you liken God? To what image will you compare Him?

    14 – MARK 4:4 COMPARED TO MARK 4:32, INVERSION AND TEXTUAL UNITY

    INVERSION

    1 – The birds devour the seed
    Mark 4:4 And as he was sowing, some seed fell along the path, and the birds came and devoured
    it
    .

    2 – The seed grows into a majestic tree and shelters the birds
    Mark 4:32 But after it is planted, it grows to be the largest of all garden plants and puts forth
    great branches, so that the birds of the air nest in its shade.”

    OT SOURCES

    1 – The birds eat Pharaoh’s food
    Genesis 40:16 When the chief baker saw that the interpretation was favorable, he said to Joseph, “I too had
    a dream: There were three baskets of white bread on my head.
    Genesis 40:17 In the top basket were all sorts of baked goods for Pharaoh, but the birds were
    eating them
    out of the basket on my head.”

    2 – Pharaoh offers protection and refuge.
    Isaiah 30:2 They set out to go down to Egypt without asking My advice, to seek shelter under Pharaoh’s
    protection
    and take refuge in Egypt’s shade.

    TEXTUAL UNITY

    In a narrative view, the two verses (Mark 4:2) and (Mark 4:34) strengthen the unity of the sequence (Mark 4:2-36)

    Mark 4:2 Teaching through parables
    Mark 4:4 The first parable starts with a negative scene

    Mark 4:34 The last parable ends with a positive scene which reverses the opening scene.
    Mark 4:35,36 Conclusion about the teaching and parables

    15 – PSALM 1 AS A TEMPLATE FOR MARK 4:1-34

    The two paths: that of the wicked/sinner and that of the righteous

    Psalm 1:1 Blessed is the man who does not walk in the counsel of the wicked, or set foot on the path of
    sinners, or sit in the seat of mockers.

    Psalm 1:2 But his delight is in the Law of the LORD, and on His law he meditates day and night.
    Psalm 1:3 He is like a tree planted by streams of water, yielding its fruit in season, whose
    leaf does not wither, and who prospers in all he does.

    Psalm 1:4 Not so the wicked! For they are like chaff driven off by the wind.
    Psalm 1:5 Therefore the wicked will not stand in the judgment, nor sinners in the assembly of the
    righteous.

    Psalm 1:6 For the LORD guards the path of the righteous, but the way of the wicked will perish.

    16 – PARABLES AND MIRACLES

    In Mark’s gospel, words and deeds go hand in hand. All parables will be illustrated by miracles.

    1 – The seed/Word along the path
    Jesus will go to the pagan lands to cast out demons and unclean spirits so that the pagans can keep the Good News in
    their hearts.
    Miracles: The demon of Gadara (Mark 5:1-20) and the Syrophoenician woman’s daughter (Mark 7:24-30)

    2 – The rocky ground and thorns
    Jesus will bring the Good News in order to replace the fruitless teaching that the temple and the synagogue provide
    Miracles: The bleeding woman and the Jairus’ daughter (Mark 5:21-43)

    3 – The good soil
    Jesus will give tiny pieces of bread/Word to those ready to receive the Word
    Miracles: The first and second breaking of loaves (Mark 6:32-44) and (Mark 8:1-9)

    4 – The seed growing day and night
    Jesus will make the Word grow by using his saliva
    Miracles: The deaf man (Mark 7:31-37) and the blind man at Bethsaida (Mark 8:22-26)

    5 – The light
    Jesus will heal the blind man so that his mind can see/grasp the coming spiritual message
    Miracle: The blind man at Bethsaida (Mark 8:22-26)

    6 – The smallest seed
    Jesus will show the power of Good News
    Miracle: The son of the faithless man (Mark 9:14-29)

    7 – The light
    Jesus will heal the blind man so that the divine light can reach his soul
    Miracle: The blind man named Bartimeus (Mark 10:46-52)

    17 – THE KINGDOM OF GOD AND ITS SPIRITUAL DIMENSION

    THE KINGDOM OF GOD IS NEAR

    Mark 1:15 “The time is fulfilled,” He said, “and the kingdom of God is near. Repent and believe in
    the gospel!”

    Marc 9:1 Then Jesus said to them, Truly I tell you, there are some standing here who will not taste
    death before they see the kingdom of God
    arrive with power.”

    THE FIRST KNOWLEDGES ABOUT THE KINGDOM

    Mark 4:11 He replied, “The mystery of the kingdom of God has been given to you, but to those on the
    outside everything is expressed in parables,

    Mark 4:26 Jesus also said, “The kingdom of God is like a man who scatters seed on the ground.

    Mark 4:30 Then He asked, “To what can we compare the kingdom of God? With what parable shall we
    present it

    THE REQUIREMENTS FOR ENTRY INTO THE KINGDOM

    Mark 9:47 And if your eye should cause you to stumble, cast it out; it is better for you to enter into the
    kingdom of God with one eye
    , than having two eyes, to be cast into Gehenna,

    Mark 10:15 Truly I tell you, anyone who does not receive the kingdom of God like a little child will
    never enter it
    .”

    Mark 10:23 Then Jesus looked around and said to His disciples, “How hard it is for the rich to enter the
    kingdom of God!

    THE ENTRY INTO THE KINGDOM

    Mark 16:2 Very early on the first day of the week, just after sunrise, they went to the tomb.

    The sun rises for the first time. The three women enter the kingdom where the Word of God dwells
    Now the sun stops moving and the divine light replaces it (Isaiah 60:19,20).

