2008-08-30

Jewish Scriptures in Mark’s Passion and Resurrection Narratives

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by Neil Godfrey

For the sake of completeness I have to tag these notes (Gospel of Mark 14:1 -16:8) alongside the previous two looking at chapters 11-12 (entry into Jerusalem) and chapter 13 (Olivet prophecy).

Once again:

Red are the quotations

Purple are the allusions

Blue are the influences

Black  italics represent material from sources other than Kee

Mark.14

[1] After two days was the feast of the passover, and of unleavened bread: and the chief priests and the scribes sought how they might take him by craft, and put him to death.

Hosea 6:2 After two days he will heal us

2 Chronicles 35:17 And the children of Israel that were present kept the passover at that time, and the feast of unleavened bread seven days.

(Does the reference to “taking and killing” him echo Exodus 12:5-6 where the command is to take and kill the Passover, albeit with different vocabulary?)

[2] But they said, Not on the feast day, lest there be an uproar of the people.
[3] And being in Bethany in the house of Simon the leper, as he sat at meat, there came a woman having an alabaster box of ointment of spikenard very precious; and she brake the box, and poured it on his head.
[4] And there were some that had indignation within themselves, and said, Why was this waste of the ointment made?
[5] For it might have been sold for more than three hundred pence, and have been given to the poor. And they murmured against her.
[6] And Jesus said, Let her alone; why trouble ye her? she hath wrought a good work on me.
[7] For ye have the poor with you always, and whensoever ye will ye may do them good: but me ye have not always.
[8] She hath done what she could: she is come aforehand to anoint my body to the burying.
[9] Verily I say unto you, Wheresoever this gospel shall be preached throughout the whole world, this also that she hath done shall be spoken of for a memorial of her.

Cf Mark 1:29-45 with the scene in the house of Simon, where a woman serves him, and where a leper soon after is commanded to go to the priests but “betrays” the command by not doing so, all of which appears to be a foil for these later scenes: — And forthwith, when they were come out of the synagogue, they entered into the house of Simon and Andrew, with James and John. But Simon’s wife’s mother lay sick of a fever, and anon they tell him of her. And he came and took her by the hand, and lifted her up; and immediately the fever left her, and she ministered unto them. . . . . And there came a leper to him, beseeching him, and kneeling down to him, and saying unto him, If thou wilt, thou canst make me clean. And Jesus, moved with compassion, put forth his hand, and touched him, and saith unto him, I will; be thou clean. And as soon as he had spoken, immediately the leprosy departed from him, and he was cleansed. And he straitly charged him, and forthwith sent him away; And saith unto him, See thou say nothing to any man: but go thy way, shew thyself to the priest, and offer for thy cleansing those things which Moses commanded, for a testimony unto them. But he went out, and began to publish it much, and to blaze abroad the matter, insomuch that Jesus could no more openly enter into the city, but was without in desert places: and they came to him from every quarter.

Cf Deuteronomy 15:11 For the poor will never cease to be in the land; therefore I command you, saying, ‘You shall freely open your hand to your brother, to your needy and poor in your land.’

2 Kings 9:6 Jehu got up and went into the house. Then the prophet poured the oil on Jehu’s head and declared, “This is what the LORD, the God of Israel, says: ‘I anoint you king over the LORD’s people Israel.

1 Samuel 16:13 So Samuel took the horn of oil and anointed him in the presence of his brothers, and from that day on the Spirit of the LORD came upon David in power. Samuel then went to Ramah.

[10] And Judas Iscariot, one of the twelve, went unto the chief priests, to betray him unto them.
[11] And when they heard it, they were glad, and promised to give him money. And he sought how he might conveniently betray him.

Zechariah 11:12 And I will say to them, If it be good in your eyes, give me my price, or refuse it. And they weighed for my price thirty pieces of silver.

[12] And the first day of unleavened bread, when they killed the passover, his disciples said unto him, Where wilt thou that we go and prepare that thou mayest eat the passover?

Exodus 12:1-6, 14-20 And the Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying, This month shall be to you the beginning of months: it is the first to you among the months of the year. Speak to all the congregation of the children of Israel, saying, On the tenth of this month let them take each man a lamb according to the houses of their families, every man a lamb for his household. And if they be few in a household, so that there are not enough for the lamb, he shall take with himself his neighbour that lives near to him, —as to the number of souls, every one according to that which suffices him shall make a reckoning for the lamb. It shall be to you a lamb unblemished, a male of a year old: ye shall take it of the lambs and the kids. And it shall be kept by you till the fourteenth of this month, and all the multitude of the congregation of the children of Israel shall kill it toward evening . . . . . And this day shall be to you a memorial, and ye shall keep it a feast to the Lord through all your generations; ye shall keep it a feast for a perpetual ordinance. Seven days ye shall eat unleavened bread, and from the first day ye shall utterly remove leaven from your houses: whoever shall eat leaven, that soul shall be utterly destroyed from Israel, from the first day until the seventh day. And the first day shall be called holy, and the seventh day shall be a holy convocation to you: ye shall do no servile work on them, only as many things as will necessarily be done by every soul, this only shall be done by you. And ye shall keep this commandment, for on this day will I bring out your force out of the land of Egypt; and ye shall make this day a perpetual ordinance for you throughout your generations. Beginning the fourteenth day of the first month, ye shall eat unleavened bread from evening, till the twenty-first day of the month, till evening. Seven days leaven shall not be found in your houses; whosoever shall eat anything leavened, that soul shall be cut off from the congregation of Israel, both among the occupiers of the land and the original inhabitants. Ye shall eat nothing leavened, but in every habitation of your ye shall eat unleavened bread.

[13] And he sendeth forth two of his disciples, and saith unto them, Go ye into the city, and there shall meet you a man bearing a pitcher of water: follow him.

1 Samuel 10:2, 3, 5 As soon as thou shalt have departed this day from me, thou shalt find two men by the burial-place of Rachel on the mount of Benjamin, exulting greatly; and they shall say to thee, The asses are found which ye went to seek; and, behold, thy father has given up the matter of the asses, and he is anxious for you, saying, What shall I do for my son? And thou shalt depart thence, and shalt go beyond that as far as the oak of Thabor, and thou shalt find there three men going up to God to Baethel, one bearing three kids, and another bearing three vessels of bread, and another bearing a bottle of wine. . . . And afterward thou shalt go to the hill of God, where is the encampment of the Philistines; there is Nasib the Philistine: an it shall come to pass when ye shall have entered into the city, that thou shalt meet a band of prophets coming down from the Bama; and before them will be lutes, and a drum, and a pipe, and a harp, and they shall prophesy.

