We have covered five of the six chapters in Plato and the Creation of the Hebrew Bible. The final chapter covers a topic that for me is the most interesting of all, but before going there Gmirkin outlines what he has covered so far. He has presented “substantial new arguments for viewing the Primary History of Genesis-Kings as a Hellenistic Era composition that displays considerable influences from the Greek world” (p. 250).
He summarizes those “considerable influences” of Greek legal and historical literature:
- its structural form as a nationalistic history, patterned on such works as the Aegyptiaca of Manetho (ca. 285 BCE) and the Babyloniaca of Berossus (278 BCE);
- its integration of elements from discussions of constitutional history taken from Plato and perhaps Aristotle;
- its incorporation of the Greek genre of the foundation story in its narratives about the patriarchal promises, the Exodus, wilderness wanderings and conquest of the Promised Land;
- its characteristically Greek integration of narrative and legal content;
- its Greek constitutional and legal content;
- and its Greek conception of law as prescriptive, educational and useful for instilling citizen virtues.
The Influence of Plato’s Laws on Deuteronomy
Greek influences on the biblical text discussed in earlier chapters include the substantial use of Plato’s Laws. It is apparent that this particular philosophical text exerted a profound influence on the political thinking, educational philosophy and literary activities of the biblical authors. This is illustrated most decisively in the book of Deuteronomy, which was written according to directions laid out in Plato’s Laws as a speech to the gathered colonists of the nation about to be founded, recounting their laws suitably framed by hortatory introductions and other educational and rhetorical content.
(Gmirkin, 2017. p. 250)
So Gmirkin challenges the conventional view that Near Eastern literature, political systems and laws were the principal influence in the making of the Primary History, Genesis to Kings. These books were not produced by ancient Jewish scribes living in the centuries of the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah, nor were they even produced in the Babylonian captivity or in the ensuing Persian era when the colony of Jehud was first established. They were the product of a deliberate study of Greek writings, specifically those relating to laws, constitutions and foundation myths. Local Jewish traditions and laws were also woven into the new literature in the early third century BCE.
From my own readings of the debates between the “minimalists” and “maximalists”, especially the debates between Thompson and Dever, and each side’s analysis of archaeological reports, I am convinced that Gmirkin’s analysis is quite plausible. (See notes on Davies’ book at In Search of Ancient Israel.) Insofar as the conventional explanations of the origins of the Pentateuch have been necessarily embedded in assumptions that the books evolved over many centuries through the periods of the monarchy and Babylonian captivity, those models ought to be reassessed. Similarly for the writings of the historical books from Judges to 2 Kings and the books claiming to be by various prophets.
Gmirkin’s book is, I think, a significant contribution towards opening up new explanations given the material evidence both against such a literature appearing before the Persian era and for its appearance after the establishment of the Jewish colony. His thesis certainly makes sense of the character of the Primary History as literature: as literature, in its structure, genre, style, it is in very large measure unlike the writings of the Near East prior to the Hellenistic era; yet as literature it is very often comparable in themes, genres, styles to much of the Greek Classical and Hellenistic literary outputs.
Other authors have noticed and discussed similarities between Primary History, the Pentateuch in particular, on the one hand, and Herodotus, Greek foundation stories, other myths and Plato’s Laws, on the other. These earlier publications have generally sought to explain the similarities from an assumption that the Hebrew works were much earlier than the Hellenistic era. But if we have good reasons to date the Hebrew literary production no earlier than the Persian era then the observations of those earlier scholars suddenly take on a new life. We have a “simple explanation” for the common points they observed. Along with his own observations, Gmirkin appears to have brought some of those earlier observations into the light of the new context.
Before moving on to the remainder of chapter six, which as I said is for me the most interesting one of all, this may be a good place to collate the various posts relating to Plato and the Creation of the Hebrew Bible.
You can also read an extended abstract or chapter by chapter outline by Gmirkin himself on his academia.edu page.
- Plato and the Creation of the Hebrew Bible (2016-10-16)
- The Pentateuch’s Debt to Greek Laws and Constitutions — A New Look (2016-10-26)
- David, an Ideal Greek Hero — and other Military Matters in Ancient Israel (2016-11-12)
- Some preliminaries before resuming Gmirkin’s Plato and the Creation of the Hebrew Bible (2016-12-15)
- The Tribes of Israel modeled on the Athenian and Ideal Greek Tribes? (2016-12-16)
- The Bible’s Assemblies and Offices Based on Greek Institutions? (2017-01-22)
- Similarities between Biblical and Greek Judicial Systems (2017-01-28)
- The Inspiration for Israel’s Law of the Ideal King (2017-02-09)
- Bible’s Priests and Prophets – With Touches of Greek (2017-02-22)
- Primitive Democracy in Ancient Israel (2017-04-04)
- Mosaic Laws: from Classical Greece or the Ancient Near East? (2017-06-02)
- Plato and the Hebrew Bible: Homicide Laws (2017-06-05)
- How Does One Date the Old Testament Writings? (2017-07-10)
- Plato and the Hebrew Bible: Law-Giving Narratives as Greek-Inspired Literature (2017-07-26)
- Plato and the Hebrew Bible: Legal Narratives (esp. Panegyrics), continued (2017-07-26)
- Plato and the Hebrew Bible: Legal Narratives continued . . . Solon and Atlantis (2017-07-27)
- Plato and the Hebrew Bible: Greek Foundation Stories and the Bible (2017-07-28)
- Comparing the Rome’s and Israel’s Foundation Stories, Aeneas and Abraham (2017-07-29)
- Postscript on Rome’s and Israel’s foundation stories (2017-07-31)
- Five Foundation Myths of Cyrene (2017-07-31)
- Plato and the Hebrew Bible: Political Evolution in Literature (2017-08-05)