In the previous post we looked at ancient Jewish concepts of multiple messiahs, each with a distinctive role. There was Davidic messiah who for most of existence lives like a destitute vagabond or beggar, despised, rejected and unrecognized in the streets of “Rome”. Then there was a messiah from the tribe of Joseph who emerged as a warrior to lead Israel in a battle against the ultimate forces of evil but who was killed in that battle. His death was the cue for the Davidic messiah to emerge from obscurity and call upon God for the resurrection of the fallen messiah.
We also saw other messiahs, one from the tribe of Levi or family of Aaron, who was a priest-messiah. Associated with these messiahs was a prophet, Elijah.
We looked at some reasons for believing such ideas were familiar (if not unanimously embraced) by Jews prior to the fall of the Temple in 70 CE. In a future post I will look at additional evidence for assigning such beliefs as early as the period from 200 BCE to 70 CE. I will also address the midrashic processes by which Second Temple era Jews could well have arrived at such characters and scenarios according to Daniel Boyarin.
And most interesting of all, at least for me, I will post on how all of these ideas relate to what we read in the Gospel of Mark about the figure of Jesus and the reason for his crucifixion.
But in this post we will look at other types of messiahs, or at least one other: the priest-messiah and his subordinate companion (political) messiah from Israel or Joseph.
Messiahs from Aaron and Israel
The Damascus Document discovered early in the last century testifies to a belief in a future messianic couple: one descended from Aaron (the first high priest and from the tribe of Levi) and the other generically “from Israel”, and this same idea was found on a scroll in the caves of Qumran:
They shall depart from none of the counsels of the Law to walk in all the stubbornness of their hearts, but shall be ruled by the primitive precepts in which the men of the Community were first instructed until there shall come the Prophet and the Messiahs of Aaron and Israel. (1QS 9:11 — from Vermes, 1997)
Again there is a pecking order: the son of Aaron, the priestly messiah, is superior to the lay messiah son of Israel.
When God engenders (the Priest-) Messiah, he shall come with them [at] the head of the whole congregation of Israel with all [his brethren, the sons] of Aaron the Priests, [those called] to the assembly, the men of renown; and they shall sit [before him, each man] in the order of his dignity. And then [the Mess]iah of Israel shall [come], and the chiefs of the [clans of Israel] shall sit before him, [each] in the order of his dignity, according to [his place] in their camps and marches. And before them shall sit all the heads of [family of the congregation, and the wise men of [the holy congregation,] each in the order of his dignity.
And [when] they shall gather for the common [tab]le, to eat and [to drink] new wine, when the common table shall be set for eating and the new wine [poured] for drinking, let no man extend his hand over the firstfruits of bread and wine before the Priest; for [it is he] who shall bless the firstfruits of bread and wine, and shall be the first [to extend] his hand over the bread. Thereafter, the Messiah of Israel shall extend his hand over the bread, [and] all the congregation of the Community [shall utter a] blessing, [each man in the order] of his dignity.
It is according to this statute that they shall proceed at every me[al at which] at least ten men are gathered together (1QSa 2:11-22 — Vermes)
Priest Messiah (of Levi) and King Messiah (of Judah)
Actually we didn’t have to wait for the Qumran discoveries to learn about this pre-Christian Jewish belief in multiple messiahs since it has been there in the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs. Unfortunately the key passages were long misinterpreted as two opposing sided arguing over who should be considered the one real messiah. Rather than quote here the passages from the Testaments (they are all online, of course) I quote a summary of the various references by K.G. Kuhn:
So we see, side by side in Test. Rub. 67-12 the Anointed High Priest of Levi19 and the Eternal King of Judah. Levi has the highest rank, while Judah is subordinated to him. Especially interesting is the fact that it is the high priest title, already familiar to us from Lev. 4 which appears here in the same Greek translation as the Septuagint used in Lev. 45,16, 615, cf. 43. In Test. Levi 172, 3 the high priest of Levi is called the Anointed One (ho chriomenos = ha-mashiah).20
According to Test. Sim. 72, God will cause a high priest to arise from Levi and a King from Judah.21 It is from these that the salvation of God will come upon Israel (Test. Sim. 71; likewise Test. Levi 211; Dan 510; Gad 81; Jos. 1911).
Test. Levi 182-14 praises the high priest Messiah of the Last Days, the New Priest in a hymn. This is practically paralleled in Test. Judah 24 by the hymn in praise of the royal Messiah of Judah. That the worldly kingship belongs to Judah is stated in Test. Judah 124; 152-3; 173,5-6, 222-3; it is most clearly stated in 212-5:
“To me (Judah) God has given the kingship, to him (Levi) the priesthood; and the kingship he has subordinated to the priesthood.”
The same is said in Text. (sic) Iss. 57. The subordination is also stressed in Test. Judah 251-2; Napht. 53-5. If we add Test. Sim. 55-8; Levi 814; Dan 54, 7; Napht. 66; 82, in all of which we find Levi’s priesthood and Judah’s kingship, we have named all of the messianic passages of the Test. XII Patr.22 All of them exhibit, with complete unanimity, the concept of the priestly Messiah of Levi and the political and royal Messiah of Judah, the latter ranking after the former. (Kuhn, pp. 57-8)
It is not hard to recollect passages like the two anointed ones, priest and governor, in the Book of Zechariah, to appreciate Boyarin’s explanation that such ideas can be traced to a midrashic reading of the Scriptures.
But why would we read of a priestly messiah from Levi teaming up with a subordinate royal messiah from the tribe of Judah in these early writings but of something somewhat different — a superior Davidic messiah teaming up with a warrior messiah from Joseph or Israel in later texts?
We will also look at a possible early link between the Messiah of Joseph and a second (messianic) Joshua.
- Kuhn, K.G. 1957. “The Two Messiahs of Aaron and Israel,” in K. Stendahl (ed.), The Scrolls and the New Testament, Harper; New York.
- Vermes, G. 1997. The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English. Penguin, NY.