Cf. Mark 11:1-7 And when they came nigh to Jerusalem, unto Bethphage and Bethany, at the mount of Olives, he sendeth forth two of his disciples, And saith unto them, Go your way into the village over against you: and as soon as ye be entered into it, ye shall find a colt tied, whereon never man sat; loose him, and bring him. And if any man say unto you, Why do ye this? say ye that the Lord hath need of him; and straightway he will send him hither. And they went their way, and found the colt tied by the door without in a place where two ways met; and they loose him. And certain of them that stood there said unto them, What do ye, loosing the colt? And they said unto them even as Jesus had commanded: and they let them go.  And they brought the colt to Jesus, and cast their garments on him; and he sat upon him.

[14] And wheresoever he shall go in, say ye to the goodman of the house, The Master saith, Where is the guestchamber, where I shall eat the passover with my disciples?
[15] And he will shew you a large upper room furnished and prepared: there make ready for us.
[16] And his disciples went forth, and came into the city, and found as he had said unto them: and they made ready the passover.
[17] And in the evening he cometh with the twelve.
[18] And as they sat and did eat, Jesus said, Verily I say unto you, One of you which eateth with me shall betray me.
[19] And they began to be sorrowful, and to say unto him one by one, Is it I? and another said, Is it I?
[20] And he answered and said unto them, It is one of the twelve, that dippeth with me in the dish.

Psalm 41:9 (LXX 40:10) For even the man of my peace, in whom I trusted, who ate my bread, lifted up his heel against me.

Obadiah 7 They sent thee to thy coasts: all the men of thy covenant have withstood thee; thine allies have prevailed against thee, they have set snares under thee: they have no understanding.

[21] The Son of man indeed goeth, as it is written of him: but woe to that man by whom the Son of man is betrayed! good were it for that man if he had never been born.

Isaiah 53:12(?) For ye shall not go forth with tumult, neither go by flight: for the Lord shall go first in advance of you; and the God of Israel shall be he that brings up your rear.

Daniel 7:21, 25 I beheld, and that horn made war with the saints, and prevailed against them . . . . And he shall speak words against the Most High, and shall wear out the saints of the Most High, . . . and power shall be given into his hand for a time and times and half a time.

[22] And as they did eat, Jesus took bread, and blessed, and brake it, and gave to them, and said, Take, eat: this is my body.
[23] And he took the cup, and when he had given thanks, he gave it to them: and they all drank of it.
[24] And he said unto them, This is my blood of the new testament, which is shed for many.

Exodus 24:8 And Moses took the blood and sprinkled it upon the people, and said, Behold the blood of the covenant, which the Lord has made with you concerning all these words.

Zechariah 9:11 And thou by the blood of thy covenant has sent forth thy prisoners out of the pit that has no water.

Jeremiah 38:31-34 (LXX) Behold, the days come, saith the Lord, when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel, and with the house of Juda: not according to the covenant which I made with their fathers in the day when I took hold of their hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt; for they abode not in my covenant, and I disregarded them, saith the Lord. For this is my covenant which I will make with the house of Israel; after those days, saith the Lord, I will surely put my laws into their mind, and write them on their hearts; and I will be to them a God, and they shall be to me a people. And they shall not at all teach every one his fellow citizen, and every one his brother, saying, Know the Lord: for all shall know me, from the least of them to the greatest of them: for I will be merciful to their iniquities, and their sins I will remember no more.

[25] Verily I say unto you, I will drink no more of the fruit of the vine, until that day that I drink it new in the kingdom of God.

Isaiah 25:6 And the Lord of hosts shall make a feast for all the nations: on this mount they shall drink gladness, they shall drink wine

First Enoch 62:14 (Typo?) My guess is 10:18-19 And then shall the whole earth be tilled in righteousness, and shall all be planted with trees and be full of blessing. And all desirable trees shall be planted on it, and they shall plant vines on it: and the vine which they plant thereon shall yield wine in abundance

Apocalypse of Baruch (Syriac) 29:5 The earth also shall yield its fruit ten-thousandfold and on each (?) vine there shall be a thousand branches, and each branch shall produce a thousand clusters, and each cluster produce a thousand grapes, and each grape produce a cor of wine.

[26] And when they had sung an hymn, they went out into the mount of Olives.

Psalms 114 to 118 (2nd part of Hallel at end of Passover)

2 Samuel 15:30 As David went up the Mount of Olives, he wept without ceasing. His head was covered, and he was walking barefoot. All those who were with him also had their heads covered and were weeping as they went.

[27] And Jesus saith unto them, All ye shall be offended because of me this night: for it is written, I will smite the shepherd, and the sheep shall be scattered.

Zechariah 13:7 (LXX) Awake, O sword, against my shepherds, and against the man who is my citizen, saith the Lord Almighty: smite the shepherds, and draw out the sheep: and I will bring mine hand upon the little ones.

[28] But after that I am risen, I will go before you into Galilee.
[29] But Peter said unto him, Although all shall be offended, yet will not I.
[30] And Jesus saith unto him, Verily I say unto thee, That this day, even in this night, before the cock crow twice, thou shalt deny me thrice.
[31] But he spake the more vehemently, If I should die with thee, I will not deny thee in any wise. Likewise also said they all.
[32] And they came to a place which was named Gethsemane: and he saith to his disciples, Sit ye here, while I shall pray.
[33] And he taketh with him Peter and James and John, and began to be sore amazed, and to be very heavy;
[34] And saith unto them, My soul is exceeding sorrowful unto death: tarry ye here, and watch.

Jonah 4:9 (LXX) And God said to Jonas, Art thou very much grieved for the gourd? And he said, I am very much grieved, even to death.

[35] And he went forward a little, and fell on the ground, and prayed that, if it were possible, the hour might pass from him. (Daniel 7:25 And he shall speak words against the Most High, and shall wear out the saints of the Most High,)
[36] And he said, Abba, Father, all things are possible unto thee; take away this cup from me: nevertheless not what I will, but what thou wilt.