    Isaiah 60:19 No longer will the sun be your light by day, nor the brightness of the moon shine on your night;
    for the LORD will be your everlasting light, and your God will be your splendor.
    Isaiah 60:20 Your sun will no longer set, and your moon will not wane; for the LORD will be your
    everlasting light
    , and the days of your sorrow will cease.

    THE SPIRITUAL DIMENSION

    In the second part of the gospel, Jesus will speak about Christ, soul and eternal life

    Mark 8:29 “But what about you?” Jesus asked. “Who do you say I am?” Peter answered, “You are the Christ.”
    Mark 9:41 Indeed, if anyone gives you even a cup of water because you bear the name of Christ, truly I
    tell you, he will never lose his reward.

    Mark 8:36 What does it profit a man to gain the whole world, yet forfeit his soul?

    Mark 10:17 As Jesus started on His way, a man ran up and knelt before Him. “Good Teacher,” he asked, “what
    must I do to inherit eternal life
    ?”

    Mark 12:30 Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind and
    with all your strength.’

    SUMMARY

    Jesus gets into the boat to address the people located on both shores, that of the hebrews and that of the pagans.

    Jesus teaches the Mystery of the kingdom of God by using parables. All all men hear the parables whether they are
    hebrews or pagans. Among people who hear, there are 2 classes
    1 – Those inside who are interested in the things of God. They hear the Word of God and want to know more about the
    meaning of parables
    2 – Those outside who are only interested in the things of men. They only hear a discourse describing scenes from
    everyday life.
    The positioning inside or outside depends on the will of the listener

    The mystery of God is what belongs to God. In Mark’ Gospel, the mystery is a new forgiveness of sins allowing the
    return to God. The entry into the kingdom represents this return to God.
    Jesus teaches the new forgiveness (the Good News, the new Word) so that those inside know the new will of God and
    walk in the new way.

    At first, Jesus compares the Word with the seed because both are intended to grow
    Jesus sows the Word of God and there are four kinds of people who hear the Word
    The parable tells us that man will receive the new Word of God and will have to make it grow in his heart. So, man must
    prepare himself to resist external events and fight against its own internal desires so that the received Word
    multiplies a hundredfold

    Then Jesus speaks of the light that is intended to illuminate. In our context, the light is intented to illuminate the
    Word so that man understand it and walk on the path that leads to the kingdom of God.
    God gives his Word and also the light so that man can discover the meaning of his Word. What is the point of giving
    people a Word if they do not understand it?
    So, if man uses this light to understand the Word then he will enter the kingdom. The entry into the kingdom of God
    (Mark 16:2) symbolizes the return to God and the salvation

    The light also evokes the judgment and the time when God judges/measures
    The basket hiding the light is also the tool used to measure/judge
    Jesus makes it clear that man will be judged/measured according to the profit he makes from this Word. If man succeed
    in making the Word fruitful in himself, God will judge him favourably and reward his work by opening the doors of
    kingdom

    What about the seed growing day and night ?
    In this parable, it is the man who puts himself the Word in his own heart and it is God who acts without the man being
    aware of the divine action. When the Word becomes fruitful, the man asks for judgment in order to enter the kingdom.
    The divine action which continuously works in the heart can be represented by saliva since the
    divine action and saliva share the same features: both work day and night and both work without man being aware of it.
    The man who puts himself the Word in his heart represents those who are willing to know the Good News.
    Through his saliva, God helps this man to assimilate the Word so that he is fit to enter the kingdom.
    In short, this parabole means two things
    1 – God helps those who are willing to know the Good News
    2 – God will give them their reward at the time of the judgment

    What about the smallest mustard seed growing into a majestic tree?
    The parable of the mustard seed describes how the kingdom of God starts and grows slowly but then builds up with many
    members and turns into the most powerful community.
    This parable symbolizes the power of the Good News and their expansion across the world. This parable also invites
    people to believe in success of the new Word.

    At this level, the full meaning of the gospel begins to emerge.
    God gives a new Word that frees man from sin and human laws such as circumcision, Sabbath, dietary laws. In return, man
    must develop a spiritual life to save his soul.
    Man will be judged/measured according to the profit he has made from this Word.
    The notion of judgment appears through the terms ‘measure’ (Mark 4:24) and ‘sickle’ (Mark 4:29).
    The light also evokes the judgment and the time when God judges/measures

    At the narrative level
    1 – The parable appears as a riddle. It invites the reader to join the disciples so as to find out with them what the
    meaning is.
    2 – The parable explained to a small group heralds the beginning of a new expanding movement

    The 4 parables structure the Mark’s gospel because they announce
    1 – the various miracles to come
    2 – the second part of the gospel where Jesus will further develop the themes of kingdom and salvation of soul

    Jesus will now perform various miracles to make the Word/seed grow. Then the light will begin to appear at Bethsaida.

    NEXT STEPS

    (Mark 4) First crossing
    (Mark 5-7) The demon of Gadara, The Jairus’ daughter, John’s death, First breaking of loaves, …
    (Mark 8:1-26) The blind man at Bethsaida, Third synthesis

    PREVIOUS STEPS

    My previous chapter:
    Reading Mark as a midrash, Chapter 14: The divided house
    https://vridar.org/2019/10/05/ot-sources-for-the-gospel-of-mark-chapters-2-and-3/#comment-135060

    My last synthesis:
    Reading Mark as a midrash, Chapter 10: Second synthesis
    (Mark 1-2) A NEW THOUGHT PUT INTO A NARRATIVE
    https://vridar.org/2019/10/05/ot-sources-for-the-gospel-of-mark-chapters-2-and-3/#comment-122729
    https://vridar.org/2019/10/05/ot-sources-for-the-gospel-of-mark-chapters-2-and-3/#comment-122730

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