Psalm 22:20 Deliver my soul from the sword; my only-begotten one from the power of the dog.

Psalm 31:9, 10, 22 Pity me, O Lord, for I am afflicted: my eye is troubled with indignation, my soul and by belly. For my life is spent with grief, and my years with groanings: my strength has been weakened through poverty, and my bones are troubled. . . . But I said in my extreme fear, I am cast out from the sight of thine eyes: therefore thou didst hearken, O Lord, to the voice of my supplication when I cried to thee.

Psalm 69:1ff Save me, O God; for the waters have come in to my soul. I am stuck fast in deep mire, and there is no standing: I am come in to the depths of the sea, and a storm has overwhelmed me. I am weary of crying, my throat has become hoarse; mine eyes have failed by my waiting on my God. They that hate me without a cause are more than the hairs of my head: my enemies that persecute me unrighteously are strengthened:

Psalm 42:2-6, 11 My soul has thirsted for the living God: when shall I come and appear before God? My tears have been bread to me day and night, while they daily said to me, Where is thy God?  I remembered these things, and poured out my soul in me, for I will go to the place of thy wondrous tabernacle, even to the house of God, with a voice of exultation and thanksgiving and of the sound of those who keep festival. Wherefore art thou very sad, O my soul? and wherefore dost thou trouble me? hope in God; for I will give thanks to him; he is the salvation of my countenance. O my God, my soul has been troubled within me: therefore will I remember thee from the land of Jordan, and of the Ermonites, from the little hill. . . . Wherefore art thou very sad, O my soul? and wherefore dost thou trouble me? hope in God; for I will give thanks to him; he is the health of my countenance, and my God.

Psalm 43:5 Wherefore art thou very sad, O my soul? and wherefore dost thou trouble me? Hope in God; for I will give thanks to him, who is the health of my countenance, and my God.

Daniel 10:16-19 And, behold, as it were the likeness of a son of man touched my lips; and I opened my mouth, and spoke, and said to him that stood before me, O my lord, at the sight of thee my bowels were turned within me, and I had no strength. And how shall thy servant be able, O my lord, to speak with this my lord? and as for me, from henceforth strength will not remain in me, and there is no breath left in me. And there touched me again as it were the appearance of a man, and he strengthened me, and said to me, Fear not, man greatly beloved: peace be to thee, quit thyself like a man, and be strong. And when he had spoken with me, I received strength, and said, Let my lord speak; for thou hast strengthened me.

[37] And he cometh, and findeth them sleeping, and saith unto Peter, Simon, sleepest thou? couldest not thou watch one hour?

Cf Mark 13:33 Take ye heed, watch and pray: for ye know not when the time is.

[38] Watch ye and pray, lest ye enter into temptation. The spirit truly is ready, but the flesh is weak.

Daniel 12:10 (LXX) Many must be tested, and thoroughly whitened, and tried with fire, and sanctified

Zephaniah 1:15 A mighty day of wrath is that day, a day of affliction and distress, a day of desolation and destruction, a day of gloominess and darkness, a day of cloud and vapour,

Habbakuk 3:16 I watched, and my belly trembled at the sound of the prayer of my lips, and trembling entered into my bones, and my frame was troubled within me; I will rest in the day of affliction, from going up to the people of my sojourning.

First Enoch 94:5; 96:2 Woe to you, false witnesses, you who aggravate iniquity; for you shall suddenly perish. . . . . You shall yourselves be conscious of it; for the Most High will remember your destruction, and the angels shall rejoice over it. What will you do sinners? And where will you fly in the day of judgment, when you shall hear the words of the prayer of the righteous?

[39] And again he went away, and prayed, and spake the same words.
[40] And when he returned, he found them asleep again, (for their eyes were heavy,) neither wist they what to answer him.
[41] And he cometh the third time, and saith unto them, Sleep on now, and take your rest: it is enough, the hour is come; behold, the Son of man is betrayed into the hands of sinners.
[42] Rise up, let us go; lo, he that betrayeth me is at hand.
[43] And immediately, while he yet spake, cometh Judas, one of the twelve, and with him a great multitude with swords and staves, from the chief priests and the scribes and the elders.

Cf Mark 3:7 But Jesus withdrew himself with his disciples to the sea: and a great multitude from Galilee followed him, and from Judaea,

[44] And he that betrayed him had given them a token, saying, Whomsoever I shall kiss, that same is he; take him, and lead him away safely.
[45] And as soon as he was come, he goeth straightway to him, and saith, Master, master; and kissed him.

Proverbs 27:6 Be not boastful in the presence of the king, and remain not in the places of princes

Psalm 41:9 For even the man of my peace, in whom I trusted, who ate my bread, lifted up his heel against me.

2 Samuel 14:33; 20:9-10 The king then called Absalom, who came to him and in homage fell on his face to the ground before the king. Then the king kissed him. . . . And Joab asked Amasa, “How are you, my brother?” With his right hand Joab held Amasa’s beard as if to kiss him. And since Amasa was not on his guard against the sword in Joab’s other hand, Joab stabbed him in the abdomen with it

Psalm 2:12 Kiss the son, lest he be angry

[46] And they laid their hands on him, and took him.
[47] And one of them that stood by drew a sword, and smote a servant of the high priest, and cut off his ear.
[48] And Jesus answered and said unto them, Are ye come out, as against a thief, with swords and with staves to take me?
[49] I was daily with you in the temple teaching, and ye took me not: but the scriptures must be fulfilled.
[50] And they all forsook him, and fled.

Zechariah 13:7 Awake, O sword, against my shepherds, and against the man who is my citizen, saith the Lord Almighty: smite the shepherds, and draw out the sheep: and I will bring mine hand upon the little ones.

Cf Mark 1:18 And straightway they forsook their nets, and followed him.

[51] And there followed him a certain young man, having a linen cloth cast about his naked body; and the young men laid hold on him:
[52] And he left the linen cloth, and fled from them naked.

Amos 2:16 And the strong shall find no confidence in power: the naked shall flee away in that day, saith the Lord.

[53] And they led Jesus away to the high priest: and with him were assembled all the chief priests and the elders and the scribes.
[54] And Peter followed him afar off, even into the palace of the high priest: and he sat with the servants, and warmed himself at the fire.

Cf Psalm 38:11 My lovers and my friends stand aloof from my sore; and my kinsmen stand afar off.

Odyssey Book 10: Eurylochus, chief companion of Odysseus, fearfully followed his doomed companions from a distance as they went into the palace, and subsequently broke down weeping over their fate and his failure.

[55] And the chief priests and all the council sought for witness against Jesus to put him to death; and found none.
[56] For many bare false witness against him, but their witness agreed not together.

Psalm 27:12 Deliver me not over to the desire of them that afflict me; for unjust witnesses have risen up against me, and injustice has lied within herself.

Psalm 35:11-12 Unjust witnesses arose, and asked me of things I new not. They rewarded me evil for good, and bereavement to my soul.

Psalm 109:2-5 for the mouth of the sinner and the mouth of the crafty man have been opened against me: they have spoken against me with a crafty tongue. And they have compassed me with words of hatred; and fought against me without a cause. Instead of loving me, they falsely accused me: but I continued to pray. And they rewarded me evil for good, and hatred for my love. Set thou a sinner against him; and let the devil stand at his right hand.

[57] And there arose certain, and bare false witness against him, saying,
[58] We heard him say, I will destroy this temple that is made with hands, and within three days I will build another made without hands.

First Enoch 90:29 (? — typo?)

4 Ezra 9:38-10:27 And when I spake these things in my heart, I looked back with mine eyes, and upon the right side I saw a woman, and, behold, she mourned and wept with a loud voice, and was much grieved in heart, and her clothes were rent, and she had ashes upon her head. . . . And it came to pass while I was talking with her, behold, her face upon a sudden shined exceedingly, and her countenance glistered, so that I was afraid of her, and mused what it might be. And, behold, suddenly she made a great cry very fearful: so that the earth shook at the noise of the woman. And I looked, and, behold, the woman appeared unto me no more, but there was a city builded, and a large place shewed itself from the foundations

Targum Isaiah 53:5 My servant, the Messiah, will be great, who was bruised for our sins.

[59] But neither so did their witness agree together.
[60] And the high priest stood up in the midst, and asked Jesus, saying, Answerest thou nothing? what is it which these witness against thee?

Isaiah 53:7 (?) And he, because of his affliction, opens not his mouth: he was led as a sheep to the slaughter, and as a lamb before the shearer is dumb, so he opens not his mouth.

Psalm 38:12-14 While they pressed hard upon me that sought my soul: and they that sought my hurt spoke vanities, and devised deceits all the day. But I, as a deaf man, heard not; and was as a dumb man not opening his mouth. And I was as a man that hears not, and who has no reproofs in his mouth.

[61] But he held his peace, and answered nothing. Again the high priest asked him, and said unto him, Art thou the Christ, the Son of the Blessed?
[62] And Jesus said, I am: and ye shall see the Son of man sitting on the right hand of power, and coming in the clouds of heaven.

Psalm 110:1 The Lord said to my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool.

Daniel 7:13 (LXX) I beheld in the night vision, and, lo, one coming with the clouds of heaven as the Son of man, and he came on to the Ancient of days, and was brought near to him.

[63] Then the high priest rent his clothes, and saith, What need we any further witnesses?

(Sanhedrin 7:5) The blasphemer is punished only if he utters [the divine] name. Rabbi Joshua b. Korcha said: “The whole day [of the trial] the witnesses are examined by means of a substitute for the divine name:, ‘may Yose smite Yose.”  When the trial was finished, the accused was not executed on this evidence, but all persons were removed [from court], and the chief witness was told, ‘State literally what you heard.’ Thereupon he did so, [using the divine name]. The judges then arose and tore their garments, which were not to be resewn. The second witness stated:  “I too have heard thus” [but not uttering the divine name], and the third says: “I too heard thus.”

[64] Ye have heard the blasphemy: what think ye? And they all condemned him to be guilty of death.

Leviticus 24:16 And he that names the name of the Lord, let him die the death: let all the congregation of Israel stone him with stones; whether he be a stranger or a native, let him die for naming the name of the Lord.

[65] And some began to spit on him, and to cover his face, and to buffet him, and to say unto him, Prophesy: and the servants did strike him with the palms of their hands.

Micah 5:1 . . . . they shall smite the judge of Israel with a rod upon the cheek.

Isaiah 50:6 I gave my back to scourges, and my cheeks to blows; and I turned not away my face from the shame of spitting:

Isaiah 53:3-5 But his form was ignoble, and inferior to that of the children of men; he was a man in suffering, and acquainted with the bearing of sickness, for his face is turned from us: he was dishonoured, and not esteemed. He bears our sins, and is pained for us: yet we accounted him to be in trouble, and in suffering, and in affliction. But he was wounded on account of our sins, and was bruised because of our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace was upon him; and by his bruises we were healed.

1 Kings 22:24f And Sedekias the son of Chanaan came near and smote Michaias on the cheek, and said, What sort of a spirit of the Lord has spoken in thee? And Michaias said, Behold, thou shalt see in that day, when thou shalt go into an innermost chamber to hide thyself there.

[66] And as Peter was beneath in the palace, there cometh one of the maids of the high priest:
[67] And when she saw Peter warming himself, she looked upon him, and said, And thou also wast with Jesus of Nazareth.
[68] But he denied, saying, I know not, neither understand I what thou sayest. And he went out into the porch; and the cock crew.
[69] And a maid saw him again, and began to say to them that stood by, This is one of them.
[70] And he denied it again. And a little after, they that stood by said again to Peter, Surely thou art one of them: for thou art a Galilaean, and thy speech agreeth thereto.
[71] But he began to curse and to swear, saying, I know not this man of whom ye speak.
[72] And the second time the cock crew. And Peter called to mind the word that Jesus said unto him, Before the cock crow twice, thou shalt deny me thrice. And when he thought thereon, he wept.

Mark.15

[1] And straightway in the morning the chief priests held a consultation with the elders and scribes and the whole council, and bound Jesus, and carried him away, and delivered him to Pilate.

Genesis 22:9 He bound his son Isaac and laid him on the altar

[2] And Pilate asked him, Art thou the King of the Jews? And he answering said unto him, Thou sayest it.
[3] And the chief priests accused him of many things: but he answered nothing.

[4] And Pilate asked him again, saying, Answerest thou nothing? behold how many things they witness against thee.
[5] But Jesus yet answered nothing; so that Pilate marvelled.

Isaiah 53:7 (?) And he, because of his affliction, opens not his mouth: he was led as a sheep to the slaughter, and as a lamb before the shearer is dumb, so he opens not his mouth.

Psalm 38:12-14 While they pressed hard upon me that sought my soul: and they that sought my hurt spoke vanities, and devised deceits all the day. But I, as a deaf man, heard not; and was as a dumb man not opening his mouth. And I was as a man that hears not, and who has no reproofs in his mouth.

[6] Now at that feast he released unto them one prisoner, whomsoever they desired.
[7] And there was one named Barabbas, which lay bound with them that had made insurrection with him, who had committed murder in the insurrection.
[8] And the multitude crying aloud began to desire him to do as he had ever done unto them.
[9] But Pilate answered them, saying, Will ye that I release unto you the King of the Jews?
[10] For he knew that the chief priests had delivered him for envy.
[11] But the chief priests moved the people, that he should rather release Barabbas unto them.
[12] And Pilate answered and said again unto them, What will ye then that I shall do unto him whom ye call the King of the Jews?
[13] And they cried out again, Crucify him.
[14] Then Pilate said unto them, Why, what evil hath he done? And they cried out the more exceedingly, Crucify him.
[15] And so Pilate, willing to content the people, released Barabbas unto them, and delivered Jesus, when he had scourged him, to be crucified.

Isaiah 53:6(LXX) All we as sheep have gone astray; every one has gone astray in his way; and the Lord gave him up for our sins.

Cf. Mark 9:31; 10:33; 14:10; 14:11, 18, 21, 42, 44; 15:1, 10, 15

[16] And the soldiers led him away into the hall, called Praetorium; and they call together the whole band.
[17] And they clothed him with purple, and platted a crown of thorns, and put it about his head,
[18] And began to salute him, Hail, King of the Jews!
[19] And they smote him on the head with a reed, and did spit upon him, and bowing their knees worshipped him.

Cf Philo’s Flaccus VI: There was a certain madman named Carabbas … this man spent all this days and nights naked in the roads, minding neither cold nor heat, the sport of idle children and wanton youths; and they, driving the poor wretch as far as the public gymnasium, and setting him up there on high that he might be seen by everybody, flattened out a leaf of papyrus and put it on his head instead of a diadem, and clothed the rest of his body with a common door mat instead of a cloak and instead of a sceptre they put in his hand a small stick of the native papyrus which they found lying by the way side and gave to him; and when, like actors in theatrical spectacles, he had received all the insignia of royal authority, and had been dressed and adorned like a king, the young men bearing sticks on their shoulders stood on each side of him instead of spear-bearers, in imitation of the bodyguards of the king, and then others came up, some as if to salute him, and others making as though they wished to plead their causes before him, and others pretending to wish to consult with him about the affairs of the state. Then from the multitude of those who were standing around there arose a wonderful shout of men calling out Maris!; and this is the name by which it is said that they call the kings among the Syrians; for they knew that Agrippa was by birth a Syrian, and also that he was possessed of a great district of Syria of which he was the sovereign;

[20] And when they had mocked him, they took off the purple from him, and put his own clothes on him, and led him out to crucify him.

[21] And they compel one Simon a Cyrenian, who passed by, coming out of the country, the father of Alexander and Rufus, to bear his cross.

Cf Mark 8:33-34 he rebuked Peter, saying, Get thee behind me, Satan: for thou savourest not the things that be of God, but the things that be of men. And when he had called the people unto him with his disciples also, he said unto them, Whosoever will come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow me.

Cf Mark 3:19 Judas Iscariot, which also betrayed him:– with Iscariot meaning Red Dyer (c.f. Rufus = red)  — cf Genesis 25:25, 30-34 And the first came out red, all over like an hairy garment; and they called his name Esau. . . . And Esau said to Jacob, Feed me, I pray thee, with that same red pottage; for I am faint: therefore was his name called Edom. And Jacob said, Sell me this day thy birthright. And Esau said, Behold, I am at the point to die: and what profit shall this birthright do to me? And Jacob said, Swear to me this day; and he sware unto him: and he sold his birthright unto Jacob. Then Jacob gave Esau bread and pottage of lentiles; and he did eat and drink, and rose up, and went his way: thus Esau despised his birthright.

Cf Simon coming out of the country to carry the weapon to execute the sacrifice with Heliodorus’s description of a Triumphal ceremony in Book 3 of The Ethiopian Story: . . . The Hecatomb went before, and such men as were but lately entered into the holy ministry, of rustic dress and life, led the same. Each one had a white robe girt about him, his breast and arm and right hand naked, and a poleaxe therein.

[22] And they bring him unto the place Golgotha, which is, being interpreted, The place of a skull.

Cf. Rome’s Capitoline Hill, named for the skull (caput) found there. This was said to have been found while digging foundations for temple building there, and was interpreted as an omen that Rome was to become the head of the world.

[23] And they gave him to drink wine mingled with myrrh: but he received it not.

Psalm 69:21 They gave me also gall for my food, and made me drink vinegar for my thirst.

Proverbs 31:6-7 A great snare is spread for a sinner: but the righteous shall be in joy and gladness. A righteous man knows how to judge for the poor: but the ungodly understands not knowledge; and the poor man has not an understanding mind.

[24] And when they had crucified him, they parted his garments, casting lots upon them, what every man should take.

Psalm 22:18 They parted my garments among themselves, and cast lots upon my raiment.

Psalm 22:16 For many dogs have compassed me: the assembly of the wicked doers has beset me round: they pierced my hands and my feet.

[25] And it was the third hour, and they crucified him.
[26] And the superscription of his accusation was written over, THE KING OF THE JEWS.
[27] And with him they crucify two thieves; the one on his right hand, and the other on his left.
[28] And the scripture was fulfilled, which saith, And he was numbered with the transgressors.

(Isaiah 53:12) Therefore he shall inherit many, and he shall divide the spoils of the mighty; because his soul was delivered to death: and he was numbered among the transgressors; and he bore the sins of many, and was delivered because of their iniquities.

[29] And they that passed by railed on him, wagging their heads, and saying, Ah, thou that destroyest the temple, and buildest it in three days,

Psalm 22:7 All that saw me mocked me: they spoke with their lips, they shook the head,

Psalm 109:25 I became also a reproach to them: when they saw me they shook their heads.

Lamentations 2:15 All that go by the way have clapped their hands at thee; they have hissed and shaken their head at the daughter of Jerusalem. . . .

[30] Save thyself, and come down from the cross.
[31] Likewise also the chief priests mocking said among themselves with the scribes, He saved others; himself he cannot save.

[32] Let Christ the King of Israel descend now from the cross, that we may see and believe. And they that were crucified with him reviled him.

Psalm 69:8 I became strange to my brethren, and a stranger to my mother’s children.

Psalm 22:16 For many dogs have compassed me: the assembly of the wicked doers has beset me round: they pierced my hands and my feet.

[33] And when the sixth hour was come, there was darkness over the whole land until the ninth hour.

Amos 8:9 And it shall come to pass in that day, saith the Lord God, that the sun shall go down at noon, and the light shall be darkened on the earth by day

Isaiah 13:9-10; 50:2-3 For behold! the day of the Lord is coming which cannot be escaped, a day of wrath and anger, to make the world desolate, and to destroy sinners out of it. For the stars of heaven, and Orion, and all the host of heaven, shall not give their light; and it shall be dark at sunrise, and the moon shall not give her light. . . . Why did I come, and there was no man? why did I call, and there was none to hearken? Is not my hand strong to redeem? or can I not deliver? behold, by my rebuke I will dry up the sea, and make rivers a wilderness; and their fish shall be dried up because there is no water, and shall die for thirst. I will clothe the sky with darkness, and will make its covering as sackcloth.

Jeremiah 15:6-9 Thou hast turned away from me, saith the Lord, thou wilt go back: therefore I will stretch out my hand, and will destroy thee, and will no more spare them. And I will completely scatter them; in the gates of my people they are bereaved of children: they have destroyed my people because of their iniquities. Their widows have been multiplied more than the sand of the sea: I have brought young men against the mother, even distress at noon-day: I have suddenly cast upon her trembling and anxiety. She that bore seven is spent; her soul has fainted under trouble; her sun is gone down while it is yet noon; she is ashamed and disgraced: I will give the remnant of them to the sword before their enemies.

[34] And at the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani? which is, being interpreted, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?

Psalm 22:1 O God, my God, attend to me: why hast thou forsaken me?. . .

[35] And some of them that stood by, when they heard it, said, Behold, he calleth Elias.
[36] And one ran and filled a spunge full of vinegar, and put it on a reed, and gave him to drink, saying, Let alone; let us see whether Elias will come to take him down.

Psalm 69:1 Save me, O God; for the waters have come in to my soul.

[37] And Jesus cried with a loud voice, and gave up the ghost.

Psalm 31:22 But I said in my extreme fear, I am cast out from the sight of thine eyes: therefore thou didst hearken, O Lord, to the voice of my supplication when I cried to thee.

[38] And the veil of the temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom.

Exodus 26:31ff And thou shalt make a veil of blue and purple and scarlet woven, and fine linen spun: thou shalt make it cherubs in woven work. And thou shalt set it upon four posts of incorruptible wood overlaid with gold; and their tops shall be gold, and their four sockets shall be of silver. And thou shalt put the veil on the posts, and thou shalt carry in thither within the veil the ark of the testimony; and the veil shall make a separation for you between the holy and the holy of holies. And thou shalt screen with the veil the ark of the testimony in the holy of holies.

Leviticus 21:23 Only he shall not approach the veil, and he shall not draw nigh to the altar, because he has a blemish; and he shall not profane the sanctuary of his God, for I am the Lord that sanctifies them.

Cf Mark 1:10 As Jesus was coming up out of the water, he saw heaven being torn open and the Spirit descending on him like a dove.

[39] And when the centurion, which stood over against him, saw that he so cried out, and gave up the ghost, he said, Truly this man was the Son of God.

Cf Mark 1:11 And a voice came from heaven: “You are my Son, whom I love; with you I am well pleased.”

[40] There were also women looking on afar off: among whom was Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James the less and of Joses, and Salome;

Cf Psalm 38:11 My lovers and my friends stand aloof from my sore; and my kinsmen stand afar off.

[41] (Who also, when he was in Galilee, followed him, and ministered unto him;) and many other women which came up with him unto Jerusalem.
[42] And now when the even was come, because it was the preparation, that is, the day before the sabbath,
[43] Joseph of Arimathaea, and honourable counseller, which also waited for the kingdom of God, came, and went in boldly unto Pilate, and craved the body of Jesus.

Isaiah 53:9 And I will give the wicked for his burial, and the rich for his death; for he practised no iniquity, nor craft with his mouth.

(my note — if Joseph of Arimathea was a rep of faithlessness as i have argued elsewhere, this provenance would support that argument)

Deuteronomy 21:23 his body shall not remain all night upon the tree, but ye shall by all means bury it in that day; for every one that is hanged on a tree is cursed of God; and ye shall by no means defile the land which the Lord thy God gives thee for an inheritance.

[44] And Pilate marvelled if he were already dead: and calling unto him the centurion, he asked him whether he had been any while dead.
[45] And when he knew it of the centurion, he gave the body to Joseph.
[46] And he bought fine linen, and took him down, and wrapped him in the linen, and laid him in a sepulchre which was hewn out of a rock, and rolled a stone unto the door of the sepulchre.

Isaiah 53:9 And I will give the wicked for his burial, and the rich for his death; for he practised no iniquity, nor craft with his mouth.

Isaiah 22:16 (LXX) (where the sepulchre is a metaphor for the temple) thou hast here hewn thyself a sepulchre, and madest thyself a sepulchre on high, and hast graven for thyself a dwelling in the rock

Cf Joshua 10:18-27 And Joshua said, Roll great stones upon the mouth of the cave, and set men by it for to keep them: And stay ye not, but pursue after your enemies, and smite the hindmost of them; suffer them not to enter into their cities: for the LORD your God hath delivered them into your hand. And it came to pass, when Joshua and the children of Israel had made an end of slaying them with a very great slaughter, till they were consumed, that the rest which remained of them entered into fenced cities. And all the people returned to the camp to Joshua at Makkedah in peace: none moved his tongue against any of the children of Israel. Then said Joshua, Open the mouth of the cave, and bring out those five kings unto me out of the cave. And they did so, and brought forth those five kings unto him out of the cave, the king of Jerusalem, the king of Hebron, the king of Jarmuth, the king of Lachish, and the king of Eglon. And it came to pass, when they brought out those kings unto Joshua, that Joshua called for all the men of Israel, and said unto the captains of the men of war which went with him, Come near, put your feet upon the necks of these kings. And they came near, and put their feet upon the necks of them. And Joshua said unto them, Fear not, nor be dismayed, be strong and of good courage: for thus shall the LORD do to all your enemies against whom ye fight. And afterward Joshua smote them, and slew them, and hanged them on five trees: and they were hanging upon the trees until the evening.  And it came to pass at the time of the going down of the sun, that Joshua commanded, and they took them down off the trees, and cast them into the cave wherein they had been hid, and laid great stones in the cave’s mouth, which remain until this very day.

Cf Mark :3-4 And they come unto him, bringing one sick of the palsy, which was borne of four. And when they could not come nigh unto him for the press, they uncovered the roof where he was: and when they had broken it up, they let down the bed wherein the sick of the palsy lay.

[47] And Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of Joses beheld where he was laid.

Mark.16

[1] And when the sabbath was past, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James, and Salome, had bought sweet spices, that they might come and anoint him.

2 Chronicles 16:14 And they buried him in the sepulchre which he had dug for himself in the city of David, and they laid him on a bed, and filled it with spices and all kinds of perfumes of the apothecaries; and they made for him a very great funeral.

[2] And very early in the morning the first day of the week, they came unto the sepulchre at the rising of the sun.

[3] And they said among themselves, Who shall roll us away the stone from the door of the sepulchre?

Cf Genesis 29:8-10 And they said, We cannot, until all the flocks be gathered together, and till they roll the stone from the well’s mouth; then we water the sheep.  And while he yet spake with them, Rachel came with her father’s sheep; for she kept them. And it came to pass, when Jacob saw Rachel the daughter of Laban his mother’s brother, and the sheep of Laban his mother’s brother, that Jacob went near, and rolled the stone from the well’s mouth, and watered the flock of Laban his mother’s brother.

[4] And when they looked, they saw that the stone was rolled away: for it was very great.
[5] And entering into the sepulchre, they saw a young man sitting on the right side, clothed in a long white garment; and they were affrighted.

Cf Mark 1:6; 14:51-52 And John was clothed with camel’s hair, and with a girdle of a skin about his loins . . . . And there followed him a certain young man, having a linen cloth cast about his naked body; and the young men laid hold on him: And he left the linen cloth, and fled from them naked.

[6] And he saith unto them, Be not affrighted: Ye seek Jesus of Nazareth, which was crucified: he is risen; he is not here: behold the place where they laid him.

Daniel 10:5-6 And I lifted up mine eyes, and looked, and behold a man clothed in linen, and his loins were girt with gold of Ophaz: and his body was as Tharsis, and his face was a the appearance of lightning, and his eyes as lamps of fire, and his arms and his legs as the appearance of shining brass, and the voice of his words as the voice of a multitude.

Daniel 10:12 And he said to me, Fear not, Daniel: . . .

[7] But go your way, tell his disciples and Peter that he goeth before you into Galilee: there shall ye see him, as he said unto you.

Cf Mark 1:35-39 Very early in the morning, while it was still dark, Jesus got up, left the house and went off to a solitary place, where he prayed. Simon and his companions went to look for him, and when they found him, they exclaimed: “Everyone is looking for you!” Jesus replied, “Let us go somewhere else—to the nearby villages—so I can preach there also. That is why I have come.” So he traveled throughout Galilee

[8] And they went out quickly, and fled from the sepulchre; for they trembled and were amazed: neither said they any thing to any man; for they were afraid.

Daniel 10:7, 12 (LXX-Th) And I Daniel only saw the vision: and the men that were with me saw not the vision; but a great amazement fell upon them, and they fled in fear.

(With Matthew 28:3 “His appearance was bright as lightning, and his clothes were white as snow” compare Daniel 10:6 and 7:9 in LXX-Th: 10:6 “and his body was as Tharsis, and his face was a the appearance of lightning, and his eyes as lamps of fire, and his arms and his legs as the appearance of shining brass, and the voice of his words as the voice of a multitude” — 7:9 “I beheld until the thrones were set, and the Ancient of days sat; and his raiment was white as snow, and the hair of his head, as pure wool: his throne was a flame of fire, and his wheels burning fire.”

Cf Mark 6:49-51 but when they saw him walking on the lake, they thought he was a ghost. They cried out, because they all saw him and were terrified. Immediately he spoke to them and said, “Take courage! It is I. Don’t be afraid.” Then he climbed into the boat with them, and the wind died down. They were completely amazed

10 Comments

  • Enrico Indiogine
    2008-09-05 23:47:12 UTC - 23:47 | Permalink

    There is another section of the LXX that Mark certainly used:

    1 Kings 21:5-22:28 = Mark 14:53-65

    This also explains the mystery of the accusation of blasphemy by the High Priest. This accusation does not make any sense in Mark context but is taken from “Naboth cursed God” (21:10,13).

    So, initially Jesus = Naboth, Sanhedrin = elders and nobles of the city of Naboth.

    Then, Ahab = High Priest (21:27), and finally Jesus = Micaiah, Ahab = High Priest, Zedekiah = people who taunt and hit Jesus.

    You also should add Leviticus 16 as a source for the Barabbas story.

  • 2008-09-07 12:24:46 UTC - 12:24 | Permalink

    I had forgotten the Naboth episode. Thanks for the reminder.

    Some influences I did not list here because they seemed to be the basis of the theology of the gospel rather than the colour and detail of its surface narrative. In other posts the “christology of Joseph” and of Isaac, for example, have been discussed. Leviticus 16 might be seen similarly as the foundation of the theology that led to the Barabbas account. There may be inconsistencies here in my selections, I admit.

  • 2008-09-23 06:06:38 UTC - 06:06 | Permalink

    I think you are right about Joseph of Arimathea. I was also struck by the KJV’s emphasis that it was a fine linen sheet. In my recent book The Burial of Jesus: History and Faith, I argue that Jesus was not honorably buried (as I think you also imply here). If you manage to read the book, I’d be very interested to know what you think of it.

  • Pingback: Joseph of Arimathea – recasting a faithless collaborator to a disciple of Jesus « Vridar

  • 2009-06-09 16:04:00 UTC - 16:04 | Permalink

    Thank you for having taken the time and trouble to do this. This is very useful.

    • 2009-06-09 20:54:13 UTC - 20:54 | Permalink

      No trouble at all. I enjoyed the time to share it with others, like yourself, here.

  • Pingback: Vridar » Constructing Jesus and the Gospels: Apocalyptic Prophecy

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  • edwardtbabinski
    2017-02-02 08:24:40 UTC - 08:24 | Permalink

    Great job collecting parallels!

    I would merely add that yes, GMark does depict Jesus’s crucifixion as a little apocalypse, echoing elements from the little apocalypse of chapter 13 in GMark. One obvious parallel is the darkening of the sun in Mark 13 and at Jesus’s death.

    Of course that doesn’t mean the author of GMark is suggesting that no future coming of the Son of Man will occur when the angels will gather out of the world the righteous and the Son of Man will come on clouds to rule the world. In fact the parallels GMark draws between his little apocalypse chapter and Jesus’s crucifixion are meant to emphasize his faith that such imminent worldwide judgment was at hand!

    GMatthew and GMark both mention the nearness of the “coming” of the “Son of Man” in seemingly more than purely metaphorical terms:

    For the Son of Man is about to come [mello] in the glory of his Father with His angels; and will recompense every man according to his deeds. Truly I say to you, there are some of those who are standing here who shall not taste death until they see the Son of Man coming in his kingdom. [Mat 16:27-28]

    The Markan version of this saying reads:

    For whoever is ashamed of me and my words in this adulterous and sinful generation, the Son of Man will also be ashamed of him when he comes in the glory of his Father with the holy angels. And he was saying to them, Truly I say to you, there are some of those who are standing here who shall not taste death until they see the kingdom of God after it has come with power. [Mk 8:38-9:1] [SEE END NOTE]

    The noted translator and editor of apocalyptic literature, professor James H. Charlesworth, elucidated:

    To “come in power” is an expression that has special importance for the apocalyptists, like the authors of Daniel, the Apocalypse of John, 4 Ezra, and 2 Baruch. It denotes a total alteration of time and the earth, and an end to normal history. [James H. Charlesworth, Jesus Within Judaism, Anchor Bible Reference Library (New York: Doubleday, 1988), p. 19.]
    ________________

    ENDNOTE

    The verses in Mark [8:39-9:1] are continuous. Chapter and verse divisions were late additions to the Bible. This prophecy was not fulfilled by the “transfiguration,” which does follow it in both Matthew and Mark’s gospels. Were the apostles so much nearer to “tasting death” when six days later, “some standing there” viewed the transfiguration? Such a “fulfillment” makes the prophecy appear puerile, trivial. Most likely, the prediction and the transfiguration appear in close order because the former informs gospel readers when the Son of Man will come to judge the earth (i.e., while some of the apostles were still alive), and the latter depicts who that soon-coming Son of Man will or should be (i.e., Jesus). Neither was the prophecy fulfilled by Pentecost, or the fall of Jerusalem (in 70 A.D.). At Pentecost, a mere year or two away, more than “some” of Jesus’ hearers would still be alive, and Pentecost involved the coming of the Holy Spirit rather than the Son of Man with angels to judge mankind. Neither did the Son of Man “come” invisibly at the fall of Jerusalem to judge that city. Instead, Jesus described the “coming of the Son of Man” in a highly visible fashion: “When the Son of Man comes in His glory, and all the angels…He will separate the sheep from the goats…one person will be taken, one left…as the lightning comes from the east, and flashes even to the west, so shall the coming of the Son of Man be.” [Mat 24:27,37-41; 25:31] Likewise, the Gospel of Luke also described the coming of the Son of Man in a fashion visible to the whole earth:

    And they shall fall by the edge of the sword, and shall be led away captive into all nations: and Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled [not a long time, see other footnote in this paper on “the times of the Gentiles”]. And there shall be signs in the sun, and in the moon, and in the stars; and upon the earth distress of nations, with perplexity; the sea and the waves roaring; Men’s hearts failing them for fear, and for looking after those things which are coming on the earth: for the powers of heaven shall be shaken. And then shall they see the Son of man coming in a cloud with power and great glory. And when these things begin to come to pass, then look up, and lift up your heads; for your redemption draws near. And he spake to them a parable; Behold the fig tree, and all the trees; When they now shoot forth, ye see and know of your own selves that summer is now near at hand. So likewise ye, when ye see these things come to pass, know ye that the kingdom of God is near at hand. Verily I say unto you, This generation shall not pass away, till all be fulfilled. [Luke 21:24-32]

    Thus there is no “fulfillment” of the prophesied “coming of the Son of Man” to be found in the transfiguration, Pentecost, or the fall of Jerusalem. Jesus predicted the Son of Man would come in a visible, earth shaking manner to judge mankind before “some” of his own apostles had “tasted death.” Jesus, of course, never abandoned the idea that the Son of Man was coming soon. As late as his trial, he is portrayed declaring boldly to his accusers, “You shall see the Son of Man, coming on the right hand of power!”

    • Neil Godfrey
      2017-02-03 05:31:36 UTC - 05:31 | Permalink

      I still have some suspicions that in Mark the “coming of the Son of Man” had something to do with the crucifixion itself (not just a metaphorical parallel) and that the prophecy was indeed referring to 70 CE — your “endnotes” above notwithstanding.

      Compare the language in the prophets Isaiah etc and in Psalms and Samuel — cosmic metaphors and God descending to earth on clouds are all ways of describing events where God acts on behalf of his saints in historical times — such as the rescuing of the Psalmist, the fall of Babylon.

      Luke certainly had a different idea and needs to be read separately.

      Also — how much of our Gospel of Mark is original and how much redacted?

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